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BULLETIN 

DE 

L’INSTITUT D’EGYPTE 


TOME XXXVIII 
(Fascicule 1) 
Session 1955 - 1956 


fs 




"K 


», 


Xi * 

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LE CAIRE 

IMPRIMERIE COSTA TSOUMAS & CO. 
R.A.U. 








INSTITUT D'EGYPTE 


COMMUNICATIONS ET PROCES-VERBAUX 


(J ô 4 ^ ^^ j jX^> j>~ U> 

• J»-V ^ 

Pour des raisons techniques, la parution du Tome 
XXXVIII, fasc. II, e5t retardée. Ce tome suivra par un 
courrier ultérieur. 

Sri* ,#K v VI r it>i 

Technical reasons hâve delayed the issuing of Vol. 
XXXVIII, part II, which will follow later. 











l/Instïtut n'assume aucune responsabilité au sujet des opinions emises par les auteurs 


BULLETIN 

DE 

L’INSTITUT D’EGYPTE 


TOME XXXvm 

(Fascicule 1) 

Session 1955 - 1956 


1E CAIRE 

IMPRIMERIE COSTA TSOUMAS & CO. 













L’IMPORTANCE DES STATUES GRECQUES 
DU SERAPEUM DE MEMPHIS ( l ) 


par 

CHARLES PICARD, 

Membre de l'Académie des Inscriptions et Belles Lettres. 


Au moment où paraît, sous la signature de M. J.-Ph. Lauer 
et la mienne, une étude générale consacrée aux statues que Ma- 
riette dégagea il y a plus d’un siècle à Saqqarah, il n’est ni trop 
tôt ni trop tard pour marquer l’importance de la découverte mise 
aujourd’hui à la disposition des savants et du public. 

On connaît ces documents, conservés non loin d’ici, sur pla¬ 
ce, et qui resteront là où ils ont été désensablés. M. P.-Ph. Lauer 
s’occupe en ce moment à assurer leur protection et leur présen¬ 
tation. Au vrai, le sort des œuvres dues aux travaux des fouilles 
de Mariette a quelque chose d’exceptionnel. La mise au jour- 
date de plus d’un siècle ; et pourtant, malgré les efforts faits en 
1939 par R. Macramallah et le Service des Antiquités d’Egypte, 
c’est seulement après cette année qu’il sera permis de mesurer 
l’importance des résultats. On a marqué ailleurs les étapes de 
cette reconquête, sur laquelle il n’est donc pas besoin de revenir. 
La progression de nos connaissances se poursuit encore puis¬ 
que depuis notre commun livre de 1955, M. J.-Ph. Lauer a 
pu retrouver et réunir certains documents nouveaux ; de ceux-ci, 
il sera fait état dans notre Rapport destiné aux Annales du Ser¬ 
vice des Antiquités ( 2 ), et qui a été élaboré en même temps que la 
Dublication présentée en France par l’Institut d’Art de l’Univer- 
wîité de Paris. 

Les statues grecques du « Serapeum » de Memphis — je 
garde ici à dessein la forme primitive du nom par lequel Mariette 
désigna le sanctuaire qu'il déblayait F) — se présentent à nous 


(1) Communication présentée en séance du 7 novembre 1955. 

(2) En cours de rédaction. 

(5) Lu fait, ce mot, de former inutilement latine, gagnerait à être rem 
placé aujourd’hui par le nom, plus correct, de « Sarapieion ». 











6 


BULLETIN DE L'INSTITUT D’EGYPTE 


STATUES GRECQUES DU SERAPEUM DE MEMPIIIS 


7 


désormais comme des documents d’un intérêt triple : historique 
artistique, religieux. Je voudrais le faire paraître brièvement. 


L’intérêt proprement historique apparaît d’abord. 

Tout le monde connaissait l’effort politique et religieux ten¬ 
té par Ptolémée Ier, fils de Lagos, au Delta d’Egypte, après qu'il 
eût enfermé au Sêma la dépouille mortelle d’Alexandre le Grand. 
Ptolémée Ier, dit plus tard Ptolémée Sôter, n’était pas seule¬ 
ment un bon général d’Alexandre, mais un historien avisé, au¬ 
tant que diplomate. Il a compris aussitôt l’avantage que devait 
procurer à l’Egypte une fusion politique et religieuse entre les 
Macédoniens et les habitants autochtones du pays. D’un arran¬ 
gement de cette sorte dépendait la paix et la prospérité. De là 
vint, entre autres mesures, la création, réglée par la cour des 
Lagides, d’un dieu nouveau, Sarapis ; un grand sculpteur grec, 
Bryaxis, fut chargé de réaliser la première effigie, du nouveau 
dieu, pathétique et colossale, accostée d un Cerbère égyptisant. 
Quelques petits bronzes grecs du Musée du Caire nous en conser¬ 
vent encore plus ou moins l’image réduite (voir pi. I) ; des 
marbres aussi, en plus grande taille. 

Or, on le voit maintenant, c’est bien à Memphis, « Veteris 
Ægypti columen », comme le marquent les Histoires de Tacite 
(4, 80-84) que fut créée l’image du dieu nouveau, pour le Sera¬ 
peum ; à Memphis aussi, lieu désigné par Alexandre qui y sacri¬ 
fia, s’est opéré le partage des pouvoirs entre Sarapis et le Diony¬ 
sos macédonien. Ces faits sont inscrits dans l’imagerie plastique 
des parages du Dromos, menant aux cryptes des Apis : lieu de 
passage préparé de date très ancienne pour les courses lituelles 
du Pharaon et du bovidé sacré. Dionysos, qui avait inspiré par 
une épiphanie nocturne (cf. Plutarque et Tacite), sous la forme 
d’un bel adolescent, puis de la traditionnelle « colonne de feu », 
l’intronisation du nouveau dieu égypto-grec de Memphis, devait, 
déléguer au Sarapis d’Egypte une partie de ses pouvoirs de di¬ 
vinité chthonienne, protectrice des morts. L’arrangement fut sa¬ 
vamment mis en œuvre par les « conseillers cultuels » de Ptolé¬ 
mée Ier : Manéthon de Sebennytos, du côté de 1 Egypte, 1 hiéi o- 
phante Timothéos d’Eleusis, du côté grec : mais on doit aussi 
tenir grand compte, désormais, de l’action probable de Démétrios 


de Phalère, qui figure à l’Exèdre des Poètes et des Sages. Cet 
homme d’état grec — orateur et poète — chassé d’Attique après 
307, était venu se réfugier en Egypte où Ptolémée Ier l’accueillit. 
Guéri par Sarapis d’une menace de cécité, il consacra son art 
d’hymnographe au nouveau dieu, et enrichit ainsi, dans un sens 
hellénisant, le recueil des textes sacrés, hymnes et prières. 

Grâce aux découvertes de Mariette, nous avons le témoigna¬ 
ge, sur le terrain, des dates des changements politiques et reli¬ 
gieux qui survinrent. Dans l’Hémicycle des Poètes et des Sages, 
Démétrios de Phalère figure auprès de Pindare ; il est appuyé 
sur un « hermès » de Sarapis, qui est fort proche, comme on le 
pressent, de la création perdue de Bryaxis (chevelure laineuse à 
mèches superposées, décor végétal du modius) (voir pl. II). Or, 
la présence de Démétrios de Phalère n’aurait pas été tolérée à 
Memphis après la mort de Ptolémée Ier, puisque l’Athénien fut 
exilé en Haute-Egypte, aussitôt après l’avènement de Ptolémée II 
Philadelphe. Ainsi le groupe des statues encadrant Homère est-il 
antérieur à 283 av. J.C. 

Nous sommes, d’autre part, libérés de toute incertitude au 
sujet de la chronologie des actes religieux décidés par les quatre 
premiers Lagides, puisque les tablettes de consécration des dé¬ 
pôts de fondation angulaires du Serapeum d’Alexandrie, et de 
l’un de ses temples (pour Harpocrate) ne mentionnent que Pto¬ 
lémée III et Ptolémée IV (celui-ci pour le petite temple d’Har- 
pocrate). 

L’antériorité des installations de Memphis sur celles d Ale¬ 
xandrie est donc établie. 

On avait gardé à Dionysos, aux parages du Dromos, les as¬ 
pects les plus grecs de son activité : comme inspirateur et pro¬ 
tecteur des intellectuels, suzerain littéraire, à l’Hémicycle 
(pl. III, 1) ; comme jeune dieu sauveur des âmes, chevauchant 
symboliquement les monstres et les fauves, selon la tiadition 
d’Egypte et de Grèce, dans le Dromos même. 

Afin de concevoir l'importance historique des statues-por¬ 
traits de l’Exèdre, groupées autour d’un Homère couronné de 
lierre (à corymbes), et de celles du Dromos (Dionysos et les ani¬ 
maux), il suffit de penser à l’étonnement encore éprouvé pai 
Ad. Erman, longtemps, le meilleur connaisseur de la religion 
égyptienne antique. Ayant vu les dessins de Mariette, grâce à 
U. Wilcken (1907), il.s’étonnait de la présence, au Serapeum de 


STATriOS GlUOCQüKS DI SKKAPEUM 1>K MEMPHIS 


9 


BULLETIN DE L’INSTITUT D'EGYPTE 


Memphis, des grandes gloires littéraires et artistiques de la Grè¬ 
ce : « Dieu sait ce qu’ils allaient chercher dans la société pana¬ 
chée du lieu de sépulture des Apis ! » Mais il oubliait alors 
qu” Alexandre avait honoré ce même lieu de joutes et concours, 
et qu’en Grèce, dès le temps de l’Académie de Platon, la médita¬ 
tion philosophique s’installait déjà volontiers près des nécro¬ 
poles. En fait, l’Hémicycle de Memphis, de Pindare à Platon, 
est tout bruissant de rappels et d’allusions dionysiaques : nous 
l’avons montré dans notre livre. Et il est à sa place attendue 
dans une nécropole sacrée. 


La remise au jour, complétée peu à peu, des documents du 
Serapeum de Saqqarah, est aussi un événement pour 1 histoire de 
l’art, puisque ces découvertes nous ont révélé la première école 
de sculpture en calcaire, de l’art « alexandrin ». Il y a là une 
reprise, importante à connaître, de la plus vieille tradition locale, 
remontant à la troisième dynastie pour le moins : la sculpture 
en calcaire fut adoptée d’abord par les sculpteurs grecs des La- 
gides, et notamment par ce Dionysios (ou Dionysiadès ?) qui 
avait signé dans l’Exèdre, au dossier de la statue assise de Fin- 
dare, la première rencontrée par Mariette ( 1 ) 

Pour le reste, on constate aussi l’influence prépondérante 
de Lysippe, qui était venu en Egypte comme sculpteur officiel 
du jeune conquérant macédonien. Ce qui apparaît, selon cette ten¬ 
dance, c’est un art vigoureux et réaliste, tout autre chose donc 
que ce qu’on eût pu escompter de la pseudo- « mièvrerie » (?) si 
complaisamment attribuée dans les livres à l’art dit « galant » des 
« Alexandrins ». Au contraire, on a affaire à un style monumen¬ 
tal, soucieux des masses constructrices, aussi bien que du petit 
détail significatif (siège de Pindare, pl. IV. imitant le siège en 
fer du manteion de Delphes, lyre de concours ; cubes éducatifs 
de Protagoras, baguette de Thalès ; sceptre royal à nodosités 
d’Héraclite). 

On ne peut reprendre ici en détail l’analyse des œuvres : 
elle fait comprendre comment le lot des statues-portraits monu¬ 
mentales de l’Exèdre, groupées autour d’Homère, a conquis une 


(1 ) Cette signature, vue par Mariette, a presque disparu. 


renommée qui a porté jusqu’à Rome, naturellement ; mais aussi, 
ainsi que nous l’avons montré, elle a traversé les temps médié¬ 
vaux et modernes : jusqu’à la Divine Comédie de Dante Alighieri, 
p ex., jusqu’aux Apothéoses d’Homère de Raphaël et d’Ingres, 
etc... 

Probablement, imité déjà au Serapeum d’Alexandrie, consé¬ 
cration de Ptolémée III — le groupe de statues-portraits de 
l’Exèdre a déterminé la composition de mosaïques instructives, 
dont la date se marque par les détails. Deux d’entre elles, déjà 
connues, nous ont aidés pour l’interprétation des figures : 

a) celle de Torre Annunziata (Musée de Naples), la plus an¬ 
cienne, qui avait été interprétée d’abord à tort comme une réu¬ 
nion des « Sept Sages » chez Périandre, tyran de Corinthe ; 

b) celle d’Umbra Sarsina (Rome, Villa Albani, pl. III, 2) pos¬ 
térieure à la mort de Démétrios de Phalère, puisqu’on y voit déjà 
l’hymnographe de Sarapis tenant en mains le serpent dont il fut 
la victime en Haute-Egypte, après sa disgrâce (sous Ptolémée II 
Philadelphe) et son exil. Le thème de Démétrios de Phalère et 
de son « aspic » se retrouve aussi sur un des skyphoi d argent 
de Boscoreale (gobelet dit des « squelettes »), et sur le vase de 
bronze d’Herstal (Musée de Bruxelles). 

On peut dire qu’aucun monument, plus que FHémicycle du 
Serapeum, n’a eu de notoriété à l'époque hellénistique. Nul au¬ 
tre ne pourrait faire, d’autre part, plus d’honneur à la civilisa¬ 
tion (?), qui s’est développée en Egypte à l’époque des Lagides, 
débordant largement le Proche-Orient méditerranéen. 

Le second groupe des statues retrouvées, en calcaire aussi, 
celles qui bordaient le Dromos, n’est pas moins digne d’attention. 
Les découvertes de Mariette peuvent être maintenant reclassées, 
et cela compense un peu nos pertes, car certains groupes ont souf¬ 
fert. On a perdu, en particulier, les têtes de Dionysos adolescent, 
presque enfant, si importantes pour l’interprétation de ce lot de 
statues cultuelles. Le groupe de Dionysos adolescent avec les ani¬ 
maux sacrés était placé plus près de l’entrée des cryptes des 
Apis, en face de deux petits édifices, malheureusement détruits 
il y a un siècle, lors des fouilles : une chapelle d Apis (d où 1 Apis 
célèbre du Louvre) (\) ; et le « Lychnaption » officine de la con- 

( 1 ) m. j.-pli. Lauer vient d’en retrouver un petit modèle réduit, en 
schiste très intéressant, dont le dos est orné de représentations de la déesse 
Vautour. 





10 


BULLETIN DE L’INSTITUT D'EGYPTE 


STATUES GRECQUES DU SERAPEUM DE MEMPHIS 


11 


frérie sacrée qui réglait les éclairages pour le culte de Sarapis, 
éclairages prophylactiques et d’effet plus ou moins magique. 
Nous avons, sur un carreau conservé du mur, le nom, malheu¬ 
reusement incomplet, du dédicant grec qui avait offert l’édifice 
du Lychnaption au dieu gréco-égyptien, en merci d’une cure mi¬ 
raculeuse analogue à celle dont bénéficia Démétrios de Phalère. 
Les statues ont été — sauf le Cerbère et quelques pièces plus 
maniables — découvertes sur le muret Sud dit « mastaba » - sud 
du Dromos. Elles seront réunies et préservées de ce même côté, 
non loin de celles de l’Exèdre. Elles avaient été signées aussi du 
nom d’un artiste grec, retrouvé incomplètement. Il y a encore 
quelques litiges sur le placement, car il ne peut s’agir, semble-t-il, 
d’un effet comparable à celui des « allées de sphinx »; la troupe est 
plus variée. Cinq fois, les animaux réels ou imaginaires qui ap¬ 
paraissaient sur la crête de l’enceinte du Dromos, sont représen¬ 
tés chevauchés: ainsi la panthère femelle (pl. V, 1), un lion, le 
cerbère égyptisant (pl. V, 2), et deux paons éployés faisant la 
roue (voir l’un d’eux pl. V, 1). 

Il y avait, en plusieurs cas, des paires constituées 
de monstres ou d’animaux sacrés : p. ex. les deux paons, mais 
aussi les sphinx — un puissant dieu d’Egypte se mêlait peut- 
être à la troupe, la dominant : Sokar, faucon sacré coiffé du 
psclient, dieu des morts de Memphis, gardien de la Nécropole. 

Toutes les statues animales sont traitées comme celles de 
l’Hémicycle ; elles sont du même temps et témoignent du même 
art. 

Avec ce lot, nous sommes à nouveau en plein syncrétisme 
égypto-grec (cf. le Sokar, le Cerbère à trois têtes : lion, loup, 
chien, adapté par Bryaxis) ; mais aussi en pleine « liturgie » 
bachique, ce que montrent les pampres et les raisins partout 
répandus sous les pas des animaux sacrés ; et surtout la fontaine 
magique, représentée sous le groupe du lion chevauché par un 
« Bacc.hos ». Il faut penser à une fontaine de vin, et à une allu¬ 
sion au miracle du vin, produit par Dionysos (Hymne, 34). Cette 
thaumaturgie populaire était mise en oeuvre, complaisamment, 
lors des grandes processions d’Alexandrie, comme celle, contem¬ 
poraine de Ptolémée II, que nous a décrite Callixène de Rhodes 
(texte conservé par Athénée). On promenait alors en ville, sui¬ 
des chars, des fontaines laissant cotüer en permanence lait et 
vin. On peut désormais connaître l’origine de cette mise en scène : 


dès le début des temps ptolémaïques, à Memphis. Et le rappro¬ 
chement s’impose avec les documents de la toreutique, de la 
glyptique alexandrine, où nous voyons, parmi les mêmes figura¬ 
tions, les jeux rituels d’un Dionysos Parapaizôn, sur les limites 
de l’enfance, entouré de la troupe de ses Bacchoi, tantôt ailés, 
tantôt aptères, comme lui. Ils prophétisaient à l’occasion pour 
lui et en son nom, au Serapeum même de Memphis, semble-t-il, 
pendant l’ère lagide. Non seulement, les rapports avec les vases 
métalliques précieux de Boscoreale, de Pompei, de Berthouville, 
d’Hildesheim, etc. sont instructifs; mais il y a des comparaisons 
à faire avec les mosaïques d’Afrique, où le culte dionysiaque du 
paon avait prévalu en terre punique. La religion de Dionysos est 
en effet passée, comme on sait, d’Alexandrie à Carthage, ainsi 
qu’en Campanie, en Provence, en Ibérie, jusqu’aux « Colonnes 
d’Hercule ». 

* * 

Chaque œuvre d’art, en tout temps, en tout pays, est un mo¬ 
nument de civilisation, histoire, art, culte. 

Le syncrétisme qui s’est produit à Memphis et s’est mani¬ 
festé ensuite à Alexandrie, a eu les conséquences religieuses les 
plus étendues. 

Le prestige de Dionysos — dieu macédonien du Pangée — 
a pris, au contact d’Osiris, d’Osor-Apis, un regain de force qui l’a 
rendu « méditerranéen », et a fait du dieu-enfant régénéré le 
rival le plus dangereux du dieu du christianisme, contre lequel 
il a mené le combat jusqu’à la fin de l’ère païenne. 

Nous mesurons aussi la portée des réformes provoquées par 
Ptolémée Ier et ses habiles conseillers cultuels. La religion diony¬ 
siaque est revenue en Grèce propre avec de nouveaux aspects, 
propagés par la politique des Lagides (ainsi à Thessalonique, où, 
dans le Sarapieion local, en a trouvé une statue en marbre 
d’Harpocrate adolescent, entouré de pampres comme les animaux 
sacrés du Dromos memphite). En Egypte même, ainsi qu’en té¬ 
moigne le Papyrus Gourob, entre autres, la religion dionysiaque 
s’est rajeunie et renforcée. On la retrouve plus puissante, du 
côté de l’Occident romain et punique, où s’est créé le culte d’un 
Liber Pater (cf. Y Hymne d’ion de Chios, pour ce Dionysos 
« Pater » qui, au témoignage de Cicéron, était un dieu-enfant). 




12 


BULLETIN DE L'INSTITUT D’EGYPTE 


Du côté de l’Orient, le Dionysos memphito-alexandrin est 
passé en Syrie, en Nabatène, en Arabie (lions chevauchés de 
Timna); il a été diffusé aussi aux extrêmes limites d’un monde 
cosmopolite, car nous retrouvons sa trace sur le Tigre et l’Eu¬ 
phrate, et à Suse aussi, comme à Kapici-(« Begram ») et aux 
Indes, partout, en somme, à travers l’Asie. 

Si l’on veut marquer utilement la place historique qu’occu¬ 
pent les statues dégagées du Serapeum — Hémicycle, groupes 
de Dionysos-enfant et des animaux — il suffit de noter que 
cette vingtaine d’œuvres, maintenant étudiées, a joué un double 
rôle déterminant. 

C’est à Memphis qu’a été mis en valeur — dans un ensemble 
monumental, le premier en date et le seul qui nous soit conser¬ 
vé — le prestige de la vie littéraire antique, du travail spirituel 
des grands hommes de l’humanité, de ceux de la création poéti¬ 
que et de l’invention scientifique. L’Exèdre memphite des Poètes 
et des Sages a décidé de la vogue devenue traditionnelle des 
maîtres de la pensée, pour lesquels Alexandrie organisa des 
fêtes officielle (p. ex. Y Apothéose d'Homère du bas-relief d’Ar- 
chélaos de Priène, au British Muséum), et dont on grava si vo¬ 
lontiers les images sur les s kyphoi d’argent, produits de la toreu- 
tique du Delta (p. ex. représentation des maîtres de la Pléiade 
sur les gobelets de Berthouville ; de Démétrios de Phalère et 
d’autres philosophes ou poètes sur les modioli dits des « squelet¬ 
tes » (Boscoreale) ; ensuite, vase de bronze d’Hersthal. mus. de 
Bruxelles). Rien qu’un tel succès suffirait à la gloire des monu¬ 
ments du Serapeum. 

Mais c’est l’Egypte de Memphis et d’Alexandrie, aussi, qui 
désormais nous apparaît comme le creuset où s’est reformée une 
puissante religion antique, venue à son heure ; elle avait su éten¬ 
dre déjà sa protection et sa compassion aux faibles ; une religion 
dont le dieu était un Enfant, un « Divine-Child » parmi les ani¬ 
maux inoffensifs ou redoutés (du paon au lion, au Cerbère !). 

Pour la première fois dans le monde antique (où pourtant, 
les Enfances des dieux n’étaient pas oubliées, ni en Egypte, ni 
en Asie, ni dans le monde méditerranéen), on a vu une religion 
manifester au grand jour des tendances secourables, et dévelop¬ 
per aussi l’espoir de la survie. Outre les miracles de guérison qui 


STATUES GRECQUES DU SERAPEUM DE MEMPHIS 


13 


se faisaient par l’entremise de Sarapis, au Serapeum même 0), 
il faut relever l’organisation d’une culte de « Bacchoi », enfants, 
médiums consacrés qui distribuaient des oracles au nom de leur 
dieu, adolescent lui-même. Ce n’est pas pour rien que les épiso¬ 
des culminants de la lutte finale entre le christianisme et le pa¬ 
ganisme sont venus un jour se situer tragiquement autour du 
Serapeum d’Alexandrie, dérivé de celui de Memphis. 


(!) Inscription du Lychnaption . 



14 


BULLETIN DR L'INSTITUT D’EGYPTE 


PL. I 



Petits bronzes de Sarapis et du Cerbère tricéphale. 
(Musée du Caire) 


STATUES GRECQUES DU SEKAPEUM DE MEMPHIS 


PL. II 



Démétrios de Phalère accoudé sur un Hermès de Sarapis. 








16 HULLETIN I>H L’INSTITUT D’E6Y1 V J'E 



1. — L'hémicycle des poètes et philosophes grecs. 



2. — La mosaïque d'Umbra Sarsina. (Villa Alban:). 


STATUES GRECQUES 1H' SERAPEUM DE MEMPHIS 


17 


PL. IV 



La statue de Pindare montrant son siège de métal. 









































18 I,U liLETIN DE 1/INSTITUT D’EGYPTE 


PL. V 



2. — Le Cerbière chevauché par Dionysos adolescent. « 


h? . lin* rn 


- 


m 


principes appliques aux restaurations 

DES MONUMENTS DE ZOSER 
A SAKKARAH O 

par 

JEAN-PHILIPPE LAUER 

L’importance archéologique de Saqqarah ayant été révélée, 
il y a un siècle, par les sensationnelles découvertes de Mariette, 
l’excursion à ce site se limita longtemps à la visite du Sérapéum 
et du mastaba de Ti, à laquelle on ajoutait parfois celle des 
mastabas de Ptah-hotep et de Mererouka ou Méra. Ce n’est que 
depuis une vingtaine d’années que le principal centre d intérêt 
s’est reporté sur la Pyramide à degrés et son magnifique complexe 
monumental construits pour la « demeure d’éternité » du roi 
Zoser, Horus Neteri-khet, par son célèbre ministre-architecte 
Imhotep, plus tard divinisé, que les Grecs dans leurs efforts de 
syncrétisme assimilèrent à Asklépios, en raison de ses talents 
médicaux. 

Cet ensemble avait été dégagé de 1924 à 1928 par notre re¬ 
gretté collègue du Service des Antiquités, Cecil M. Firth, préma¬ 
turément disparu en 1931. Appelé nous-même en fin de 1926 
pour le seconder et étudier, du point de vue architectural, les 
curieux vestiges qu’il était en train de mettre au jour, nous som¬ 
mes parvenu peu à peu à retrouver les formes et les proportions 
de ces édifices d’un style entièrement nouveau et inconnu jus¬ 
que là en Egypte. 

C’est ainsi que, depuis 1927, nous avions^ publié regulieie- 
ment après chaque campagne de travaux les résultats de nos î e- 
cherches avec les dessins des restitutions que nous avions pu 
établir ( 2 ). Dès 1936, nous étions en mesure de faire paraître 

(1) Communication présentée en séance du lundi G février 19o6. 

A, Cf J T Lnuer Etude sur quelques monuments de la Illemc dynas¬ 
tie dans Ann. AM*. Ey„pte, t. XXVII à XXXII, et iMcm t. XXX, 

XXXI. XXXIII, XXXVII à XXXIX. XLVI1I: Rapport «r les restaurations 
effectuées dans les monuments de Zoser à Saqqarah. 


















20 


21 


BULLETIN I)E I/INSTITUT D'EGYPTE 


deux volumes in -4°, l'un de texte et l’autre de planches, où, ex¬ 
posant les données et les méthodes qui permirent rétablissement 
de nos reconstitutions théoriques, nous présentions, avec une 
remise au point de nos premiers dessins et relevés, des restitu¬ 
tions nouvelles et des perspectives d’ensemble (voir par exem¬ 
ple pl. VI, 1) ( 3 ). 

Ces diverses restitutions avaient pu être obtenues, en parti¬ 
culier, grâce au fait que les ouvriers, qui exploitèrent dès la pé¬ 
riode Ramesside ces monuments comme carrières, n’étaient heu¬ 
reusement pas parvenus à tout raser et avaient abandonné le 
plus souvent les assises inférieures déjà bien ensablées. En outre, 
ces carriers improvisés, recherchant avant tout des blocs sim¬ 
plement équarris, avaient généralement délaissé ceux qui pré¬ 
sentaient des moulures ou des formes particulières, tels que les 
tambours de colonnes, les chapiteaux, les éléments de corniches 
ou de couronnements, etc... Ce sont ces précieux vestiges ainsi 
providentiellement épargnés et conservés dans le sable, dont il 
s’agissait de tirer le meilleur parti. Fallait-il, après en avoir dé¬ 
duit nos restitutions graphiques, les enfouir à nouveau ou les 
laisser en évidence sur le sol à proximité des monuments, ou 
bien les emmagasiner, ou enfin tenter de les réintégrer aux édi¬ 
fices auxquels ils avaient appartenu ? 

En réalité ces questions, qui se posaient à nous ici, se sont 
posées également en de nombreux autres sites archéologiques 
dans bien des pays. Elles constituent un problème d’ordre gé¬ 
néral qui a vivement préoccupé les directions ou ser\ T ices char¬ 
gés dans les différentes nations de la préservation et de la res¬ 
tauration des ruines antiques. Au cours des dernières décades, 
les thèses proposées ou les solutions adoptées ici et là ont été 
confrontées en divers congrès internationaux dont l’un des plus 
importants fut tenu à Athènes en 1931, à la suite des remar¬ 
quables travaux exécutés à l’Acropole et au Parthénon sous la 
direction de l’architecte Balanos ( l ). C’est là, en particulier, que 


(T) Cf. J. P. Limer, La Pyramide à deyr es. IA architecture, t. I et II 
(P.tMi), Compléments, t. III (1939), ainsi que élans Ann. Serr. Antiq. Egypte, 
cahier no 9, Etudes complementaires sur les Monuments du roi Zozcr à Saq- 
qarali... (1948). 

(4) Cf. tin pariiculier* les volumes 19 et 120 do Mouscion (organe de l'Office 
international eles .Musées) qui furent consacrés aux communications faites à 
congrès. Cf. également La conser ration des Monument s dé Art et d’il isterère. 


RESTAURATIONS DE MONUMENTS DE ZOSER 


furent définis les principes de Yanastylose, entendant par ce ter¬ 
me « la réédification des colonnes avec leurs éléments d’origine 
dûment identifiés ». Ce congrès permit, en outre, de mettre en 
lumière quatre points particulièrement importants concernant la 
conservation et la réédification des ruines, à savoir que : 

1°) Les éléments architectoniques, épars sur le chantier, 
sont beaucoup plus sujets à une dégradation rapide que ceux qui 
sont incorporés à une construction. Tous leurs côtés sont exposés 
aux intempéries, alors que les blocs constituant un édifice se 
protègent les uns les autres, ne laissant à découvert le plus gé¬ 
néralement qu’une seule de leurs faces. 

2°) Plus une ruine est importante et comporte d’assises, plus 
elle sera en mesure de résister aux forces destructives qui s’at¬ 
taquent à elle et la rongent petit à petit. 

3°) Le replacement effectif, dans l’édifice, de ses divers élé¬ 
ments architectoniques constitue une précieuse vérification des 
restitutions graphiques, toujours un peu théoriques, et peut ainsi 
permettre d’y apporter, le cas échéant, d’utiles corrections. 

4°) La rédification, à condition d’être effectuée avec des 
soins scrupuleux, permet de retrouver des formes, de rétablir des 
proportions, et ainsi de recréer véritablement une œuvre archi¬ 
tecturale autrement perdue ou défigurée. 

Telles furent donc les considérations sur lesquelles nous 
nous étions fondé pour entreprendre dans les monuments de 
Zoser l’œuvre de longue haleine que nous poursuivons encore à 
l’heure actuelle. 

Dès 1928, nos recherches effectuées principalement sur les 
tambours ou secteurs de tambours de colonnes, nous avaient dé¬ 
montré qu’un grand nombre de ceux-ci pouvaient être attribués 
avec certitude à telle ou telle colonne. Il y avait donc un intérêt 
évident à tenter dans bien des cas Yanastylose ; celle-ci se com¬ 
pliquait cependant du fait que, ici toutes les colonnes étant en¬ 
gagées dans des murs, il était indispensable de remonter égale¬ 
ment ces murs, au moins en partie. Or, si nous avions une forte 
proportion des secteurs de tambours, les blocs de parement sim¬ 
plement équarris nous faisaient, au contraire, pour les raisons 
déjà exposées, presque tous défaut, ce qui limitait évidemment 


publiée par l’Institut "international de Coopération intellectuelle, à la suite de 
ce congrès. 



22 


BULLETIN DE L’INSTITUT D’EGYPTE 


nos possibilités. Comment donc pallier à ce manque de blocs 
équarris ? 

Dans un premier cas, celui des colonnes autrefois portantes, 
qui, formant têtes de murs, dissimulent, vues de face, ces der¬ 
niers, nous avions décidé de reconstituer tout ou partie de leurs 
piles d’appui, comme pour leurs tambours manquants, en bri¬ 
ques ou moellons recouverts d’un fort enduit de pierre artifi¬ 
cielle facile à teinter dans le ton voulu. Tel fut le cas des colon¬ 
nes fasciculées de l’entrée (pl. I) et des trois colonnes cannelées 
du petit temple T de nos plans (pl. II). 

Outre ces colonnes portantes, le complexe funéraire de Zoser 
présentait des colonnes purement décoratives ou symboliques 
engagées dans des façades. Dans ce second cas, le manque de 
pierres anciennes de parement à remployer est beaucoup plus 
grave, car la recomposition de la façade doit obligatoirement être 
conduite parallèlement à Vanastylose ; l’une ne saurait se conce¬ 
voir sans l’autre. Force nous a été alors de limiter notre pro- 
gramme j en nous contentant pour les façades de vastes dimen¬ 
sions, comme celles des « Maisons du Sud et du Nord », qu il 
était peu indiqué de reconstituer en enduit de pierre artificielle, 
de replacer les tambours ne nécessitant pas ou très peu d’élé¬ 
ments neufs de raccord, et de remonter avec les quelques pier¬ 
res anciennes, dont nous pouvions disposer, le niveau supérieur 
de ces façades simplement jusqu’à la hauteur nouvellement at¬ 
teinte par leurs colonnes (pl. III). 

Nous n’avons envisagé l’anastylose complète de colonnes dé¬ 
coratives que dans certains cas de façades à surface beaucoup 
plus réduite, comme la façade aux petites colonnes-papyrus, qui 
a pu être reconstituée avec des pierres anciennes (pl. IV), et 
celle d’une chapelle à colonnes cannelées de la cour du Heb-Sed, 
dont nous entreprenons actuellement la recomposition. 

L’heureux effet obtenu, en particulier, par l’anastylose de 
la petite façade aux colonnes-papyrus devait nous inciter à ten¬ 
ter la recomposition d’autres parois caractéristiques de l’archi¬ 
tecture de Zoser, comme les murs à redans de la cour Sud et de 
l’enceinte, dont un nombre relativement grand de blocs gisaient 
au sol ; et cela, d’autant plus que des restaurations de recompo¬ 
sition analogues, effectuées en divers sites archéologiques 
d’Italie, de Grèce, d’Afrique du Nord, de Cyrénaïque, etc.... 


RESTAURATIONS DE MONUMENTS DE ZOSER 


23 


avaient bénéficié d’une approbation quasi unanime au Congrès 
International d’Athènes, dont il a déjà été question. 

Si, en effet, le but essentiel de la restauration est de conser¬ 
ver les monuments, ce qui nécessite des travaux d’entretien, de 
consolidation et de protection, qu’il faut s’efforcer de rendre le 
moins apparents possible, il n’en est pas moins souhaitable, lors¬ 
qu’on dispose des éléments anciens voulus, et que l’identification 
et la position de ces derniers ont pu être préalablement détermi¬ 
nées avec certitude par une étude minutieuse, d’entreprendre des 
travaux de recomposition ou de réintégration. Ceux-ci, à la condi¬ 
tion de ne pas s’appuyer sur des hypothèses incertaines, et de 
ne pas altérer les vestiges subsistant, peuvent être particulière¬ 
ment heureux s’ils permettent de retrouver, ne serait-ce même 
qu’en partie, le caractère initial d’un édifice, ou de remettre en 
valeur certains de ses éléments importants. 

Tel fut précisément le cas'pour la recomposition de ces murs 
à redans de la grande cour Sud (pl. V) et de l’entrée de l’en¬ 
ceinte (pl. VI, 2), dont nous avions auparavant réussi à identifier 
et à déterminer de façon tout à fait sûre la position des éléments de 
leur partie supérieure recueillie dans le sable. Dans la cour Sud, 
par exemple les pierres ornées de cobras à la tête dressée appar¬ 
tenaient indubitablement au couronnement de l’avant-corps for¬ 
mé par le sanctuaire du tombeau de l’enceinte Sud ; partout ail¬ 
leurs autour de la cour le mur de parement était orné de redans 
semblablement constitués mais sans frise de cobras à la crête. 

En ce qui concerne, d’autre part, l’étude préliminaire du 
mur d’enceinte bastionné(pl. VI, 1 et 2), les nombreux éléments 
ornés de petits rectangles ( 5 ) qui gisaient encore au pied, nous 
avaient été particulièrement précieux. Des superpositions de ces 
éléments étant apparu possibles, nous avions alors fait de nom¬ 
breux essais dont plusieurs s’avérèrent des réussites. Ce sont ces 
dernières qui nous ont permis de retrouver l’ordonnance des as¬ 
sises et de savoir que ces rectangles étaient disposés, horizonta¬ 
lement suivant huit rangées parallèles, régulièrement espacées 
de 45 à 47 cm., et verticalement dans l’axe de chacun des pan¬ 
neaux rentrant ou saillant qui constituent les redans. Les deux 


(5) Ceux-ci visibles sur notre pl. VI, 2 simulaient les extrémités de poutres 
de chaînage que l’on disposait dans la partie supérieure des grands murs de 
brique crue pour renforcer leur cohésion. 







24 


BULLETIN DE L'INSTITUT D'EGYPTE 


rangées supérieures étaient disposées dans la partie exempte de 
redans correspondant au parapet du chemin de ronde ( 6 ). Quant 
aux blocs du couronnement même du parapet qui formait en 
même temps le couronnement de la façade de l’enceinte, ils pré¬ 
sentent un arrondi en quart de cercle yers le chemin de ronde. 
La plupart de ceux dont nous pouvions disposer ont repris place 
au sommet de la façade reconstituée de l’entrée de l’enceinte, où 
il nous reste à les raccorder par un fort enduit de pierre agglo¬ 
mérée aux éléments du dallage du chemin de ronde que nous 
venons de replacer. 

Telles sont les principales restaurations de recomposition 
qui ont été effectuées ou sont actuellement en cours dans les 
Monuments de Zoser. Peu à peu ressuscitent ainsi à nos yeux 
les formes et les proportions de ces constructions préhistoriques 
qu’un architecte génial sut aux premières heures de l’histoire 
transposer et réaliser dans la pierre avec une maîtrise sans pré¬ 
cédent, qui force aujourd’hui encore notre admiration. 


(G) Cf. J. P. Lauer, dans Ami. Sert'. Antigu. V.pyple. t. XLVIII, Restaura¬ 
tions et « anastylose » dans les rnomments du roi Zoser à SaqqaraJi, p..3o6 a 303, 
et surtout p. 356-357 et fig. t à 3. 


RESTAURATIONS DE MONUMENTS DE ZOSER 


25 


PL. I 



Colonnes fasciculées après « anastylose ». 





























26 


BULLETIN 1>E L'INSTITUT D'EGYPTE 



RE ST AU K ATI ON S DE MONUMENTS DE ZOSER 


27 




PL. III 


2. — La même, après restauration. 


1. — La « maison du Nord », lors de la découverte. 


























28 


BULLETIN DE L’INSTITUT D’EGYPTE 



PL. IV 


Les colonnes-papyrus après « anastylose 


RESTAURATIONS DE MONUMENTS DE ZOSER 


29 


PL. V 



Le mur « aux cobras ». 

























30 


BULLETIN DE L'INSTITUT D’EGYPTE 


PL. VJ 



2. — L'entrée de l'enceinte reconstituée. 


REMARKS ON THE URANIUM CONTENT 
OF ROCKS OF ASWAN DISTRICT ( ) 


by 

R1AD A, HIGAZY, Ph.D. (Chicago), D.Sc. (Edin.) 

and 

HUSSEIN WÀSFY, B.Sc* 

Geology Department, Alexandria University. 


ABSTRACT 

Sampies of the different rocks in the neighbourhood of 
Aswan District were analysed for their U content. It varies from 
< 1 to 16 ppm. with an average of 5.5 ppm. The aplites and 
pegmatites hâve relatively higher U content than the granités. 

INTRODUCTION 

The writers handed rocks representing most of the different 
types exposed in Aswan District to Dr. Younis S. S.elim of the 
Physics Department of Alexandria University for the estimation 
of their uranium content. Dr. Younis (personal communication) 
used methods of détermination discussed in detail by Yagoda 
(1949). 

RESULTS 

The analysed rocks are granité, aplogranite, aplite and peg- 
matite ; schist and hornfels ; and basait, and camptonite. Their 
petrographical characters, Chemical composition and mode of 
origin will be given, in detail, in a forthcoming publication by 
the writers. The uranium contents of the different studied rocks 
are listed in Table (1) which also includes their geographical 
location. However, reference should be made to Ball’s map 
(1907) or to that of Little and Attia (1943) for their exact posi¬ 
tions. 


DISCUSSIONS 

It should be mentioned that the number of the analysed 
sampies is not. frequent enough for drawing any definite conclu- 


(1) Communication présentée en séance <lu 5 décembre 3955. 



















32 


BULLETIN DE L’INSTITUT D'EGYPTE 


sions. However, it can be seen that the aplites and pegmatiteâ 
are in general, richer in U than the coarse- and line-grained 
granités. The U contents in the analysed aplite and pegmatite 
are as high as 10 and 7 ppm. respectively, whereas, the highest 
content in the analysed coarse- and fihe-grained granités are 
only 4 ppm. The analysed aplogranite is markedly richer in this 
element than the granités. It has 16 ppm. compared to the maxi¬ 
mum content of 4 ppm. in the other granitic rocks and, therefore, 
it is more related to the aplites and pegmatites. The average 
content of the analysed granités is 2.5 ppm. which is Icwsr than 
that given by Senftle and Keevil (1947) for granitic rocks (3.963 
ppm.). The relative richness of microcline in U is indicated by 

(a) the exceedingly high content (131 ppm.) in the microcline 
porphyroblast in the fine grained granité (No. 2 in Table 1), 

(b) the appréciable amount of this element (5 ppm.) in the 
analysed microcline porphyroblast in the coarse-grained granité 
(No. 7, Table 1), and (c) relatively high content of the microcline 
pegmatite (7 ppm.) and of the microcline-rich aplogianite (16 
ppm). This confirms Page’s view (1950), that microcline peg¬ 
matites are relatively rich in U. 

It is significant to find that the dark hornfelsic and schistose 
rocks contain détectable amounts of U varying between < 1 and 
6 ppm. This fact adds strength to the view that the metasomatic 
development of the granitic rocks would not necessarily need 
addition of material from extraneous sources since the country 
rocks contain the éléments required for the composition of the 
granité, including the exceedingly rare element U. 

The analysed basic dyke and camptonite possess remarkably 
higher contents of U (12 and 14 ppm. respectively) than those 
given by Evans and Goodman (1941) for basalts and diabase^ 
(0.83 ppm.). 

On the whole the U content of the analysed crystalline rocks 
of Aswan, excluding the exceedingly rich sample of microcline 
porphypoblast (No. 2), differs from < 1 to 16 ppm. wit'n an 
average of 5.5 ppm. This is not appreciably higher than Hevesy’s 
average for igneous rocks (4 ppm.) recorded by Rankama and 
Sahama (1949, p. 632) but remarkably lower than that of 
Egyptian Upper Cretaceous phosphatic deposits at Koseir 
(average 34 ppm.) and at Sebaiya (average 66 ppm.) studied by 
Abdel-Mohspn, .( ; 19,b4). 


REMARKS ON THE URANIUM CONTENT OF ROCKS 


33 


TABLE 1. 


Serial 

No. 

1 

2 

3 

4 

5 

6 

7 

8 
9 

10 

11 

12 

13 

14 

15 

16 

17 

18 

19 

20 
21 


Uranium Contents of Rocks of Aswan District. 


Type oi rock U in ppm. 


Microcline pegmatite 

Microcline porphyroblast in fine-grained granité 

Aplite 

Aplite 

Coarse-grained pegmatitic granité 
Coarse-grained granité 

Microcline porphyroblast in coarse-grained granité 
Coarse-grained granité 
Medium-grained granité 
Aplogranite (microcline-rich) 

Fine-grained granité 
Fine-grained granité 
Fine-grained granité 
Biotite-gneiss 

Dark relies in microcline porphyroblast No. 2 

Dark skialith in granité No. 13 

Dark schistose skialith 

Dark hornfelsic skialith 

Dark hornfelsic skialith 

Basic dyke 

Camptonite 


7 

131 

10 

2 

* 

5 

1 

4 

16 

2 


5 

10 

4 

3 

6 
* 

12 

14 


* U if présent is in amounts considerably less than 1 ppm. 
Numbers of rocks in brackets correspond to those numbers of 
Aswan collection of samples in the Geology Department, 
Alexandria University. 

1 = Microcline pegmatite (No. 74) from ancient cutting south of 

Aswan town. . 

2 = Microcline porphyroblast in fine-grained granité (No. ®ü) 

from old golf course. 

3 = Aplite (No. 31) in coarse-grained granité near Mahata village. 

4 = Aplite (No. 47) from old golf course. 

5 = Coarse-grained pegmatitic granité (No. 106) from northeast 

of Gatania. ... nu 

6 = Coarse-grained granité (No. 60) from Gebel Ibrahim Fasha 

south of quarry. 



















34 


BULLETIN DE 1/INSTITUT D’EGYPTE 


7 = Microcline porphyroblast in coarse-grained granité (No. 58A) 

from Gebel Ibrahim Pasha south of quarry. 

8 = Coarse-grained granité (No. 58B) same as 7. 

9 = Medium-grained granité (No. 14) from near the English 

Cemetery, Aswan Dam Road. 

10 = Fine-grained aplogranite (No. 32) fr©m near Mahatta village. 

11 = Fine-grained granité (No. 54) from Gebel Ibrahim Pasha 

south of quarry. 

12 = Fine-grained granité (No. 46) from old golf course. 

13 = Fine-grained granité (No. 39A) from old golf course. 

14 = Biotite-gneiss (No. 26) from Southern end of Gebel Bas. 

15 — Dark relies in microcline porphyroblast in fine-grained granité 

(No. 39B) from old golf course. 

16 = Dark skialith in granité (No. 39A) from old golf course. 

17 = Dark schistose skialith (No. 21) from Gebel Tegog. 

18 = Dark hornfelsic skialith (No. 55A) from Gebel Ibrahim Pasha 

south of quarry. 

19 = Dark hornfelsic skialith (No. 35) from near quarry at the 

eastern side of Aswan Dam Road. 

20 = Basic dyke (porphyritic basait No. 42) from old golf course. 

21 = Camptonite dyke (No. 37) east of quarry at the eastern side 

of Aswan Dam Road. 

REFERENCES 

Abdel-Mohsen, H. (1954) : “Studies on some Egyptian phosphates 
with spécial reference to their radioactivity.” M.Sc. Dissertation, 
Alexandria University. (Unpublished). 

Bail, J. (1907): “A description of the First or Aswan Cataract of 
the NileA Surv. Dept. Egypt, Cairo, 121 p. 

Evans, R.D. and Goodman, C. (1941) : “Radioactivity of rocks.” Geol. 
vSoc. America Bull., V. 52, p. 459. 

Little, O.H. and Attia, M.I. (1943) : “The Development of the Aswan 
District, with Notes on the Minerais of South-Eastern Egypt.” 
Geol. Surv. Egypt Report. 

Page, L.R. (1950) : “Uranium in pegmatitesA Econ. Geol., V. 45, 
" p. 12-34. 

Rankama, K. and Sahama, Th. G. (1949) : “Geochemistry.” Univ. 
Chicago Press, 212 p. 

Senftle, F. E. and Keevil, N.B. (1947) : “Thorium-uranium ratios in 
the theory of genesis of lead ores.” Am. Geophys. Union Trans., 
Y. 28, p. 732. 

Yagoda, H. (1949) : “Radioactive measurements with Nuclear Emul¬ 
sions.” John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York. 


* 


REMARKS ON THE URANIUM CONTENT OF ROCKS 35 



Fig. 1. — Coarse-grained granité from Gebel Ibrahim Pasha south ot quarry, 
Aswan Dam Road (No. 8 in Table U>. The porphyroblast “T” (No. 7 in 
Table 1) is shown. The sample countains also fine-grained granité and dark 
skialith. Half natural size 



Fig. 2. — Dark skialith (No. 16 in Table 1) in fine-grained granité from 
old golf course (No: 13 in Table 1). The other side of this sample contains 
the microcline porphyroblast (No. 2 in Table 1). Half natural size. 


EXPANSION OF THE ARABS: 

ITS RELATION TO CLIMATIC CHANGES 
AND OTHER FACTORS 

by 

S. HUZAYYIN 


Introductosry: 

The expansion of the Arabs which started from Arabia in 
the 7th century A.D. represents one of the major phenomena in 
human history. It carried Arab culture and Islam far wide to 
the west and the east both by land and by sea. This great move- 
ment, however, did not represent an isolated phenomenon. It 
came as a link in a chain of movements of expansion from the 
Semitic steppe-lands of the Near East. The history of those 
earlier Semitic movements of expansion is a complicated one ; 
and it is not proposed to deal with them here in any detail. 
Suffice it to say that views hâve widely differed upon the original 
cause of those early expansions and migrations from the desert 
and the steppe. Some authors would attribute them to what 
was coined by E. Huntington as the puise of climate — namely 
fluctuations and oscillations in the amount of précipitation over 
the great Asiatic belt of steppe-lands and its borders. Others 
would simply attribute these migrations to purely political 
reasons — namely the décliné in the power of empires adjoining 
the steppe-lands and the conséquent inducement to the hordes of 
nomads to migrate to the settled plains. Rare among researchers 
are those who tried the possible combination of the two sets of 
factors. It is our intention in this short paper to survey the 
possibilities of those natural and human factors which may hâve 
directly or indirectlv affected the expansion of the Arabs from 
their peninsula. 

Archaeological Evidences of Climatic Changes: 

The school of changeability of climate in south west Asia in 
historical times was first championed by E. Huntington. His 
early researches pertained to Palestine in Biblical and earlier 
times, and he came to the conclusion that the Palestine of those 
days was favoured with better rainfall and végétation than in 


38 


39 


BULLETIN DE L'INSTITUT D'EGYPTE 


later times. Its past climate was marked with fluctuations which 
forced the bédouins to migrate and seek shelter and aboae in the 
near-by plains of Egypt or in the settled oases of Syria as well 
as in the borders of Iraq. 

The gist of the views of E. Huntington, C.E.P. Brooks and 
others is that a so-called period of classical rainfall existed and 
extended (with oscillation) roughly from 1800 B.C. to A.D. 500, 
though it was best represented from 1200 B.C. to A.D. 200. Other 
historians such as Caetani hâve tried to apply similar views to 
Arabia of early Islande days, though in their enthusiasm they 
put forward évidences which were not always convincing. 
Caetani, for example, thinks that the fact that parts of Arabia 
were in former times more forested than at présent, and that 
several of its wild beasts hâve now become extinct may be taken 
as an indication of increasing dryness of climate. In a country 
like Arabia, however, where woodlands are naturally restricted 
and where people dépend on wood for fuel and other purposes, 
déforestation is better regarded as the resuit of the action of 
man. The extinction of wild animais in such a desert country 
may be explained on the ground that those animais are easily 
trapped at the watering-places, where they are obliged to call. 
This is perhaps the reason why it is that, on the steppe and semi- 
desert, the domestication of tamable animais and the extinction 
of comparatively more fierce ones is achieved at an earlier date 

than in more prosperous lands. 

But the problem of changeability of climate and the onset of 
dryness which led to outbursts of tribes from semi-desert and 
desert areas should be approached from a different angle. 
Evidences of former changes and onset of desiccation should be 
looked for in more than one field. Archaeology is perhaps one 
of the main sources for reliable evidence, at least of the change 
which took place since Roman and early Christian times. The 
coast of Mariut district to the west of the Nile delta is covered 
with a sériés of large cisterns which belong to the Graeco-Roman 
phase. These cisterns are now dry, and most of them filled with 
sand. But even if they were cleaned up, it is estimated, with 
good reason, that they would never ail get filled up with the 
winter rain which now falls in the district. The large temples 
whose remains are still standing are a clear indication that 
Mariut was a district rich in cultivation and vineyards. At 
présent the great efforts to revive the area are much hampered 
by both the insufficiency and uncertainty of water-supply. If 


EXPANSION OF THE AKABS 


we pass on to North Arabia we find similar archaeological 
evidence . The deserts of Transjordan and Syria hâve a multitude 
of Roman cisterns whose abundance and large capacity may be 
taken as a sign of greater précipitation of rainfall. It is true 
that these cisterns must hâve been built at different times when 
the older ones got filled with débris and sand ; and that conse- 
quently their evidence as indicating desiccation in later times 
may not be conclusive ; but they should not be taken alone into 
considération. The large camps of Roman garrisons, the théâtres 
and huge buildings attached to them, as well as the roads which 
covered the face of what is now desert must be taken as an 
indication of better climate than at présent prevails. In addition 
to this must be added the existence of remains of large cities, 
with their temples and palaces, such as the famous Petra and 
other centres further north (Bostra, Palmyra, etc.) where the 
supply of local rainfall and underground water is at présent 
utterly insufficient for their maintenance. In fact the study of 
the locations of these ancient cities and the trade routes serving 
them supports the evidence of desiccation and gives further 
indication that the onset of dryness was graduai and took place 
during the first few centuries of the Christian era. The Crossing 
of the Syrian desert between the eastern and the western horns 
of the Fertile Crescent was gradually shifted from south to 
north. The head of the trade routes on the western side 
(dominated by the Romans and Byzantines) was first at Petra 
(capital of the Nabataeans north of Aqaba), and then shifted 
northwards to Bostra, Damascus and Palmyra in north Syria. 
This northward shift may hâve been partly due to the develop¬ 
ment of the ports of the coast of Phoenicia instead of Gaza in 
relation to the graduai rise of the Byzantine Empire and the 
advancement of north Syria and Mesopotamia as centres for 
religious and mercantile enterprise. But it is equally possible 
that a graduai onset of desiccation may hâve made the main¬ 
tenance of the southerly routes and crossings impossible. We 
shall corne back to this point when we discuss the rôle of the 
trade activity in its relation to Arab expansion. 

Another interesting piece of evidence cornes from the study 
of underground water-level in the Transjordan desert. There are 
clear indications from the Azraq dépréssion that the underground 
water-level which supplies the springs has fallen by some 6 feet 
since Roman times. This could not be attributed to any increase 
in the digging of wells in that dépréssion, as in fact it was more 


40 


BULLETIN DE L’INSTITUT D’EGYPTE 


populous in Roman times than at présent. But perhaps the 
most important area from which we can draw archaeological 
evidence of dryness of climate is the south-west plateau of 
Yemen and Hadramaut. There, especially in Yemen, the climate 
was always and is still more humid than in any part of Arabia. 
The rainfall being more abundant, its o'scillations were always 
more appréciable in amount, and thus more easily discerned. 
The plateau of Yemen with its extension towards Hadramaut, 
was the site of a sériés of ancient civilizations. This plateau 
may be roughly divided into three levels. (1) The so-called Min¬ 
naean Jauf (= interior) which lies in the north-east, in the rain- 
shadow of the higher toplands of Sanaa, at a level of less than 
1200 métrés (above sea-level) in general. This is now within 
the semi-desert zone. (2) The Southern Jauf or the Maarib level 
which extends to the borders of Hadramaut at an altitude of 
1200 to 1700 métrés. It receives a slightly higher amount of 
rainfall, being somewhat higher and more situated to the south. 
(3) The toplands of Sanaa and the rest of the high mountains 
above 1700 métrés (Sanaa itself at about 2300 m.). These top¬ 
lands rejoice in both temperat.e conditions and heavier rainfall, 
reaching 50 cms. or even more. Archaeological evidence from 
south-west Arabia, mainly inscriptions, bring out three distinct 
and successive phases of civilization, each of which may be 
associated with one of the above-mentioned levels of altitude. 
These are the so-called Minnaean, Saba,eo-Himyarite and 
Ethiopian. It is difficult to give any definite dates for each of 
these phases, and particularly the first two which overlap. But 
on the whole, the earliest Minnaean inscriptions may be dated 
at about 800 B.C., if not a little earlier. The chief centre of 
power at that time was at Qarnawah in the northern Jauf. As 
from 550 B.C., however, the centre of power in Yemen became 
shifted upwards to the middle level round the city of Maarib 
the capital of the Sabaeans. Later on, about the year 115 B.C. 
another power appeared in South Arabia. These were the so- 
called Himyarites whose accession to the power in place of the 
Sabaeans was probably due to sheer political disturbances among 
the tribes. Maarib the higher capital continued to act as the 
chief city of the Himyarites whose culture and power extended 
eastwards in the direction of the valley of Hadramaut. Many 
cities rose up at that time, but it is interesting to note that they 
were ail in the interior of South-West Arabia, and lay still in the 
rain-shadow area of the high plateau of Sanaa. Those cities re- 


EXPANSION OF THE AK ABS 


41 


presented oases which exploited the water of the streams 
descending from the high plateau, as well as the stretches of 
steppe-lands which were still rich with végétation. Maarib itself 
had a famous dam, and its gardens were well described in the 
Koran. At présent not even the restoration of the ancient dams 
would suffice to revive life in that remote interior of South¬ 
west Arabia. The Southern Jauf acted as the seat of power for 
both Sabaeans and Himyarites because it must hâve received 
more rainfall and more run-off and drainage than it does at 
présent. A change, however, in the seat of capital came with 
the arrivai of the Ethiopians in Yemen about A.D. 525. The 
invaders must hâve found the Jauf of Yemen too dry to act as 
the seat of their capital ; and the chief city of Yemen was built 
up at Sanaa on the higher level. It is interesting to note that 
this removal of the seat of power in Yemen coincided with the 
suggested date of final desiccation in northern Arabia — namely 
the end of the so-called period of classical rain-fall. It is also 
interesting to note that the toplands of Yemen above 2000 métrés 
which were singularly poor in remains of cities or inscriptions 
from the Sabaean and Himyarite periods, became the seat of 
political power in the Yemen since the days when Sanaa was 
established. The power of Islamic Yemen was always established 
on those higher top-lands, or on the western and south-western 
sides of the plateau, which received higher rainfall, because they 
faced the winds which brought rain. Cities like Sanaa, Taiz, Ib, 
Manakha etc. ail lay either in the topland area or on the windward 
side of the Yemen Plateau. Zabeed (another Islamic centre but 
on a much lower altitude) lay on the westward edge of the 
plateau, with more abundant run off brought down by torrents. 

It is feasible, therefore, to conclude that from the study of 
the location of the main centres of power and cities on the Yemen 
Plateau, there must hâve occurred a graduai onset of dry condi¬ 
tion, which led to the graduai climbing of the plateau into the 
direction of better-watered areas and levels. This conclusion is 
also supported by another piece of archaeological evid.ence which 
may be drawn from the study of the location of ancient cisterns 
as may be compared with modem ones. In areas where Sabaean 
or Himyaritic influences extended, large cisterns were built up 
usually on the surface of elevated spots. The cisterns were excep- 
tionally large, but they must hâve been filled with water in 
those days. At présent the rainfall is enough only to supply 
these cisterns with limited amounts of water, filling only their 














42 


BULLETIN DE L’INSTITUT D’EGYPTE 


bottom parts. The présent population in such areas hâve been 
obliged to dig their cisterns and waterpools at a lower level, 
usually in the centre of a natural collecting basin. A striking 
example of this shift of the place of a cistern can be seen at the 
town of Nait in north east Yemen, which was a prosperous city 
with temples and high cisterns in Sabaean and Himyarite times, 
but has now become a décadent village with a low-lying and 
unhealthy water-pool at the apex of a collecting basin. 

Historical Documents Indicating Changes of Climate: 

But apart from such archaeological évidences which strongly 
point out to the change of climate towards aridity in both 
northern and Southern Arabia, other évidences pointing into the 
same direction, may be drawn from sources of historical docu¬ 
ments or legends. These documents may be drawn from both 
Graeco-Roman and Arab sources. In fact we do possess some 
literary évidences which are mainly derived from descriptions of 
various parts of Arabia, especially the south-west, by Greek 
writers, who hâve either visited or heard about the country in 
their times. Most of these descriptions relate to what is now 
Hadramaut. To these writers, this was the country of spices 
and incenses par-excellence. Strabo (A.D. 20) speaking of its 
people says (Strabo 16,4,19), “Amongst them myrrh, frankin- 
cense and cinnamon are produced, and on the sea-coast also 
balsam and other fragrant plants, though their perfume soon 
passes away.” It is possible that some of these products may 
hâve been originally imported from Sokotra or Ethiopia, or even 
from India ; but at any rate the country does not at présent 
produce any of these plants. Moreover the valley of Hadramaut 
is described by Greek writers as being very unhealthy. The 
picture they drew of it approaches in a way what we see in 
semi-jungle valleys. This gave rise to an ancient legend, reflected 
in the name of the country itself which means death is présent. 
In other words Hadramaut was considered in a way as the valley 
of death, while at présent it is a healthy land. According to an 
early traveller’s taie, appearing in Herodotus and other writers, 
the air of Hadramaut was very much scented with the over- 
powering fragrance of incense which spread death. Diodorus 
Siculus (2, 48-9) related that even the earth exuded a sweet 
fragrance when it was dug. Another picture is given by the 
author of the Periplus of the Erythraean Sea (A.D. 80) : “The 
incense is collected by the king’s slaves, or by malefactors con- 


43 


EXPANSION OF THE ARABS 


demned to this service as punishment. The country is unhealthy 
in the extreme, pestilential even to those who sail along the 
coast, and mortal to the wretched sufferers employed in collect¬ 
ing the frankincense who perish likewise as often by want and 
neglect as by the pernicious influence of the climate. The 
country inland is mountainous and difficult in access ; the air 
is foggy, loaded with vapours caused by the noxious exhalations 
from the trees that bear the incense.” We may well deduce from 
these descriptions, however legendary in nature some of them 
may be, that the bottom of the valley of Hadramaut and the 
Coastal plains were by no means inviting for settlement, pro- 
bably by reason of malaria and other diseases caused by stagnant 
waters. This is supported by the fact that the most important 
of the archaeological remains of the country corne from the 
western and upper stretches of the valley. In this district lies 
the ancient capital of Shabwah, in the arid plateau area between 
Yemen and Hadramaut, unlike the modem towns of Shibam, 
Saioun and Tareem which lie in the middle and lower parts of 
the valley where subterranean waters still make garden irriga¬ 
tion possible. It may be safe to deduce that the dryness of 
climate which took place sometime during post Graeco-Roman 
times led to an amelioration in the hygienic conditions, especially 
in the middle and lower parts of the valley of Hadramaut. At 
the same time, however, the desiccation of climate gradually had 
a disastrous effect upon the incense production of the country. 
This happened at a time when demand for this commodity in 
the Roman world was steadily increasing, owing to the spread of 
Christianity and particularly after its récognition, in the fourth 
century A.D., as the official religion of the empire. The need for 
more incense was also felt in the Syrian and Nestorian 
churches, which were associated with monastic activity on the 
edge of the drying deserts of northern Arabia. The failure of 
the produce of Hadramaut and the Southern coasts of Arabia, as 
well as Sokotra and Somaliland, to satisfy the growing needs of 
the north, seems to hâve induced the Arabs to expand by sea 
and look for supplementary amounts of incense and spices pro¬ 
duced in other countries round the Arabian sea. 

But Graeco-Roman sources are not alone in indicating pos- 
sibilities of climatic changes. Arab sources, though written at a 
much later date, contain references to early and pre-Islamic 
conditions of better rainfall in some parts of Arabia. Legends 
about famous poets and knights speak of the facility with which 
















44 


BULLETIN DE L'INSTITUT D’EGYPTE 


they could roam about Arabian deserts. Umru’ul-Qays, the 
legendary hero and poet of pre-Islamic times started most pro- 
bably in the Ahqaf région north-west of Hadramaut and was able 
to reach the confines of Anatolia. The so-called Period of 
Ignorance in Arabia was also marked with wide tribal movements 
and migrations, which may safely be taken as an indication of 
unsettled climatic conditions. It is interesting to note that it 
has become proverbial amongst the Arabs that Yemen was the 
cradle-land of the Arabian tribes, and that Iraq with its well- 
irrigated plains became their graveyard. We know that the 
tribes of Azd, Qudaah and others had migrated from eastern 
Yemen across Southern Najd to the Hasa area on the Arabian 
(Persian) Gulf, where they settled for a while before moving on 
to the borders of Iraq and Syria. 

It is of course quite likely that the break of the famous dam 
of Maarib some time between 440 and 450 A.D. led to large-scale 
migrations from the vicinity of that ancient town ; but it is v.ery 
likely that the migrations started at least a century or two 
earlier owing to the graduai onset of drier conditions. Such 
aridity would affect not only the area irrigated by the dam, but 
the whole of the interior of Yemen with its floral wealth. But 
even after the tribes which moved from south Arabia had settled 
on both sides of the fertile crescent bordering the Syrian 
desert, conditions seem to hâve continued to become increasingly 
drier than before. This was reflected in the intensification of 
warlike habits and hostilities among the tribes of Arabia for the 
commanding of pastures and watering places. Also among the 
customs which the Arabs of the Period of Ignorance (before 
the appearance of Islam) developed and which Islam prohibited, 
was the killing of girl-descendants. We understand from the 
Koran that this was not just done “for fear of shame,” but rather 
for “fear of dearth.” Conditions in pre-Islamic Arabia seem to 
hâve been gradually approaching a climatic crisis which took 
place early in the 6th century A.D. This is referred to in the 
legendary accounts preserved in the writings of some Arab 
historians of later times, such as Masudi (vol. I) of the lOth 
century A.D. Amongst these is the story of a “very old man” 
from Hirah (near the modem Karbalaa) who gives the following 
narrative in the year A.D. 632 : “During the early day of my 
life, any woman from among the people of Hira could traverse 
the country to Syria on her own... She passes by a string of 
settlements and a succession of streams and fruit-bearing trees. 


i 


EXPANSION OF THE ARABS 45 


until she arrives at her destination quite safe. Look ! how every- 
thing has changed ! and how desert prevails everywhere !” 

Other Environroeatal Factors Affecting the Expansion of Arabs. 

From the above survey we may well s.ee that the expansion 
of the Arabs both by land and by sea was affected by a climatic 
change which led to graduai aridity during the few centuries 
preceding the appearance of Islam ; the crisis reaching its climax 
some time about 500 A.D. The evidence, archaeological and 
otherwise, for the onset of this aridity is too strong to be over- 
looked. It would be misleading, however, to think that desicca- 
tion was the only factor affecting the movement of spread from 
Arabia, or that it was even the only natural factor which affected 
this movement. The geographical situation of the Arabian penin- 
sula was in itself a particularly important factor. Arabia differed 
from a peninsula like that of India in the fact that it was a land 
of passage and not a terminal peninsula of Asia. Space-relation- 
ships between Arabia and both Africa on the one hand, and the 
rest of the Asiatic continent on the other, greatly facilitated the 
outward movement of the Arabs. The picture which is usually 
drawn of the Arab movement of .expansion is that the bédouins 
of Arabia preferred to spread by land. A deeper insight into the 
history of Arab expansion, however, brings forward the impor¬ 
tant fact that the Arabs had spread by sea as much as they did 
by land. The Arabian éléments of the Arabian (Persian) Gulf 
were in fact the ancestors of the Phoenicians — for it has now 
become évident that these latter may hâve risen on the shores of 
that gulf. The mariners of the Southern coasts of Arabia and 
Hadramaut were well acquainted with navigation in the Arabian 
Sea and Indian Océan at a particularly early date. It is rather 
interesting that mariners from the coasts of Oman spread mostly 
towards the Zandj (negro) coasts of Africa, while the people of 
Hadramaut (Phoenicians of the Southern seas) spread eastwards 
as far as the south-east corner of Asia. In this way the people 
and cultures of the eastern and Southern coasts of Arabia became 
deeply connected with maritime activity in the Indian Océan. 
Thus we may well see that while the space-relationships of 
northern Arabia encouraged the spread by land, maritime condi¬ 
tions in the east and south encouraged expansion by sea. This 
was perhaps why Islam as a new religion had the opportunity 
of spreading into the three directions of east, west and south. 
The existence of the mountain chains of Anatolia in the north. 











BULLETIN UE L’INSTITUT D’EGYPTE 


EXPANSION OF THE ARABS 


47 


46 


and the fact that they extended from east to west, repr.esented 
a barrier which prevented the Arabs from freely expanding in a 
northerly direction. It is interesting to note that Armenia which 
lay to the extreme north of the chains maintained its Christian 
character to the présent day. It is also significant to note that 
Islam was carried into the heart of Anatolia and beyond towards 
the Balkans not by the Arabs but by the Osmanli Turks who 
were converted to Islam and carried it during their spread west- 
wards along the main line of the chains. 

The geographical situation of Arabia also was an important 
natural factor which helped the movement of spread. It is 
interesting that Arabia was not an island surrounded cr even a 
peninsula entirely skirted on one side by the waters of the sea. 
If the Mediterranean were linked either to the Red Sea or to 
the Arabian (Persian) Gulf, it would hâve been possible for the 
people of the west to join hands with those of the south and south 
east without passing over a land-bridge in Arabia. The existence 
of this land-bridge meant that no connection or intercourse be- 
tween east and west could be established without the Arabs and 
their land taking part in it. It fell to the people of Arabia to 
play the part of intermediaries since times immémorial. This 
made them acquainted with their neighbours both in adjacent 
areas and in territories far away by land or by sea. When the 
time came for the Arabs to spread from their peninsula and take 
the new religion with them, their task was greatly facilitated by 
the existence of a long tradition of early contacts. 

Another factor pertaining to the environment of Arabia and 
also affecting the movement of outburst and expansion is 
p f erhaps the appearance of the breed of the Arab horse. So far 
as is known there is no definite information as to the exact date 
of the introduction of this new and vigorous ally of the tribesman 
into the heart of Arabia. But it is almost certain that such an 
introduction could not hâve taken place at the same time as the 
animal was brought to the fertile plains of the Crescent and 
Egypt (where it came as an ally of the Hyksos about 1700 B.C.). 
The horse is essentially an animal of the rich pasture lands ; and 
it must hâve taken a comparatively long time to breed the new 
“Arab” type, which could stand more seyere conditions of 
draught. But in any case, it is almost certain that by the early 
centuries of the Christian era, the Arab breed had fully evolved. 
The fact that the famous civil war of “Dahis” and “Ghabraa” 
between two of the most powerful tribes of pre-Islamic Arabia, 


and which is said to hâve lasted for 40 years, was called after 
the names of a horse and a mare, is no w.eak evidence that the 
horse must hâve played an important part in the disturbances 
of the “Period of Ignorance”. It is true that the horse remained 
always as a luxury animal within Arabia, and that it never super- 
seded the camel ; but its existence provided the bédouin with 
a strong ally in his struggle to dominate the settled plains. 

Non-Envirommental Factors Affecting the Expansion of the Arabs: 

We should not, however, limit our analysis of the factors 
affecting the expansion of the Arabs to the natural and environ- 
mental sphere. There can be no doubt that this great movement 
was also influenced by other factors which did not belong to 
their changing environment. These factors had a spécial effect 
upon the movement of outburst, though they did not always 
work in one or the same direction. Amongst these factors spécial 
emphasis must be laid upon the appearance of Islam. It is 
particularly significant that the outburst from Arabia, which 
followed upon the appearance of Islam differed drastically in 
its effects upon neighbouring civilizations from the earlier out- 
bursts of the Semitic éléments from Arabia, or still more from 
the devastating outbursts which took place at various times from 
the steppe-land of Inner Asia, since the days of the Huns down 
to those of the Tartars and Monguls. We know from history that 
whatever may hâve been the reasons for the outward movement 
which took place from the steppe into the sown (whether they 
were climatic pulsations or not), the resuit was nearly always 
the dévastation of settled life on the conquered plains. The 
movement of the Arabs in early Islamic times had totally dif¬ 
ferent results. It must be recognised that the new religion gave 
the bédouins a new message and a spiritual outlook which sub- 
dued their temptations and ferocity. They had something to 
offer to the lands and peoples around them. At the same time 
the conflict which they had to face during the initial stages of 
their expansion in the Near East was not a particularly severe 
one. We must remember that the appearance of Christianity, 
the religion based upon love, had prepared the ground for the 
acceptance of the new creed of Islam, based upon brotherhood. 
Actually the Christian éléments in northern Arabia and in Egypt, 
for example, did not find it difficult to shift over from Christiani¬ 
ty to Islam, which after ail, had many things in common. At 
the same time the liberal attitude of Islam which preached 


48 


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EXPANSION OF THE AKABS 


49 


equality between “Arab” and “non-Arab” had the double effect 
of subduing and taming the tribesmen, and of inducing the non- 
Arab to join into the common life of Islam. We are therefore 
led to the conclusion that although environmental factors, such 
as the changing climate or the appearance of the Arab breed of 
the horse, might hâve led to a ferocious outburst from Arabia, 
the situation was entirely changed by the appearance of Islam. 
This new creed which gave the Arabs further enthusiasm and 
impulse to carry the message into the outer world, was at the 
same time a most helpful factor which tamed the conquerors and 
saved the heart of the ancient world from the usual effects of an 
uncontrolled turmoil. 

But there was another human and historical factor which 
affected the movement of the Arabs. We must remember thaï 
the Arabs were preceded in the Near East by two other peoples 
who dominatd the heart of the ancient world — namely the 
Romans (and Byzantines) and the Persians. The former had a 
great empire in the west, which endeavoured to establish strong 
and fruitful commercial relations with the Central East including 
India and innermost Asia. Greek and other mariners joined 
hands with Arab traders and mariners to carry on a vast and 
prosperous trade b.etween the Roman empire and India. This 
trade had to pass through Arabia where caravans became busy 
carrying goods from coast to coast. Also Arab mariners from 
the eastern and Southern coasts took an increasingly active part 
in the maritime trade. Another route of trade was the famous 
silk-route which went by land from the coasts of the Mediter- 
ranean through northern Arabia to the north of Ancient Persia, 
and yonder to Turkistan and the borders of China. A number 
of caravan routes crossed Arabia in different directions in order 
to serve the maritime routes as well as the silk-route. It is 
perhaps interesting to mention the famous route of Hidjaz which 
provided livelihood as well as great riches to the tribe of Qureish 
which commanded Mekka. Another route came from Qateef on 
the coasts of the Arabian (Persian) Gulf and crossed Nejd and 
the Nefud desert to Taimaa where it joined the route of Hidjaz. 
Later on this latter route was superseded by one which started 
from Charax Spasinu at the head of the Gulf and skirted the 
Nefud desert to Petra and the Gaza coast. Some time about the 
3rd century A.D. the routes of Qateef and Charax were abandoned 
in favour of a newer and more northerly ones which started 
from Hira to Bostra, Damascus and Palmyra Crossing the middle 







and northern parts of the Syrian desert. We hâve already men- 
tioned at an earlier stage that this northerly shift of the routes 
may hâve been at least partly due to graduai desiccation in the 
Southern parts of the Syrian desert. But in spite of the shifts 
in the routes, there can be no doubt that the land trade which 
crossed Arabia represented a substantially important source of 
livelihood for the Arabs. When Rome fell in the 5th century 
A.D., it was superseded in the field of trade by Byzantium. The 
Arabs continued to draw great benefits as intermediaries between 
the two enemies — the Byzantine Romans and the Persians. 
They also continued to work as mariners and caravan leaders for 
the rich trade of India. We may well imagine that whatever 
may hâve been the conséquences of the desiccation, which started 
in a serious way about the 3rd century A.D. and perhaps reached 
its présent day intensity about the early sixth century A.D., the 
effect of this desiccation became more or less nullified by the 
temporary prosperity drawn from trade and transport. Instead 
of depending entirely upon grazing and little cultivation around 
wells, a large section of the bédouin population of Arabia was 
engaged in the activity of transport and trade between east and 
west. In fact, trade seems to hâve more than compensated for 
the impoverishment of the environment. The resuit was that 
the outburst from the desert was delayed as long as the income 
from trade and transportation was maintained. 

The trade of the Romans and Byzantines, however, was 
destined to décliné. The great wars between the Byzantines and 
the Persians weakened both sides and led to a decrease in their 
purchasing power. At the same time the latter part of the 6th 
century A.D. seems to hâve witnessed new changes in the trade 
policy of the Byzantines. The emperor Justinian (A.D. 527-565) 
is known to hâve made a spécial effort to develop the sea-route 
of the Red Sea through Ethiopia, in order to establish contacts 
with the Indian Océan without passing through Arabia, where 
trade might be controlled by the Persians. He made a similar 
effort in order to develop a route from the Black Sea, north of 
the Caspian, into Central Asia and on to the borders of China. Such 
changes in the trade policy of the Byzantines must hâve affected 
the vital source of the tradesmen of Arabia. The delaying effect 
which trade and transportation had upon the necessary and pre- 
ordained outburst from the desert was thus nearing its end. 

Finally we must not forget the purely political issue and the 
conséquent military factor. The existence of the two great 




50 BULLETIN DE L’INSTITUT D'EG1'PTE 


powers of the Byzantines and the Persians flanking Arabia on 
both sides, represented a décisive factor of containment for the 
Arabs, who had no military strength that could equal either side. 

The Arabs could not possibly expand outwards as long as the 
two empires were strong enough to contain them into their 
desert homeland. The two great powers, however, went on with 
their suicidai struggle which continued during several centuries. 

The final resuit of such a struggle was doomed to lead to the 
weakening of both giants. The Arabs of those times were the 
only people who could hâve benefited from the fatal struggle of 
the two traditional enemies ; gradually the two empires became 
too w.eak to go any further with the fight or even to defend their 
own frontiers. The new faith gave the Arabs the freshness and 
strength of spiritual impulse, and they were soon to réalisé that 
they were the natural trustées of power in the Near East. When 
the time came, they overran the Persian empire and became 
masters of the best parts of the empire of the Byzantines. 

Summary and Conclusions: 

From this broad survey of the movement of the expansion 
of the Arabs which took place in the early Islamic phase, we 
may well see that this important historical phenomenon was not 
by any means a simple one. Rather was it a complex feature 
which could only be properly explained if we take into considéra¬ 
tion a number of natural and human factors. The weight of 
evidence seems to point to the conclusion that a climatic change 
led to the onset of graduai aridity as from the 3rd century A.D., i 

until the crisis reached its climax some three centuries later. 

Evidences for this aridity may be drawn from archaeological, as 
well as historical data. The change could not hâve been quanti- 
tatively significant, as Arabia was already in an arid and semi- 
arid région. Indeed the quantitative change in rainfall could 
best be traced in south-west Arabia which was always a more 
rainy plateau. The desiccation which took place had its natural 
effects upon the life of the bédouins of Arabia. Civil wars be- 
tween the trib.es in this “Period of Ignorance” (before Islam) 
represented the natural outcome of increasing aridity. Also 
migrations took place from one part of Arabia to another ; but 
the main movement of outburst was delayed until the seventh 
century A.D. Delaying action was due chiefly to human factors. 

For some time the two empires of the Persians and Byzantines 
were too strong to allow the bédouins to encroach deep into 


EXPANSION OF TUE AKABS 51 


the settled lands. For political and military reasons the Arabs 
were contained into their deserts. Perhaps the sea outlet was 
the only gateway left free. At the same time the prosperity of 
trade through Arabia compensâted for the dryness of climate. 
Indeed this represented a period of prosperity for at least some 
sections of the bédouin community of Arabia. Those who 
engaged themselves in trade and transportation drew great bene- 
fits from this crucial rôle. But prosperity of trade was naturally 
linked to the prosperity of the consumers especially in the 
markets of the Mediterranean world. When wars between the 
Byzantines and the Persians led to decrease in the amount of 
trade and déviation from the routes of Arabia, the delaying 
action of the trade upon the outburst from Arabia was neanng 
its end. At the same time political weakness of the two adjommg 
empires came soon after the appearance of the new creed. The 
stage was ready for the people of Arabia to take over the leader¬ 
ship of the heart of the ancient world. Islam came as a sub- 
duing and civilizing element, which rendered the movement of 
expansion both constructive and humane. In this respect both 
Christians and Muslims in the Arab East seem to hâve joined 
hands. There was little conflict between the two religions which 
were based upon love and fraternity. Even during later phases 
Islam which benefited partly by political conquests of the Arabs, 
was never permanently linked in its spread to the military 
strength of the Arabs. From the Southern and eastern shores 
of Arabia the new creed spread far and wide through simple and 
peaceful methods of proselytism by mariners and traders. Even 
in central and eastern Asia, Islam spread chiefly during the 
Mongul phase which coincided with military weakness of the 
Arabs. In fact the new creed, once it reached beyond the borders 
of Arabia, became a world religion which spread under varying 
circumstances by land and by sea. The expansion of the Arabs 
gave birth to a movement which led ultimately to the world 
community of Islam. Thus the expansion of the Arabs repre¬ 
sented a phenomenon which had its roots long before the advent 
of Islam, but did not bear its full fruits until long after the 
appearance of the new creed. 

REFERENCES 

Blanchard, R. (1929): “Asie Occidentale,” in the Sériés of txéogra- 
phie Universelle, T. VIII, 1ère partie, Paris. 

Brooks, C.E.P. (1925): “The Evolution of Climate, London 
Brooks, C.E.P. (1931): “Changes of Climate m the World Dmnn_g 
Historié Times,” in Quarterly Jour, of the R. Meteor. Soc., Y. a/. 


52 


BULLETIN DE L’INSTITUT D’EGYPTE 


Caetani, L. (1905) : “Annali dellTslam,” Vol. I. 1905. 

Caetani, L. (1911) : “Studi di Storia orientale,” Vol. I. 

Chariesworth, M.P. (1924) : “Trade Routes and Commerce of the 
Roman Empire,” Cambridge. 

Glotz, G.; Roussel, P. et Cohen, R. (1938): “Alexand-e et Thelléni- 
sation du monde antique.” 1ère partie, “Alexandre et le démem¬ 
brement de son Empire/’ Paris, les Presses Universitaires de 
Rrance. 

Hermann, A. (1922) : “Die Verkehrswege zwischen China, Indien 
und Rom, um 100 nach Chr. Geb.”, Leipzig. 

Hudson, G.F. (1931): “Europe and China: A Survey r»f Their Rela¬ 
tions frcm the Earliest Times to 1800,” London, *931. 

Huntington, E. (1907): “The Puise of Asia,” Boston. 

Huntington, E. (1911) : “Palestine and Its Transformation/' Cambr. 

Huzayyin, S.A. (1934) : “Le rôle du milieu dans la diffusion religieu¬ 
se vers TOrient à travers la Haute-Asie,” Compte rendu de la 
première session, Congrès International des Sciences Anthropo¬ 
logiques et Ethnologiques, London, pp. 304-305. 

Huzayyin, S.A. (1934 & 1937) : “Les villes septentrionales de l'Orient 
arabe : leur distribution géographique,” in Bulletin of the Faculty 
of Arts, University of Egypt, Vol. Il, part II, Cairo 1934, pp. 170- 
175; also pub. in Comptes rendus du Congrès International de 
Géographie, Varsovie, T. III, Varsovie 1937, pp. 250-254. 

Huzayyin, S.A. (1935 & 1938) : “Changement historique du climat 
et du paysage de l’Arabie du Sud,” in Bulletin of the Faculty 
of Arts, University of Egypt, Vol. III, Part I, Cairo 1935, pp. 
19-23 ; also pub. in Comptes rendus du Congrès International de 
Géographie, Varsovie, T. TV, Varsovie 1938, pp. 39-43. 

Huzayyin, S.A. (1937): “Egyptian University Scientific Expédition 
to S.YV. Arabia,” in Nature, Sept. 18, p. 513-514. 

Huzayyin, S.A. (1942) : “Arabia and the Far East : Their Commercial 
and Cultural Relations in Graeco-Roman and Irano-Arabian 
Times,” Publications of the Geographical Society of Egypt. 
Cairo, (319 pages). 

Mas'udi (or Al-Mas’udi) (1861-77): “Murudj al-Dthahab... etc/’ or 
“Les Prairies d’Or et les Mines de Pierres Précieuses/' Arabie 
text and French translation (on the same page), by C.B. de 
Meynard et P. de Courteille, 9 tomes, Paris. 

Musil, A. (1928): “Northern Negd, a Topographica! Itinerary,” in 
the Oriental Explorations and Studies, No. 5, pub. by the Am. 
Geographical Society, New York,. 

O’Leary, De Lacy (1927) : “Arabia Before Muhammad,” London. 

Sadek, D.A. (1955) : “The Ancient Syrian Desert Routes, a Historico- 
Geographical Study,” Annals of the Faculty of Arts, Ain Shams 
Univ., Cairo, Vol. III, pp. 197-208. 

Teggart, F.G. (1939): “Rome and China: A Study of Corrélations 
in Historical Events,” The China Review, or Notes and Queries 
on the Far East (China and Japan), Hong-Kong. 

Warmington, E.H. (1928): “The Commerce Between the Roman 
Empire and India,” Cambridge. 

Wilson, A.T. (1928) : “The Persian Gulf,” Oxford. 


PETROLOGICAL STUDY OF PRE-CAMBRIAN 
MINOR INTRUSIVE ROCKS IN THE 
NEIGHBOURHOOD OF ASWAN ( ) 


by 

R!AD A. H1GAZY, Ph.D. (Chicago), D.Sc. (Edïn.) 

and 

HUSSEIN WASFY, B.Sc. 

ABSTRACT 

The pre-Cambrian minor intrusive rocks in the neighoour- 
bood of Aswan are either leucocratic or melanocratic. The leuco- 
cratic types are mainly microgranite and granophyre. The 
melanocratic minor intrusives are basalts and lamprophyres. 
Basalts are more abundant than lamprophyres and they are 
composed of plagioclase with either augite or hornblende. The 
lamprophyres are represented by plagioclase-biotite (kersantite), 
plagioclase-barkevikitic hornblende (camptonite), and augite- 
rich (monchiquite) varieties. Bostonites and spessartites are also 
présent but they are relatively rare. 

The Chemical composition of the basaltic rocks is similar to 
that of the Whin Sill magma and differs from that of each of 
the analysed camptonite and nonchiquite. The fractional crystal- 
lisation of a basaltic magma is responsible for the formation of 
the plagioclase-augite, and plagioclase-hornblende basaltic rocks. 
The latter types originated during relative concentration of 
water and thus hornblende separated from the differentiating 
magma instead of augite. The lamprophyres hâve diversified 
mineralogical constitution and peculiar geochemical features 
which cannot be explained by the assumption that they develop 
from fractional crystallisation of parental basaltic magma. They 
rather formed tnrough metasomatic reactions taking place be¬ 
tween sialic rocks and the basaltic magma. The sialic reactants 


(1) Communication présentée en séance du G février 1956. 














54 


BULLETIN DE L’INSTITUT D’EGYITE 


in case of kersantite ; camptonite ; and monchiquite were granité 
or gneiss ; granodiorite ; and diorite or plagioclase-hornblende- 
quartz schist respectively. 


STATEMENT OF PROBLEM 

The origin of the pre-Cambrian minor intrusive rocks in the 
Eastern Desert has not so far b.èen considerëd' in detail by 
authors dealing with these rocks. Their chief types are of 
basaltic and/or lamprophyric natures. The petrogenesis of the 
latter types is of spécial interest to petrologists since it is still a 
mat ter ofcontroversy. 

The présent paper is an investigation of the mode of forma¬ 
tion of the minor intrusive rocks exposed in the neighbourhood 
of Aswan, which include varieties of lamprophyric rocks, namely, 
monchiquite, camptonite and kersantite. 


GENERAL DISTRIBUTION AND CLASSIFICATION 

Pre-Cambrian minor intrusive rocks are very widely dis- 
tributed in many régions of the Eastern Desert in the form of 
dykes cutting the crystalline basement rocks (Hume, 1935 p. 484- 
580). They are of various composition and texture and the basic 
types are generally more abundant than the acidic. Schurmann 
(1953, p. 126-127) named 31 different dyke rocks cutting Gat- 
tarian granités in the Eastern Desert. These rocks are chiefly 
porphyries, porphyrites and lamprophyres. Attia (1948, p. 35-38) 
described dykes cutting granités in the Barramiya District (be- 
tween latitudes 25° 3’ and 25° 10’ N., and longitudes 33° 40’ and 
34° 5’ E.) composed .essentially of plagioclase feldspar, brown 
biotite and other altered ferromagnesian minerais which he 
classified as andésites. Attia (1948, p. 37) also described an 
augite andésite porphyry as well as haematised andésite por- 
phyry from this région. Pre-Cambrian post granitic dykes in 
the Atud District are classified by Amin, Sabet and Mansour 
(1953, p. 55) as : 

1. Basic, including basalts and dolerites, 

2. intermediate, including andésites and porphyrites, 

3. acidic, including porphyries, granophyres and 

4. lamprophyres, including spessartite and camptonite. 


XTUDY <>K 1*RE - (’AMBItlAN MINOU INTRUSIVE ROCKS 


55 


The post granitic dykes described by Amin, Mansour, Ka- 
besh and El-Far (1953, p. 30-35) from the Naba District and 
those studied by Amin, Moustafa and Zaatout (1954) from Abu 
Diab District, are similar to (a) those of the Atud District (Amin, 
Sabet and Mansour, 1953) outlined above and (b) those of Gebel 
El-Ineigi District recently described by Moustafa, Kabesh and 
Abdulla (1955). Andrew in (Hume 1935, p. 679-684) gives the 
occurrence and description of bostonites and camptonites in the 
Eastern Desert and illustrated their main petrographical cha- 
racters by microphotographs. 

The dyke rocks of the studied Aswan District were examined 
by Bail (1907) who classified them as follows : 

1. Quartz felsite, 

2. syenite porphyry, 

3. enstatite porphyrite, 

4. mica-diabase and 

5. basait. 

Thus, Bail (1907) did not recognise the lamprophyres of 
Aswan District described later by Andrew (in Hume, 1935). El- 
Shazly (1954) in his outline of the rocks of Aswan mentioned 
that andésites and lamprohyres, chiefly represented by campto¬ 
nites and bostonites, constitute the dykes in the area under 
considération. 

The writers classify the dykes of Aswan into two main types 
on the basis of their colour : 

1. leucocratic dykes and 

2. melanocratic dykes. 

The general distribution of these dykes is shown in Plate 1. 

The leucocratic types are. chiefly (i) microgranite and 
(ii) granophyre encountered at Gebel Tabyet El-Sheikh and 
Gebel Ibrahim Pasha respectively. 

The melanocratic dykes are widely distributed in the area. 
They are either black, dark green or dark reddish brown in 
colour. They vary in thickness from 10 cms. to a few métrés ; 
dykes approximately 75 cm. in thickness are common. They may 
reach several hundred métrés in length and show various 
degrees of alteration. They are vertical and do not differ much 
in their trend. The common trend of most of the dykes is E-W, 
to NE.SW. similar to other dykes investigated by Schürmann 
south of the Hurghada-Quena road and in places in Sinai, for 

















instance, Gebel Serbal and around Gebel Um Shomer (Schür- 
mann 1953, p. 126-127). Boss-like masses are présent in places 
in the district, for example, near the old golf course (see Plate 1). 
Sériés of a f.ew dykes with parallel trend and separated by a few 
yards can also be encountered. Dyke rocks are more abundant 
in the Aswan district north of the latitude of Mahata village 
than to its south. Moreover, the westenn part of the district is 
relatively richer in these dykes than its eastern part. 

The melanocratic dyke rocks can be satisfactorily classified 
into : 

(i) Plagioclase-hornblende dyke rocks, 

(ii) plagioclase-augite dyke rocks, 

(iii) plagioclase-biotite dyke rocks, 

(iv) plagioclase-barkevikitic hornblende dyke rocks, and 

(v) augite-rich dyke rocks. 

These dykes eut ail the other types of rocks in the area 
except the Nubian Sandstone which overlies them. Their âge, 
therefore, is Late pre-Cambrian. It is noticeable that basic dykes 
cutting granités are more abundant than those traversing the 
schists, wh.ereas, pegmatites are more plentiful in the latter. In 
places basic dykes can be observed cutting both the schists and 
granités without any discernible change in their trend in both 
types. It should be mentioned that the basic dykes eut the 
pegmatite and are traversed by lamprophyric dykes. The rela¬ 
tively oldest types are, therefore, the basic intrusives. 


PETROGRAPHY 


The leucocratic dyke rocks are pink in colour and composed 
essentially of feldspars and quartz intergrown in a distinct micro¬ 
graphie texture in the latter. The microgranite possesses sub- 
hedral crystals of orthoclase and plagioclase with the former pre- 
dominating. Both feldspars are partially altered to kaolin and 
sericite. It contains dark specks of reddish brown ferriferous 
material which is seemingly derived after the alteration of an 
original ferromagnesian minerai. Quartz is présent in the inter- 
stitial spaces between the feldspars. Flakes of chlorite showing 
pleochroism with X — pale gr.eenish yellow, Y = Z = pale green 
are sporadically distributed in the rock. Apatite is présent in 
idiomorphic crystals reaching 0.48 mm. in length. The grano- 


STUDY OF PKK - O AMBU I AN MINOU INTRUSIVK ROCKS 


57 


phyre, however, is composed essentially of orthoclase and quartz 
but does not contain ferromagnesian constituants. 

The mineralogical compositions of the melanocratic dyke 
rocks are represented in Table 1. It can be seen that they are 
chiefly composed of plagioclase and one or more of the ferroma¬ 
gnesian minerais, namely, biotite, hornblende and augite. In 
rare cases, orthoclase may accompany plagioclase in the rock. 
The plagioclase-hornblende, as well as the plagioclase-augite 
dykes, are principally of basaltic nature. Instantly, they possess 
porphyritic texture with phenocrysts of plagioclase Ab 4r ,An- ( , and 
thus can be satisfactorily classified as porphyrites. However, the 
rocks which possess biotite or barkevikite-hornblende as their 
chief ferromagnesian constituent are of lamprophyric nature 
since they display panidiomorphic texture characteristic for this 
group. Dyke rocks showing a combination of lamprophyric and 
basaltic characters are also represented. The accessory minerais 
which are occasionally met with in ail these types are either 
quartz or olivine. Iron ores and apatite are ubiquitous and are 
sometimes found in relatively high proportions. 

(i) Plagioclase-hornblende dyke rocks. 

The dyke rocks which are composed essentially of plagio¬ 
clase and hornblende are the most frequent types. They are 
exposed in many places in the district, for instance, approximately 
300 métrés south west of the English Cemetery, northern end of 
Gebel Bas, and in the old golf course. They are dark, fine- 
grained rocks and do not show vesicles or amygdales. Micro- 
scopically they are holocrystalline, commonly nonporphyritic and, 
in places, show subtrachytic texture produced by the sheaf ar¬ 
rangement of their plagioclase crystals. Their essential consti¬ 
tuées are plagioclase and hornblende. Plagioclase crystals are 
subhedral with an average length of 0.64 mm. and form appro¬ 
ximately 50 per cent of the modal composition of the rock. They 
show slight greyish turbidity and their composition is Ab 4:i - 5; -; 
An--..,- . Both Carlsbad and albite twinnings are common but 
zoning was not observed in any of the crystals. A subophitic 
texture is occasionally produced by the intergrowth of plagio¬ 
clase and hornblende. Hornblende is bluish green in colour 
with X - yellowish green, Y = Z = pale bluish green, Z A C 17°. 
It, forms on the Average 40 per cent of the modal composition 
of the rock and occasionally forms clusters. It shows partial 
alteration to uralite or chlorite. In places, the central portion 


















58 


BULLETIN DE E’INSTTTT T D'EGYPTE 


of the hornblende crystal has a black colour due to the pr.esence 
of very minute grains of iron oxides formed as products of its 
alteration. Relies of augite within the hornblende crystals are 
instantly observed indicating that the latt.er might hâve been 
derived after the former. Biotite in these rocks is an accessory 
constituent. It is brown in colour with X = yellow, Y = Z = 
dark brown and occasionally borders hornblende. Iron ores re- 
pr.esented by both magnetite and ilmenite are présent in rela- 
tively high amounts reaching approximately 7 per cent of the 
modal composition of the various studied dykes of this type. 
Apatite in very small needles is a sporadic minor accessory. 

In places, there are dykes which, in general, are similar to 
those described above and having plagioclase and hornblende as 
their essential constituents but they show a few pétrographie 
features worthy of notice. A dyke exposed south of Mahata 
village contains a considérable amount of pleochroic green 
chlorite with X = pale yellowish green, Y = Z — green. It has 
a positive élongation and exhibits ultrablue interférence colours 
characteristic of penninite. This minerai appears to be formed 
after the alteration of hornblende. Another dyke occurring in 
the old golf course contains appréciable amount of epidote after 
hornblende. There are dykes in the same area (old golf course) 
which possess porphyritic structure with phenocrysts of plagio¬ 
clase Ab 5ü An 50 embedded in a ground-mass composed of both 
plagioclase and hornblende. These porphyritic dykes show 
megascopically phenocrysts of white feldspar ranging in length 
between 0.48 and 1.76 mm. (Fig. 1). They are often engulfed by 
the ground-mass matrix material which is composed of fine 
grains of hornblende, biotite and plagioclase as well as iron ores. 

(ii) Plagioclase-augite dyke rocks. 

The essential constituents of the plagioclase-augite intrusives 
are plagioclase Ab 50 An 50 and pyroxenes represented frequently 
by augite and less commonly by augite and hypersthene. The 
other ferromagnesian constituents, namely, biotite and horn¬ 
blende may also be found. The représentative rock of this group 
exposed at the road to Mina Sharky is composed of fresh plagio¬ 
clase containing abundant veinlets of deuteric limonitic material 
derived from the alteration of the ferromagnesian constituents. 
The order of abundance of these minerais is biotite, augite and 
hornblende, Biotite is dark brown in colour and may show 
bleaching. Augite is purplish grey with Z A c 35°. It exhibits 


STUDY OF PRE - CAMBRIAN MINOU INTRUSIVE ROCKS 


59 


hour glass structure and is accompanied by r.elatively small 
amount of hypersthene which distinctly shows pleochroism from 
pinkish to green colours and displays schillerisation. Both these 
pyroxene members often hâve reaction rims of green fibrous 
hornblende which may in turn be surrounded by dark brown 
biotite. The pyroxenes may, in places, be replaced entirely by 
secondary alteration products of calcite, chlorite, haematite and 
limonite. Bastite pseudomorphs after pyroxene may also be en- 
countered. Quartz is a rare accessory constituent and is présent 
in the interstitial spaces between the other minerais. Apatite 
in rather long prismatic crystals is relatively abundant. Besides, 
magnetite and ilmenite are présent as minor accessories. 
Another représentative dyke of this group is exposed in El-Hesa 
Island. Augite, biotite and hornblende form 50, 0.5 per cent 
respectively of the modal composition of this rock. The optical 
properties of the constituent minerais and the general petro- 
graphical features are essentially the same as those given in 
connection with the dyke previously described. Southwest of 
the Ancient Quarries there is a plagioclase-augite dyke rock 
exhibiting ophitic texture and is composed of approximately 
equal proportions of plagioclase Ab 50 An 50 and pinkish grey 
augite. Augite is occasionally surrounded by dark brown to 
black material due to corrosion and reaction with the magma 
during consolidation. It alters to minute granular material 
formed of calcite, limonite and haematite. The rock also contains 
yellowish serpentine pseudomorphs after olivine. These pseudo¬ 
morphs are accompanied by very fine carbonate material and do 
not include magnetite veinlets. Biotite in small flakes, abundant 
magnetite grains and rare apatite laths, are présent. There are 
also a few amygdales filled with calcite. This rock can be 
satisfactorily classified as basait. 

(in) Plaigioidaise-biotit© dyke rocks. 

In the plagioclase biotite minor intrusives biotite is présent 
in appréciable amounts and may reach 70 per cent of the modal 
composition of the rock being more abundant than the other 
essential constituent minerai, namely, plagioclase. Biotite may 
be accompanied by hornblende or by both hornblende and augite. 
Dykes of this group are exposed at El-Hesa Island, approximate¬ 
ly 200 métrés north Khor Umm Buweirat, at approximately 600 
métrés north west of the aerodrome, and near the old golf course. 













60 


BULLETIN DE (/INSTITUT D’EGYPTE 


They are dark brown in colour and very fine-grained. Micro- 
scopically they are holocrystalline and their plagioclase has the 
composition Ab 45 . 00 An il5 . RI) . Orthoclase may also be présent but is 
notably less abundant than plagioclase. Biotite is dark brown 
in colour and may show various degrees of bleaching. It may 
be présent in cases in the form of clusters and may reach 70 
per cent of the total modal composition of certain dykes, for 
instance, those exposed south of Gebel Tegog and at the Southern 
end of Gebel Bas. Hornblende is greenish brown in colour and 
augite, if présent, is in relatively very small amounts and has 
a greyish colour. At the Southwest of the Ancient Quarries 
there is an interesting dyke rock. It has large porphyritic 
crystals of quartz, microcline and plagioclase. The ground mass 
is very fine-grained and composed of biotite, plagioclase and 
hornblende being the same in composition as the plagioclase bio¬ 
tite minor intrusives. The phenocrysts are undoubtedly acci¬ 
dentai xenoliths caught by the magma during its intrusion into 
the granités which are eut by this dyke. Granités, therefore, 
played a significant rôle in the development of these dykes as 
discussed below. In general, the plagioclase biotite types can 
be satisfactorily classified as kersantites. They can be taken 
as spessartite whenever hornblende is présent in appréciable 
amounts. 

(iv) Plagioclase-barkevikitic hornblende dyke rocks. 

The minor intrusives formed of plagioclase and barkevikitic- 
hornblende are represented by dykes exposed east of the quarry 
in Gebel Ibrahim Pasha and at the western side of the Aswan 
Dam Road about 600 métrés south of Aswan. They are dark 
brown in colour and show megascopically needle shaped crystals 
of amphibole and occasionally possess vesicles as well as amyg¬ 
dales. Microscopically they are holocrystalline and exhibit pani- 
diomorphic texture typical of lamprophyres. Their essential 
constituents are plagioclase and barkevikitic hornblende. Plagio¬ 
clase constitutes, on the average, 35 per cent of the modal com¬ 
position of these dykes. It is generally fresh and has the com¬ 
position Ab An 4 .. 4() and occasionally shows slight undulatory 
extinction. Barkevikitic hornblende has a reddish brown colour 
with X = light brown, Y = reddish brown, Z = dark brown, It 
is présent in euhedral crystals which instantly show hexagonal 
outlines. This minerai exhibits alterations of various degrees. 


STUDY O K IVRE - CÀMBKI AN MINOR INTRUSIVE ROCKS 


61 


The very highly decomposed grains are frequent and are almost 
completely replaced by a dark material composed mainly of 
calcite together with less abundant minute grains of magnetite. 
Green chlorite and or reddish brown iddingsite after barkevikitic 
hornblende may be observed. In rar,e cases sphene can be 
encountered as an alteration product after this minerai. Ortho¬ 
clase is présent and constitutes, on the average, 5 per cent of 
the rock. It is found to be stained by a ferriferous brown dust 
and in places exhibits radial or plumulose arrangement. Biotite 
is noticeably lacking in this type but quartz is présent as an 
accessory constituent and is found in two types. The first is 
represented by small intergranular crystals lacking inclusions, 
whereas, the second is found in the form of rather big crystals 
which show remarkable reaction eff.ects at their outer margins 
and occasionally exhibit spectacular micrographie intergrowths 
with orthoclase. This texture is very well developed in places 
of the rock where it closely resembles a granophyre. The big 
quartz crystals are likely to be accidentai xenoliths caught by 
the magma from the intruded granitic rocks. Similar zenoliths 
were found in the case of some plagioclase biotite kersantitic 
rocks discussed above. The quartz xenoliths of the barkevikitic- 
plagioclase camptonitic rock were converted to granophyre 
through transfusion and reaction with alkaluminous material 
(Fig. 4). Calcite veins are occasionally observed in these rocks. 
It is noticeable that the crystals of barkevikitic hornblende, in 
close proximity to these veins, are completely altered being re¬ 
placed by deep reddish brown iron oxide pseudomorphs. The 
amphibole crystals at a distance from the vein are less de¬ 
composed. Amygdales are frequently met with and are com¬ 
posed of calcite, quartz and zeolites. Amygdales formed of two 
of these minerais are not uncommon. Pseudomorphs of iron 
oxide after barkevikitic hornblende can also be seen in close 
neighbourhood and surrounding the amygdales. 

The lamprophyric dykes exposed at Biga Island are com¬ 
posed of feldspars represented chiefly by orthoclase showing 
turbidity and stained by reddish iron oxide dust. Plagioclase 
constitutes a very small proportion of the rock. The only ferro- 
magnesian constituent présent is a reddish brown to brownish 
green variety of biotite. It is generally bleached and, theiefore, 
shows different shades of colour throughout the whole length 
of the crystal. Quartz as an accessory constituent is présent in 
the interstitial spaces. Magnetite and apatite are minor accès- 











62 


BULLETIN DE L’INSTITUT D’EGYPTE 


sory constituants of the rock. This lamprophyre dyke is very 
likely a bostonite. 

(v) Augite-rich dÿkes. 

A dyke exposed at the Southwest of the Ancient Quarries 
exhibits dark green colour and possesses abundant amygdales of 
mainly calcite. Microscopically it is composed almost entirely 
of purple titaniferous augit.e. This minerai is présent in pheno- 
crysts as well as smaller crystals in the ground mass. The 
crystals are idiomorphic and may reach 1.44 mm. in length. The 
phenocrysts exhibit twinning and hour glass structure. They are 
occasionally surrounded by a narrow rim of dark brown biotite. 
Phenocrysts of serpentine pseudomorphs after olivine are présent 
in subordinate amounts. They show a yellowish green core and 
a very pale green peripheral portion and may occasionally con- 
tain a very finely dessiminated material which is possibly talc. 
Biotite is dark brown with X = pure yellow, Y = Z = dark 
brown and présent as an accessory constituent. The ground- 
mass contains very small crystals of plagioclase and calcite as 
well as isotropie greyish material which is possibly analcite. 
Magnetite and apatite are the minor accessories. The amygdales 
are formed chiefly of calcite and less frequently of quartz. 
Numerous calcite veins can be se,en in its different parts. This 
rock is the most melanocratic type amongst the studied minor 
intrusive dykes of the district, and is classified as porphyritic 
monchiquite. 


CHEMICAL COMPOSITION 

Table 2 shows the Chemical analyses of représentative rocks 
of each of the plagioclase-hornblende and plagioclase-augite 
basaltic intrusives, camptonite and porphyritic monchiquite, as 
well as a mica diabase given by Hume (1935). The Niggli Valu.es 
of the recently analysed dykes, as well as their corresponding 
normative compositions, were calculated and listed in Tables (3) 
and (4) r.espectively. The équivalent molecular percentages 
(Niggli, 1936) were used in calculating the normative composi¬ 
tions of the analysed rocks. 

Table (2) shows that the analysed dykes are either ultra- 
basic or basic since their Si0 2 contents range betw.een 38.91 and 
47.73 per cent. The Na 2 0 content of the analysed camptonite 
(4.51 per cent) is higher than that of each of the other analysed 


XTUDY OF EUE - (WMBRIAN MINOR INTRUSIVE ROCKS 


63 


dykes (2.26 - 3.49 per cent). In general, the Na 2 0 content exceeds 
that of KoO in ail the dykes except the porphyritic monchiquite 
which has a slightly higher K 2 0 content (2.77 per cent) than that 
of Na 2 0 (2.26 per cent). It is noticeable that both Ti0 2 and 
P 2 0., are relatively high reaching 4.11 and 1.43 per cent respec- 
tively. Both the camptonite, which has amygdales as well as 
veins of calcite, and the porphyritic monchiquite, which possesses 
abundant calcite in its groundmass, hâve relatively high contents 
of C0 2 being 2.97 and 2.78 per cent respectively. On the other 
hand, the contents of this oxide in the basaltic dykes are low 
being 0.42 per cent and nil. 

There are appréciable différences especially in Ti0 2 , Na 2 0 
and K 2 0 contents of the analysed camptonite of the Aswan 
District and that of Wadi Mellaha, Eastern Desert, given by 
Hume (1935, p. 553). The former possesses higher content of 
Ti0 2 (4.11 per cent) and lower amounts of each of Na 3 0 and K 2 0 
(4.51 and 1.93 per cent respectively than the latt.er (Ti0 2 , 2.13 ; 
Na 2 0 , 5.88 ; and K 2 0, 2.35 per cent). On the whole, the com¬ 
position of the analysed camptonite of Aswan is not markedly 
different from that of the average camptonite given by Daly 
(1933), and has MgO (5.10 per cent), CaO (7.92 per cent), Na 2 0 
(4.51 per cent) and K 2 0 (1.93 per cent) contents similar to those 
of a camptonite dyke from Skaergaard peninsula (4.59, 7.48, 4.23 
and 1.96 per cent respectively) given by Vincent (1953, Table III, 
analysis VII). 

The Chemical composition of the analysed porphyritic mon¬ 
chiquite of Aswan is similar to that of a monchiquite from Hopi 
Buttes, northeast Arizona given by Turner and Verhoogen (1951, 
p. 336, analysis 1) in their table of the compositions of typical 
lamprophyres. Most of the constituent oxides in both rocks are 
close to each other, except K 2 0 which reaches 2.77 per cent in 
the Aswan monchiquite and is as low as 0.43 per cent in that of 
Hopi Buttes, Arizona. The high K 2 0 content in the former can 
be accounted for by its relatively abundant biotite. 

The Chemical composition of the plagioclase hornblende 
basaltic dyke is similar in many respects to that of the Whin 
Sill magma (Holmes and Harwood. 1928) and that of the Deccan 
basalts (Washington 1922). Their total FeO + Fe 2 0 ; . are 12.84, 
12.37 and 13.11 per cent respectively. Their MgO ; and CaO 
contents are 5.66, 5.42 and 5.46 per cent ; and 8.72, 9.09 and 9.45 
per cent respectively. The MgO/CaO ratio is 0.64 in the analysed 
dyke, 0.60 in the average Whin Sill magma and 0.58 in the 









STIJDY OF PKK - 0AMBR1 AN MINOU INTRUSIVE ROCKS 


65 


64 RTLLMTIN DF 1/INST ITT T IVJïïUYPTE. 


average Deccan basalts. Their alkali contents are 4.06, 3.38 and 
3.32 per cent respectively and they ail hâve higher Na 2 0 content 
than that of K 2 0. The Chemical composition of the analysed 
plagioclase-augite basaltic dyke is not notably different from that 
of the plagioclase-hornblende basaltic ,minor intrusive. It is 
significant to notice that the Niggli Values calculated from the 
average Chemical composition of basalts (Daly, 1933) are closely 
similar to those of the average of the analysed basaltic dykes of 
the district under considération (see Table 3 columns 6 and 7). 
Their al, fm, c and alk values are 22.47, 22 and 9 respectively 
in the former and 22, 47, 22 and 10 respectively in the latter. 

PETROGENESIS 

There are différences betw,een the Chemical, as well as the 
normative compositions of the basaltic rocks on the one hand 
and those of each of the camptonite, the porphyritic monchiquite 
and the mica diabase on the other hand, (see Tables 2 and 4). 
These différences would become more conspicuous if the plagio- 
clase biotite kersantitic, the bostonitic, as well as other un- 
analysed dykes, are taken into considération. It is reasonable to 
assume that the original magma from which such different dykes 
were formed was basaltic in composition sinc.e basaltic rocks are 
prédominant in the district. The fractional crystallisation of this 
magma gave rise to the mica diabase as well as the other types 
which are chiefly of basaltic nature. This process can be 
evidenced by the presence of reaction rims of hornblende and/or 
biotite surrounding augite in some of these dykes. The presence 
of hornblende instead of augite in some basaltic dykes in the 
area can be explained by relatively high concentration of water 
responsible for the formation of amphiboles, instead of pyroxenes 
during the différentiation of the magma. The origin of the other 
dykes, especially the lamprophyric types, can hardly be explained 
on the assumption that différentiation of basaltic magma alone 
gave rise to such rocks. It would be difficult to understand the 
mode of fractionation of the residual melt into monchiquitic, 
kersantitic, bostonitic and camptonitic compositions. However, 
the presence of xenocrysts of microcline and quartz in the ker- 
santite and of the latter minerai in the camptonite bears witness 
to the fact that the rocks containing these minerais must hâve 
been involved in the process of development of the lamprophyres, 
The basaltic magma, by reaction with certain xenocrysts of the 


invaded sialic crystal materials, can give rise to particular com¬ 
positions similar to those of the lamprophyric rocks. The diver- 
sity in the composition of the sialic materials in the Aswan 
District (granités, granodiorites, diorites, hornblende- and biotite- 
schists), as well as in the relative proportions of the reactants, 
would naturally resuit in the production of lamprophyres of such 
different compositions that cannot be developed by the fractional 
crystallisation of a basaltic magma alone. The relative propor¬ 
tions FeO + Fe 2 0, : Na 2 0 + K 2 0 : CaO + MgO of the analysed 
dykes as well as some représentatives of their intruded rocks, 
namely, granodiorites, diorite and hornblende-schist, the Chemical 
analyses of which are given in Table 5, are graphically shown 
in Fig. 5. It can be seen that the reaction between the average 
composition of the two analysed basaltic dykes, which is con- 
sidered to represent, the original magma and the analysed diorite, 
would resuit in the development of the porphyritic monchiquite. 
The analysed hornblende-rich schist has a Chemical composition 
similar to that of the diorite (see Table 5). It could, therefore, 
give rise to monchiquite through metasomatic reactions with the 
original basaltic magma. Moreover, the reaction between this 
magma and either of the analysed granodiorites would resuit in 
the formation of the camptonite. Undoubtedly, the relative pro¬ 
portions of these reactants would differ in the various reactions 
as can be seen in Fig. 5. Similarly, the reaction between this 
magma and sialic rocks relatively rich in K 2 0, such as the 
granités and gneisses, would form rocks essentially of kersantitic 
nature. It is significant to mention that the above reactions 
are only examples and there could hâve been others but the 
reactants are substantially the same in every case, namely, 
basaltic magma and sialic crustal material. Other rocks origi- 
nated by the reaction of the sialic material with a magma, are 
the volcanic ultrabasic potassic types of South Western Uganda 
and the adjoining part of the Belgian Congo. These types hâve 
diversified compositions similar to the case of the studied lam¬ 
prophyres and they were originated by reactions between a car- 
bonatitic magma and granités and other rocks of the sialic crust 
(Higazy, 1954). 


66 


JU Îil/KTïN 4)10- L'INST [TET I)EGYPTE 


CONCLUSIONS 

The pre-Cambrian minor intrusive rocks of Aswan are 
chiefly of basaltic and lamprophyric natures. The basaltic dykes 
are composed essentially of plagioclase, augite and hornblende 
and hâve Chemical compositions similar to those of Whin Sill 
and Deccan basalts. The lamprophyres are represented by mon- 
chiquite, camptonite, spessartite, kersantite and bostonite. They 
possess xenocrysts of quartz and microcline of the intruded 
plutonic rocks. The quartz xenocrysts show transfusion uheno- 
mena and are converted into granophyre. The original basaltic 
magma gave rise by fractional crystallisation to the various 
basaltic dyk,es. The lamprophyres, however, were originated 
through metasomatic reactions taking place between the original 
basaltic magma and the sialic crustal material. The variation in 
the composition of the sialic rocks and in the relative proportions 
of the reactants wer,e responsible for the dérivation of the dif¬ 
ferent varieties of lamprophyric rocks. Camptonite, kersantite 
and monchiquite resulted from reactions between basaltic 
magma and granodiorite, granité or gneiss, and diorite or horn- 
blende-schist respectively. 


REFERENCES CITED 

Amin, M.S., Sabet, A.H. and Mansour, A.O.S. (1953): “Geology of 
Atud District." Geol. Surv. Egypt, Government Press, Cairo, 
79 p. 

Amin, M.S., Mansour, M.S., Kabesh, M.L.Â. and El-Far, D.M. (1953) : 
“Geology of the Naba District.” Geol. Surv. Egypt, Government 
Press, Cairo, 51 p. 

Amin, M.S., Moustafa, G.A. and Zaatout, M.A. (1954): “Geology of 
Abu Diab District.” Geol. Surv. Egypt, Government Press, 
Cairo, 42 p. 

Andrew, G. (1935) : “Bostonite and Camptonite Dykes in Egypt.” 

Appendix III in Hume (1935) p. 679-684. 

Attia, M.I. (1948) : “Geology of the Barramiya Mining District.” 

Geol. Surv. Egypt, Government Press, Cairo, 76 p. 

Bail, J. (1907): “A Description of the First or Aswan Cataract of 
the Nile.” Egypt. Surv. Dept., Cairo, 121 p. 

Daly, K.A. (1933) : “Igneous Rocks and the Depths of the Earth.” 
McGraw-Hill Book Company Inc., New York and London, 
598 p. 

El-Shazly, E.M. (1954) : “Rocks of Aswan." Geol. Surv. Egypt, Go¬ 
vernment Press, Cairo, 21 p. 


STUDY OF PRE-CAMBRIAN MINOR INTRUSIVE ROCKS 


67 


Higazy, R.A. (1954) : “Trace Eléments of Volcanic Ultrabasic Po- 
tassic Rocks of Southwestern Uganda and Adjoining Part of 
the Belgian Congo.” Geol. Soc. America Bull., V. 65, p. 39-70. 

Holmes, A. and Harwood, H.F. (1928) : “The âge and composition 
of Whin Sill and the Reative Dykes of the North of England.” 
Min. Mag., V. 21, p. 539. 

Hume, W.F. (1935) : “Geology of Egypt, V. II, Part II. “The Later 
Plutonic and Minor Intrusive Rocks.” Egypt. Surv. Dept., Go¬ 
vernment Press, Cairo, 387 p. 

Moustafa, G.A., Kabesh, M.L. and Abdulla, A.M. (1955) : “Geology 
of Gelbel El-Ineigi District.’' Geol. Surv. Egypt, Editions Uni¬ 
versitaires d’Egypte, Cairo, 40 p. 

Niggli, P. 1936) : “Ueber Molekularnormen Zur Gesteinsberechnun- 
gen.” Schweizer. Min. Pet. Mitt., V. 16, p. 295-317. 

Schürmann, H.M.E. (1953): “The pre-Cambrian of the Gulf of Suez 
Area.” Cong. Geol. Intern., C.R. 19ème Sess. 1952, Sect. I, p. 
115-133. 

Turner, F.I. and Verhoogen, J. (1951): “Igneous and Metamorphic 
Petrology.” McGraw Hill Book Company Inc. New York, 602 p. 

Vincent, E.A. (1953): “Hornblende-Lamprophyre Dykes of Basaltic 
Parentage from the Skaergaard area, East Greenland.” Quart. 
Jour. Geol. Soc. London, V. 109, p. 21-47, 

Washington, H.S. (1922) : “Deccan Traps and Othsr Plateau Ba¬ 
salts.” Jour. Geology, V. 33, p. 797. 





STUDY OF PRE - CAMBRTAN MINOR INTRUSIVE ROCKS 


69 



3. — Porpliyrite (No. 50) from old golf course. Microthin section, 
1 > .P.L. .18 X. Note plagioclase phenocrysts (white) and fine-grained ground- 
mass of hornblende, iron-ore (blaclc) and plagioclase (white). 



Fig. 2. — Basait (No. 84) from El-Hesa Island. Micro-thin section, P.P.L. 
14 X Plagioclase (white), a agite and iron-ore (dark). 

















BULLETIN DE L’INSTITUT D’EGYPTE 



Quartz xenocryst in camptonite (No. 37) from East of quarry afc 
Gebel Ibrahim Pasha. Micro-tliin section, P.P.L. Il X. 


STUDY OF PRE - CAMBRIAN MINOR INTRUSIVE ROCKS 


71 


Ft 0+F^0 3 



Fig. 5. — Relative proportions of FeO + Fe o O. ; . Na O -f K^O , and 
and CaO -f- MgO of the analysée! basalts. camptonite and monchiquite; and 
granodiorite, diorite and plagioelase-hornblende-quartz schist. Note that 
camptonite lies between average basait ând granodiorite while monchiquite 
lies between average basait and botli diorite and analysed hornblende-schist;. 


Micrographie texture in camptonite (No. 37L Micro-thin section, 
C.N. 70 X. 






72 


BULLETIN DK L'INSTITUT D'EGYPTE 



STUDY O F PRE - CAMJiRIAN MINOR INTRUSIVE ROCKS 


73 


TABLE 2. 


Chemical Analyses of Dyke Rocks. 



A 

B 

C 

D 

E 

Average 

A & B 

Average 

basait 

SiO, 

47.14 

47.73 

38.91 

41.45 

55.62 

47.44 

49.06 

TiO, 

2.69 

3.72 

2.59 

4.11 

1.78 

3.20 

1.36 

A1,Ô S 

15.60 

13.79 

10.70 

13.54 

11.87 

14.70 

15.70 

Fe 2 ü 3 

5.31 

5.95 

6.33 

9.79 

2.66 

5.63 

5.38 

FeO 

7.53 

9.67 

8.22 

5.70 

8.56 

8.60 

6.37 

MnO 

0.18 

0.24 

0.26 

0.19 

0.20 

0.22 

0.31 

MgO 

5.66 

3.99 

9.59 

5.10 

4.07 

4.83 

6.17 

CaO 

8.72 

7.04 

10.64 

7.92 

11.25 

7.88 

8.95 

Na,0 

3.49 

2.96 

2.26 

4.51 

1.57 

3.23 

3.11 

K.,Ô 

0.57 

1.74 

2.77 

1.93 

5.52 

1.16 

1.52 

H„0- 

0.35 

0.44 

0.72 

0.31 

0.30 

0.40 

j 1.62 

H„0+ 

1.44 

1.19 

2.94 

1.77 

0.86 

1.32 

CÔ. 

0.42 

— 

2.78 

2.97 

— 

0.22 

— 

p 2 ô 5 

Other 

1.00 

1.43 

1.23 

1.02 

0,29 

1.22 

0.45 

consti¬ 

tuents 


" 



1.05 

“ 


Total 

100.10 

99.89 

99.94 

100.31 

100.60 

100.05 

100.00 


Analyst : E. Christensen. 

A) Plagioclase hornblende basaltic dyke (No. 28) from Gebel Bas. 

B) Plagioclase augite basaltic dyke (No. 84) from El-Hesa Island. 

C) Porphyritic monchiquite dyke (No. 53) from Southwest of the 
Ancient Quarries. 

D) Camptonite dyke (No. 37) from east of the quarry at Gebel 
Ibrahim Pasha, eastern side of Aswan Dam Road. 

E) Mica diabase, analyst: H.F. Harwood in (Hume and Harwood, 
1925). Other constituents include, S. 1.05 ; SrO, none; BaO, none 
and LioO, trace. Less O for S, 0.39. Total 100.21. 







74 


BULLETIN DE L’INSTITUT D’EGYPTE 


TABLE 3. 


Niggli Values of the Analysed Dyke Rocks 



A 

B 

C 

D 

E 

Average 

A & B 

Average 

basait 

al 

22 

21 

13 

17 

19 

22 

22 

fm 

46 

48 

55 

54 

42 

47 

47 

c 

23 

20 

24 

18 

34 

22 

22 

alk 

9 

11 

8 

11 

5 

10 

9 

si 

114 

124 

81 

86 

152 

119 

115 

k 

0.10 

0.28 

0.45 

0.22 

0.19 

0.19 

0.24 

m g 

0.45 

0.32 

0.55 

0.29 

0.40 

0.39 

0.52 

qz 

-22 

- 19 

- 51 

-61 

30 

-21 

- 19 


Analyst : E. Chrietensen. 


TABLE 4. 



E as in Table 2. 






76 


m i,l,KTIX I)K Ii’INSÏITKT D'EGYPTE 


TABLE 5. 


Chemical Analyses of Granodiorites, Diorite and 
Plagioclase-Hornblende-Quartz Schlst of Aswan District. 



A 

B 

C 

D 

Si0 2 

54.19 

60.56 

46.04 

47.42 

TiO, 

2.49 

1.58 

2.10 

1.47 

ai 2 o 3 

14.30 

14.15 

22.36 

21.27 

Fe 2 0 3 

3.22 

2.23 

0.99 

1.55 

FeO 

8.26 

6.24 

7.47 

7.86 

MnO 

0.20 

0.16 

0.16 

0.16 

MgO 

2.91 

1.78 

4.94 

3.53 

CaO 

5.93 

4.33 

11.64 

11.54 

Na 2 0 

3.51 

3.83 

2.39 

3.05 

K 2 0 

2.45 

3.33 

0.62 

0.74 

h 2 o— 

0.12 

0.09 

0.13 

0.88 

h 2 o 

0.95 

0.64 

0.79 

0.73 

O 

P 

— 

0.29 

0.27 

0.26 

p 2 0 5 

1.38 

0.85 

0,09 

0.25 

Total 

99.91 

100.06 

99.99 

99.91 


Analyst : E. Christensen. 

A = Coarse-grained porphyritic granodiorite (No. 8) from Gebel 
Tegog. 

B = Coarse-grained porphyritic granodiorite (No. 33) from north 
of the English Cemetery western side of Aswan-Dam road. 

C = Diorite (No. 98) from the eastern portion of the district north 
Khor Um Buweirat, 

D = Plagioclase-hornblende-quartz schist (No. 75) from the ancient 
railway cutting, south of the Aswan town. 


THE PLACE OF ZITTEL’S “OVERWEGISCHICHTEN” 
IN THE UPPER SENONIAN STRATIGRAPHY 

With A Note On The Provincial Affinities 
Of Its Fauna (Type Area: Kharga Oasis) O 

by 

M. YOUSSEF HASSAN 

CJniversity of Alexandria. 

I. — INTRODUCTION 

The fossiliferous strata overlying the Nufcian Sandstone and 
clays in the Kharga Oasis and the South Western Desert in 
general, show a dual classification. The older, or the pre- 
nummulitic division of the sériés, is a heterogeneous succession 
of neritic shallow water and frequently phosphatic deposits 
indicating an unstable epicontinental shùf. The newer, or num- 
mulitic division, is mainly composed of pure limestones and 
yellowish maris without sandy or clayey beds suggesting deeper 
water conditions. The strata of the pre-nummulitic division in 
the Kharga Oasis hâve been the subject of detailed investigation 
and fossil-collecting by the writer. The resuit of this has enabled 
to define their proper position in the scale of Upper Senonian 
stratigaphy, to attempt a scheme for their zonining and to 
elucidate the provincial affinities of their fauna. These strata 
hâve been generally attributed wholly to the Danian Stage 
(Zittel : 1883 ; Bail : 1900 ; Quaas : 1902 ; Wanner : 1902 ; Hume : 
1911). Blankenhorn (1900, pp. 32-33), used the term Maestrich- 
tian for the lower part of the division ; but he identified it 
with Lower Danian, Dordonian and Upper Aturian. In a later 
work (1921) he referred the same beds to the Campanian, ignored 
the Maestrichtian and placed the remainder of the beds in the 
Danian which he considered to be part of the Senonian. Fourtau 
(1904, p. 235), in a discussion of the Senonian, believed the 

(1) Communication présentée en séance du 23 avril 1956. 


78 


BULLETIN DE L’INSTITUT D’EGYPTE 


Dordonian of Coquand (1857, p. 749) to be équivalent not only 
to the Maestrichtian of Dumont (1849, p. 361) but also to a part 
of the Danian, and recommended that the term Dordonian be 
dropped. The Upper Senonian would thus include the campa- 
nian as its lower horizon and the Maestrichtian as the upper, 
while the Danian is an independent stage on the top of the 
Senonian. Fourtau, in the same work' also reasoned that the 
limit between the Maestrichtian and the Danian in Egypt should 
be drawn at the top of the highest beds with ammonites in the 
Libyan Desert. This means that the beds with Exogyra Over- 
wegi and Libycoceras are relegated to the Maestrichtian which 
is considered as a substage of the Senonian. Sortie modem 
authors now tend to treat the European Maestrichtian as an 
independent stage between the Senonian and the Danian and 
place it equal in rank to the Senonian. A survey of the modem 
literature has been given by Jeletzky (1951, p. 198) who also 
supports the idea of an independent Maestrichtian Stage in 
general, and in Europe in particular, “simply because there are 
no known équivalents of the Maestrichtian, neither in the type 
area of the Senonian Stage of D’Orbigny (1842, 1852), nor in the 
type locality of the Campanian Stage of Coquand (1857 a-b).” 
North African stratigraphers, however, still treat the Maestrich¬ 
tian as the topmost substage of the Senonian. According to 
Laffitte (1934, p. 1437 & 1939, pp. 244 & 246) the lower limit of 
the Maestrichtian substage in North Africa is marked by the 
appearance of Orbitoides tissoti Schlum, Bostrychoceras poly- 
plocum Roemer and Libycoceras ismaeli Zittel, and heralds the 
last phase of the great and uninterrupted Senonian transgression 
over the north of the African continent, Syria and Palestine, and 
is also noticeable in many other régions. The upper limit of the 
Maestrichtian is marked by the appearance of the guide fossil 
Libycoceras chargense Blankenhorn, by Sphenodiscus spp. and 
by the abundance of Exogyra overwegi. Usually following this 
horizon conformably are beds with Cardita beaumonti D’Archiac, 
which Laffitte considers as Danian. 

In the Kharga Oasis, no typical Campanian fossils hâve been 
recorded in the pre-nummulite strata ( 2 ) and the fossiliferous 


(2) In a recent trip to the Oasis (Feb. 1905) ; Prof. G.H. Awad and the 
writer, hâve discovered a ncw fossiliferous horizon at the base of the lowest 
zones of the Maestrichtian as given in this work. The material is now under 
study and may prove to be of Campanian âge. 


PLACE OF ZITTTEL’S « OVEItWEGISCHICHTEN 


79 


succession has always been considered as beginning with the so- 
called Exogyra overwegi sériés or the “Overwegischichten” of 
Zittel. At the base of these beds, the writer has discovered a 
fossiliferous horizon containing among other fossils specimens of 
Bostrychoceras polyplocum and Nostoceras sp. (sp. nov. ?). The 
faunule from this horizon suggests a Lower Maestrichtian âge. 
For palaeontological and other reasons discussed below, the beds 
with Cardita libyca (Quaas) which form the highest horizon of 
the Overwegischichten” are considered here to belong to the top 
of the Upper Maestrichtian rather than to the Danian. The part 
of the pre-nummulitic succession overlying the C. libyca horizon 
in the Kharga Oasis appertains to another stage, the Danian or 
Dano-Mountain, which is transitional in character and different 
in ail respects from the Senonian and from the overlying 
Paleocene. The fauna, âge and palaeoecology of this stage will 
constitute the subject of a later paper. 


II. — STRATIGRAPHY 


The following is a description of the succession as measured 
and studied in the G,ebel El-Ter and Tarwan range to the north 
of the Village of Kharga. Confirmatory sections were also 
studied at Gebel Um El-Ghanayem and other localities. Com- 
mencing with the lowest horizon the ascending succession is as 
follows: 

I. Brown ochreous sandstone of moderato hardness, exter- 
nally of dark colour due to desert varnish. The rock is 
densely current-bedded. No base for this horizon has been 
seen in this locality. 

.Thickness 30 ms. plus. 

II. Dark green, compact, ochreous, siliceous clay with salt- 
veins and containing many iron concrétions assuming 
various shapes and sizes. The bed yielded no fossils of 
any kind except for one fossil fruit. 

.Thickness 5 ms. 

III. Hard yellowish phosphatic band with small flinty con¬ 
crétions and fish teeth of various forms, e.g., Otodus 
biauriculatum Zittel and Otodus sp. 

.Thickness 3 ms. 

IV. Dark grey unfossiliferous, finely laminated clay. 

.Thickness 20 ms. 




















BULLETIN DE 1/INSTITUT D'EGYPTE 


V Phosphatic band, similar to horizon III, in which a tooth 
of Otodus smilodon Zittel has been identified. 

Thickness 3 ms. 

VI Dark grey clay with intercrossing gypsum-veins passing 
upwards into a thin, brown, hard, limestone full of minute 
lamellibranch shells, foraminifera and some unidentmab e 
fossils, and recalling the appeârance of glazed brown 
porcelain. 

.Thickness 0.2 ms. 

VII. Grey well-bedded, finely laminated, marly clay. The 
horizon contains moderately sized internai moulds o 
lamellibranchs, gastropods, cephalopods and smali tests o 
sea-urchins. The characteristic fossile Isocardia chai- 
aensis Mayer-Eymar is présent in large numbers. Other 
fossils identified include Chaîna callosa Noetlmg Chama 
sp. Crassatella zitteli var. typica Quaas, Isocardia char- 
aensis Mayer-Eymar, Veniella (Roudairia . ), 9^bba sp. 
nov Area sp./Chlamys mayer-eymari (Newton) Turn- 
tella sexlineata Roemer, Natica (Gyrodes) fara/rerms 
Wanner Eutraphoceras clesertorum Quaas, Baculites ancep 
Lamarck, and Baculites anceps var. libyea var. nov. (-) 
.Thickness 13 ms. 

VIII Reddish brown maris containing iron oxides and full of 
casts of Exogyra overwegi together with Lucina sahanca 
Quaas, Protocardia moabitica Lartet. Veniella (Roudairia 
duri var ponderosa var. nov., Spondylus sp Phcatula 
instabilis Stoliczka, Plicatula aschersoni Zittel, Exogyra 
overweqi v Buch, Turritella sexlineata Roemer, Baculites 
cf. anceps Lamarck and Hoplitoplacenticeras awadi sp. 

nov. ( 4 ) 

.Thickness 8 ms. 

IX Unfossiliferous greenish grey clay. 

.. Thickness 3 ms. 

X Dirty brown argillaceous limestone with an excellent fossil 
content of lamellibranchs, gastropods and cephalopods. 
Chama callosa Noetling, Chama sp., Crassatella zitteli var. 
typica Quaas, Crassatella zitteli var. lucinoides Quaas, 
Cardita libyea (Quaas), Veniella (Roudairia) drm var. pon¬ 
derosa var. nov., Macrocallista ? rohlfsi (Quaas), Macro- 
callista (Callistina) rostro-centrahs sp. nov., Cucullaea 
schweinfurthi Quaas, Exogyra overwegi v. Buch and Area 
(Nemodon) esnaensis Newton hâve been identified. 

.Thickness 5.5 ms. 

(3) The descrlotion of the new speeies mentioned here is included m 
a paper on the systematic palaeontology of the “Overwegischichten” which 
is under préparation. 


- 


PLACE OF ZITTTEL'K « OVERWEGISCIIICHTEX » 81 

XI. Unfossiliferous greenish grey clay. 

.Thickness 2.5 ms. 

XII. Marly, fragmentai earthy limestone containing abundant 
shells of Cardita libyea. Cardita libyea (Quaas), Crassatella 
zitteli Wanner var. typica Quaas, Area (Nemodon) esnaen¬ 
sis Newton, Exogyra overwegi v. Buch, Delphinula zitteli 
Quaas, Scalaria schweinfurthi Quaas, Natica (Euspira) 
tarensis sp. nov. ( 5 ) and Pugnellus afrieanus Quaas hâve, 
been eollected. 

..Thickness 7 ms. 

Sïudy xif the Succession. 

Horizon I represents the well-known sandstone of the Nubian 
Sériés which surrounds the downthrown mass of the Tarawan- 
Ter chain and forms the foot of the Taref Plateau. At Gebel El- 
Taref, where the Nubian Sandstone is best developed, the lower 
horizon is predominately sandy while the upper portions are 
clayey. Near the top of the clay s thin phosphatic bands are 
ideveloped, which are also clearly seen at the foot of the Tarawan- 
Ter chain represented by horizons III & V. The Nubian beds 
are almost devoid of fossils, except for a very few fossil tree- 
stems and fruits, and pass conformably to the higher fossiliferous 
•strata.. 

The rarity of organic remains, the diachronie character, and 
the striking lithological uniformity hâve conspired to lead to 
mueh confusion regarding the range in âge of the Nubian 
Sandstone. Lately, it has been pointed out that the âge could bc 
ascertained from the immediately overlying strata provided that 
there is no uncomformity. In the Kharga Oasis the first fos- 
.siliferous strata above the Nubian beds are of Maëstrichtian âge 
and there is no sign of an unconformity. No fossiliferous strata 
immediately underlie them and thus the range in âge of the 
Nubian Sériés could not be determined ; ail that can be strated 
is the Nubian beds in the Kharga Oasis may be of Campaman 
âge and possibly extend up into the Maëstrichtian. 

The overlying phosphatic horizons III & V are also exposed 
at Gebel El-Taref, Ghanima and Um El-Ghanayem. They may 
represent a period of exceedinglv slow déposition at the base of 
the prenummulitic strata. The Overwegischichten (horizons VI 

(4) The description of the new species mentioned liere is included in 
n pnper on the systematic palaeontology of the “Overwegischichten” which 
iis nnder préparation. 














82 


83 


liULLETUV DK L'INSTITUT D’EGYPTE 


to XI) are a conformable sequence of the upper clays of the 
Nubian Sériés, marked by the development of marly and 
calcareous bands. They pass insensibly upwards into the Lower 
Esna Shales in such a manner that it is difficult to draw a sharp 
line of démarcation between the two. The limestone and mari 
bands increase in number in the upper portion of the Overwegi 
beds and become more fossiliferous and crowded with myriads 
of Exogyras and other fosils. 


III. _ ANALYSIS OF THE FAUNA AND ZONING 
OF THE SUCCESSION 

The few brachiopods are of little stratigraphical value, but 
ail corne from the Upper Senonian and chiefly from the Cam- 
panian and Maëstrichtian of India. Inoceramus ( 6 ) and Veniella 
are characteristic Cretaceous généra that. did not survive the 
Maëstrichtian; Exogyra overwegi and Veniella (Roudairia) drui 
are typical of the topmost Senonian in many places. On the 
other hand, the presence of Cardita libyca suggests a corrélation 
high up in the Maëstrichtian as does likewise the abundance of 
species of Crassatella, Charria and Macrocallista. The gastropods 
are ail Upper Senonian species ; chiefly significant among them 
is the strictly Maëstrichtian species Turritella sexlineata of 
Maëstricht (the type locality) and of other places in Northern 
Europe. The type of ornamentation in the gastropods, particu- 
larly in Scalaria schweinfurthi has a striking Tertiary look. 
Among the cephalopods, Ewtrephoceras desertorum is an inte- 
resting species similar to forms from the Upper Senonian of 
France as well as the Lower Eocene of England. Libycoceras 
ismaëli unfortunately not found by the writer but describpd by 
Quaas (1902, p. 302, pl. 29 & 30, figs. 3-7) from the Overwegi 
beds, is now a well known Maëstrichtian guide-fossil in Africa 
and the Middle East. Related forms are restricted also to the 
Maëstrichtian in India, Soudan, Somaliland and other places. 

A considération of the distribution of the fauna in the 
Maëstrichtian rocks in the Oasis permits their division into three 
zones which are first recognized and established by the writer. 


(5) Inoceramus oHpsi Mantell i- s reoortlod from these fonmiticiis by 
Qvmns (li)02, p. 170). 


PLACE OE ZITTTEL’S « OVERWEGISCHICHTEN » 


Zone A. The index species is Isocardia chargensis, which 
is ubiquitous in the Oasis, restricted to the base of the succession 
and présent in great numbers and could be regarded as a guide- 
fossil for the zone. Also most of the fossils mentioned in the 
Isocardia bed do not extend upwards. Characteristic ammonite 
species of this zone are Bostrychoceras poplyplocum and Nosto- 
ceras sp. Other important fossils are : 

Trigonoarca of glandrina, Chlamys mayer-eymari, Nautilus 
desei'torum and Baculites anceps. 

Zone B. The index species is Exogyra overwegi which begins 
to be the most abundant and outstanding fossil, and some of the 
bands are made up of this fossil. Other characteristic forms are 
Plicatula instabilis, Plicatula aschersoni, Veniella (Roudaireia) 
drui, Crassatella zitteli, Cardita libyca and Hoplitoplacenticeras 
awadi. 

Zone C. The index species is Cardita libyca. This is not so 
abundant in the last zone as here, where its increase in numbers 
is almost proportional to the décliné in Exogyra overwegi. 
Gastropods predominate over lamellibranchs and généra not re- 
presented in the lower zones make their appearance. No am¬ 
monites hâve been recorded from this zone. Other important 
fossils which appear in this zone are : 

Area esnaensis, Delphinula zitteli, Natica terensis and 
Scalaria schweinfurthi. 

The association of Turrilites (Bostrychoceras) polyplocum, 
Baculites anceps and Nostoceras sp. in the lowest zone indicates 
early Maëstrichtian âge. The ammonites are extremely rare in 
the second zone and are represented only by one species of 
Hoplitoplacenticeras which is a strictly Upper Senonian genus. 
Not a single ammonites has been found in the third zone which 
is crowded with Cardita libyca. 

The upper lilit of the Maëstrichtian in the Kharga Oasis is 
difficult to draw because there is a perfect upward gradation in 
lithology. But the presence of an horizon characterised by the 
appearance of Cardita libyca and the disappearance of Exogyra 
overwegi may be taken as marking end of the Maëstrichtian. 

The accompanying analytical and corrélation table of the 
fauna shows the vertical distribution of the species identified. 
It also shows the occurrence of the identical and related forms 
in different localities of the Indo-Pacific Upper Cretaceous as 



84 


BULLETIN DE L'INSTITUT P’EGM’IE 


eomnared with ocurrences elsewher.e in other provinces of de- 
Son The close affinlty of our fauna chiefly to forma from 
the Indo-Pacific Maëstrichtian îs clearly seen. 


REFERENCES AND LITERATURE CONSULTED 

Bail T ( 1900 ) : "Kharga Oasis, its Topography and Geology. Eg. 

"” d Pa,Mon,ologie 

^^ V \7my b i g y^n kZZu der Regionalen Géologie.” 

Heidelber Bd_ v n p columba et biaurlculata 

^da^.^ÆdeÏ Sie inférieur.” Bull. Soc. Geo,. France. 

D’OAignJt'A.' (Tm’lSC & 1843): "Paléontologie Franga.se, Ter- 

rains C rétacés", ..p^^ de p aléonto , ogie Stratigraphique 

Universelle/’ Paris, 2 "Vols. , . , p nl < 

Dumont, A. (1849): “Rapport sur la carte géologique du 

me.” Bull. Acad. Roy. Belg.. 16, pp. 3 ^' 373 ' . d 

Fourtau. R. (1904): “Contribution a la Faune ^etaoque Je 
l’Egypte.” Bull. Inst. Egypte. 4eme. ser. fasc. . PP- 
Teletzky' T. A. (1951) : “The Place of the Triminghamand Norwich 

Chalk in the Campanian-Naëstrichtian Succession. ,c0 • ‘ 

Vol. LXXXVIII, No. 3, pp. 197-208. „ ■ dans 

I affitte R (1934) : “Les Limites stratigraphique du Senoman dans 
l’AÛrS Oriental (Algérie).” C.R. Acad. Sci. Pans, T. 199, No. 24, 

PP ’ (1939) : “Etudes Géologique de 1’Aurés.” Bull. Serv. 

Cart. Geol. Algérie, 2ème sér. Stratigraphique, Descriptions 
Régionales, No. 15. 

Ouaas, A. (1902): “Die Fauna der Overwegischichten der Blatter- 
~ thone in der Libychen Wüste.” Palaeontographica, Vol. XXX, 

(Vanner 2 T. (1902): “Fauna der Obersten Weissen Kreide der liby¬ 
chen Wüste.” Palaeontographica, XXX (2) 

Zittel K.A (1883): “Beitrage zur Géologie und Palaeontolog 
der libychen Wüste und der Angrenzenden Gebiete von Aegvp- 
ten.” Palaeontographica, Vol. XXX, p.t. L 

















ANALYTICAL AND CORRELATION LIST OF THE MAESTRICHTIAN FAUNA 

IN THE KHARGA OASIS 







PETROGENETIC SIGNIFICANCE OF THE TRACE 
ELEMENTS IN THE SPANGO PLUTONIC 
COMPLEX (SOUTH SCOTLAND) 


by 

RI AD A. HIGAZY, Ph.D. (Chicago), D.Sc. (Edin.) 

Geology Department, University of Alexandria 


ABSTRACT 

The trace éléments of the granodioritic rocks of the Spango 
complex, South Scotland, hâve been determined spectrogra- 
phically. The distribution and relative proportions of the de¬ 
termined éléments appear to be consistent with the hypothesis 
that the investigated rocks are metasomatic in origin. 


INTRODUCTION 

The Spango complex, which is probably of Old Red Sand- 
stone âge occurs on the border of Dumfriesshire and Lanark- 
shire. Walker (1928) summarises earlier work concerning this 
complex, and mentions that its main rock is a basic hornblende- 
biotite-granodiorite or quartz-diorite showing very little varia¬ 
tion. He favoured the dérivation of the rocks from a magma of 
quartz-dioritic composition. Sarkar (1948) gives a detailed 
geological map of the area, showing the distribution of the main 
granodioritic rock of the complex as well as its surrounding 
sédiments, together with detailed pétrographie descriptions and 
Chemical analyses of the rocks. His observations led him to 
conclude that the granodioritic types of the complex are products 
of metasomatic-metamorphism of the aureole sédiments. The 
trace-element contents of représentative samples of this complex 


86 


BULLETIN DE L’INSTITUT D'EGYPTE 


hâve now been determined spectrographically by the writer in 
order to study the significance of these éléments in solving 
petrogenetic problems. 


SPECTROGRAPHIC ANALYSIS AND DATA OBTAINED 


Représentatives of the Spango complex rocks were kindly 
provided by Professor Arthur Holmes for the spectrographic 
détermination of their trace éléments, using the semiquantitative 
method described in detail by Mitchell (1948). The determined 
trace éléments, and the wave lengths of their respective 
diagnostic Unes hâve already been recorded by the writer 
(Higazy, 1952a). The rocks include : 


No. of rock 

Navie 

S/186 

Metamorphosed mudstone 

S/41 

Cordierite-biorite-hornfels 

S/162E 

Biotite-amphibole-plagioclase-hornfels 

501/D 

Porphyritic micro-diorite 

501/G 

Hornblende-biotite-granodiorite 


The Chemical analyses of these rocks are assembled in Table la, 
while their trace-element contents are given in Table lb. 


General Geolcgy 

The Spango granitic complex and its metamorphic aureole 
comprise Ordovician and Lower Old Red Sandstone rocks. Their 
sequence can be summarised as follows : 

I Lava conglomerate. 

Red Sandstone. 

Contemperaneous flows of andésite and olivine- 
basalt and ash beds. 

Plutonic complex; granodiorite and diorite. 
Minor dykes of porphyrite (metamorphosed). 



PETROGENETIC SIGNIFICANCE OF THE TRACE ELEMENTS 87 


/ Greywackes, mudstones and 
Ordovician Caradocian Haggis rocks. 

( Glenkiln black shales. 

Arenig Radiolarian cherts and mudstones 

The Ordovician sédiments are folded along axes with the 
normal Caledonian trend, south-west to north east. The folds 
form part of the north western flank of the great anticlinorium 
which is the dominating structure of the Ordovician and Silu- 
rian sédiments in the Southern Uplands. 

The plutonic complex is elliptical in form (3 1/4 X 11/4 
miles), with the major axis approximately parallel to the strike 
of the Ordovician sédiments. The width of the metamorphic 
aureole varies from 1/6 of a mile to 1 1/3 miles in the different 
parts (Sarkar, 1948). 

Metamorphosed porphyritic dykes of Lower Old Red Sand¬ 
stone âge eut the Ordovician beds within the metamorphic 
aureole. They are earlier than the plutonic complex. 


General Petrography 

(i) Arenig cherts and mudstones. 

The Arenig group is formed of radiolarian cherts of different 
colors interbedded with mudstones. The unmetamorphosed 
chert is composed of crypto-crystalline silica with various bands 
containing ferruginous and argillaceous material (Sarkar, 1948, 
p. 18). Different grades of metamorphosed chert are represented. 
The low grade types contain quartz, minute flakes of biotite, 
small octahedra of magnetite, rare garnet and incipient cordio- 
rite. In the medium-grade the minerais remain the same but 
increase in grain size. Ovthoclase, plagioclase, diopside and 
enstatite appear in the high-grade types in addition to the 
minerais already mentioned. 

The unmetamorphosed mudstones are composed chiefly of 
fine chloritic and sericitic materiel, minute grains of quartz and 
ferruginous matter (Sarkar, 1948). Together with these consti¬ 
tuées, the analysed sample (S/186) contains small needles of 
rutile and grains of zircon. In the low-grade metamorphosed 









88 


BULLETIN DE LT INSTITUT D'EGYPTE 


mudstones minute blebs of pale green biotite appear, together 
with occasional acicular, colorless or pale green amphibole and 
incipient crystals of cordierite. The medium-grade types consist 
of cordierites of irregular shape in a matrix of brown biotite and 
minute quartz grains. Sample S/41 is représentative of this 
type. The high-grade types consist of dark brown flakes of 
biotite; cordierite, occasionally showing pleochroic haloes; 
acicular or lamellar crystals of amphibole; and skeletal enstatite. 


(ii) The Caradocian group. 

The Caradocian group is composed of (a) pebbly grits 
(Haggis rocks) and (b) greywackes and mudstones. 

(a) A general description of the constituent pebbles, frag¬ 
ments and grains of the Haggis rocks is given by Sarkar (1948, 
p. 43). The chief materials présent include quartz, feldspars 
and amphiboles, Arenig cherts and mudstones; and spilites, 
andésites, alkali-trachytes, micro-granites, granophyres and 
tuffs. The groundmass in which these different ingrédients are 
embedded, consist of a much finer-grained matrix of similar 
materials. The spilitic, andesitic and other volcanic pebbles 
closely resemble those found in the Arenig rocks of the Southern 
Uplands. 

As a general rule, the metamorphism of the Caradocian 
sédiments increases towards the margin of the granitic complex, 
but numerous exceptions hâve been observed (Sarkar, 1948). In 
places, conspicuous enrichment of the Haggis rocks in heden- 
bergite and plagioclase is noticeable. This enrichment is believed 
to be brought about by introduction and fixation of the cafemic 
constituants (Sarkar, 1948, p. 71). 

s 

(b) The detrital constituents of the Caradocian greywackes 
vary in size from 0.1 to 2.0 mm. The grains are subangular in 
the coarser greywackes and angular in the finer types. They 
are composed of materials similar to those in the Haggis rocks. 

Quartzo-feldspathic pods and lenticles exhibiting granitic 
texture are occasionally présent in the metamorphosed grey¬ 
wackes. The hornfels surrounding these pods and lenticles 
shows relative enrichment in biotite. 


PETRO( j EN ETI(' SIGNIFIUANUE OF THE TRACE ELEMENTS 89 


The Caradocian mudstones are similar in composition to 
the Arenig types; and the similarity naturally extends also to 
the different metamorphic products (chiefly cordierite-biotite- 
hornfels). Hornfelses unusually rich in biotite are notably 
developed. 


(iii) The plutonic complex. 

The Spango complex is composed mainly of granodiorite 
with a subsidiary development of diorite. The two types are 
intimately connected and inclusions of dioritic composition of 
variable size are ubiquitous in the granodiorite. 

Two varieties of diorite are recognised by Sarkar : a por- 
phyritic micro-diorite which exhibits crystalloblastic textures 
and a medium-grained diorite which is also of more even grain. 

The most significant feature in the plagioclases and biotites 
of these diorites is their striking similarity to those developed 
in the highgrade hornfelses near the margin of th.e complex. 
Moreover, relies of fine-grained hornfelsic material arranged 
either zonally or at random are commonly met with in the 
plagioclases of the diorites (Sarkar, 1948, p. 113). The detailed 
mineralogical study carried out by Sarkar of numerous samples 
of diorite and aureole hornfelses shows that ail transitional 
stages between these two extreme types are commonly re- 
presented. 

The granodiorites are fine- to medium-grained hornblende- 
biotite-bearing varieties with abundant dark colored hornfelsic 
and dioritic inclusions. These inclusions vary in size from a 
few millimétrés to several yards across, and in shape from round 
or elliptical to irregular. Their contacts with the granodiorite 
are usually sharp. Both the granodiorite and its inclusions hâve 
plagioclase and biotite with respectively similar characters 
(Sarkar, 1948, p. 157). Orthoclase forms up to one-third of the 
total feldspars in the granodiorite and commonly contains relies 
of plagioclase with textures indicating that it was formed at the 
expense of the plagioclase. The approximate modes of the 
analysed granodiorite (501/G) and diorite (501/D), as recorded 
by Sarkar (1948, p. 177) are: 













90 


BULLETIN DE L'INSTITUT D'EGYPTE 



Porphyritic micro-diorite 

Granodiorite 

Quartz 

4.7 

22.1 

Plagioclase 

57.6 

42.5 

Orthoclase 

4.2 

14.5 

Amphibole 

12.1 

10.6 

Biotite 

18.5 

8.9 

Pyroxene 

0.5 

0.3 

Accessories 

2.0 

1.0 


99.6 

99.7 


Petrogenesis 

(i) Field anid petrological evidence. 

Walker (1928) accepted the traditional magmatic origin for 
the Spango complex. Under this hypothesis, the diorite and 
granodiorite are interpreted as successive différentiation pro- 
ducts of a single magma. Sarkar (1948), however, reports a 
wealth of field and pétrographie evidence which is completely 
inconsistent with such a mode of origin. The prédominant 
textures of the diorite and granodiorite are crystalloblastic. 
Many of the feldspars of both these types contain hornfelsic 
relies as inclusions. In addition, plagioclas.e crystalloblasts 
exhibiting properties similar to those of the rocks of the complex 
are widely distributed in the hornfelses of the aureole. The 
biotites hâve properties similar to those of the adjoining horn¬ 
felses. Such features obviously cannot be explained by mag¬ 
matic processes; they are, however, consistent with a meta- 
somatic mode of origin. 

Detailed study of the hornfelses reveals that in some places 
they become enriched in cafemic constituents (basified), while 
in others they become enriched in feldspathic constituents, 
culminating in the formation of rocks of dioritic and/or grano- 
dioritic composition (granitisation). A typical sequence worked 
out by Sarkar (1948) to illustrate successive stages in the évolu¬ 
tion of granodiorite from mudstone is: 

( S /18 6 ) mudstone ( S /41 ) cordierite-biot it e-hor nf els 

(S/162E) biotite-amphibole-plagioclase-hornfels (basified horn- 


EETROGEXETIU SIGXIFICAXUE OF THE TRACE ELEMENTS 91 


\ 


fels) (501/D) porphyritic micro-diorite (501/G) biotite- 
hornblende-granodiorite. 

(ii) Geochemical evidence. 

The geochemical migrations and fixations of the major 
éléments involved in the transformation processes hâve been 
found by Sarkar (1948) to be similar to those established by 
D.L. Reynolds (1946) for basification and granitisation processes. 

As demonstrated by the data recorded in Table 2b the trace- 
element contents of the diorite and granodiorite are also in¬ 
consistent with a magmatic ancestry of these rocks. In the first 
place, their respective contents of Cr (120 and 90 ppm.) and 
V (130 and 110 ppm.) are very much higher than those of felsic 
rocks developed by magmatic fractiomation; the latter, as would 
be expected, are found to contain negligible amounts of these 
éléments ((Higazy, 1952b). Moreover, the relation Cr Ni Co, 
which characterises both the diorite and granodiorite, is dif¬ 
ferent from that of late magmatic differentiates; these hâve less 
Cr than either Ni or Co (Lundegardh, 1949; Higazy, 1952b). 
The fact that the country sédiments of the Spango complex hâve 
the same relation (Cr Ni Co) strongly suggests that the sédi¬ 
ments played an essential rôle in the development of diorite and 
granodiorite. 

The behavior of the trace éléments in the basification and 
granitisation processes by which the rocks of this complex 
developed is also highly significant. Chemical and trace-element 
compositions of the grey-waekes — which played as essential a 
rôle in the development of the diorite and granodiorite as the 
hornfelses — are unfortunately lacking. In the absence of such 
data, the exact behavior cannot be recognised. Judging by the 
hornfels data, however, basification and granitisation involved 
introduction of Rb, Zr, Sr and Y (see Table 2b). Table 2b also 
shows that the total of Li, Cr, Ni, Co, Cu and V in the average 
basified hornfelses (931 ppm.), is higher than the corresponding 
average for diorite and granodiorite (389 ppm.). This follows 
the behavior of the corresponding replaceable major éléments, 
namely, Mg, Fe 2 and Fe 3 , for which the respective totals are 9.58 
and 5.75 per cent. Moreover, the total of Rb, Ba and Sr in the 
average granitised types (4360 ppm.) indicates an enrichment of 




















92 


BULLETIN DE L'INSTITUT D'EGYPTE 


these éléments relative to their abundance in the basified types 
(3735 ppm.). This is in accordance with the total of K and Ca, 
which is higher in the diorite and granodiorite (5.39 per cent) 
than in the basified hornfelses (4.07 per cent). The major 
éléments, therefore, were followed in a general way by the trace 
éléments which are known to replace them in favorable crystal 
lattices. The data are too few for firm conclusions to be drawn, 
but it is worthy of notice that the pattern of behavior is similar 
to that found by the writer in other metamorphic and meta- 
somatic rocks (Higazy, 1952a; 1953; 1954a and 1954b). 


CONCLUSIONS 

The chief rocks of the Spango complex are diorite and grano¬ 
diorite. These types show textural and pétrographie characters 
which favor a metasomatic origin. Moreover, they hâve very 
much higher Cr and V contents than magmatic types of similar 
composition, and hâve the relation Cr Ni Co which is inconsistent 
with a magmatic origin. 

The relation Cr Ni Co persists in the granitic types of the 
complex; the same relation charact.erises the country rocks. This 
strongly suggests that the country rocks hâve played an essential 
rôle in the development of the granitic rocks. 


ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 

I wish to thank Dr. D.N. McArthur, Director of the 
Macaulay Institute for Soil Research at Aberdeen, Scotland, for 
his kindness in allowmg the spectrographic déterminations to 
be carried out there; to Dr. R.L. Mitchell and Dr. R.O. Scott of 
the Macaulay Institute for their valuable help during the 
progress of the spectrographic work. I am greatly indebted to 
Prof. Arthur Holmes for furnishing samples of the analysed 
powders, and for his constructive criticism. 


PETK O ( i EN ET I ( ' SI<JNI1<TUAN< ’E OF THE TR Al ’E ELEMENTS 93 


REFERENCES CITED 


Higazy, R.A. (1952a) : "Behavior of the trace éléments in a front 
of metasomatic-metamorphism in the Dalradian of Co. 
Donegal.” Geochim. et Cosmochim. Acta, Vol. 2, pp. 170-184. 

Higazy, R.A. (1952b) : “The distribution and significance of the 
trace éléments in the Braefoot Outer Sill Fife.” Trans. Edin. 
Geol. Soc., Vol. 15, pp. 150-186. 

Higazy, R.A. (1953) : “Observations on the distribution of the 
trace éléments in the perthite pegmatites of the Black Hills, 
South Dakota.” Amer. Minerai., Vol. 38, pp. 172-190. 

Higazy, R.A. (1954a) : “A geochemical study of the régional 
metamorphic zones of the Scottish Highlands.” C.R. Cong. 
Intern. 19ème Sess. Alger 1952, Sect. XIII, pp. 415-430. 

Higazy, R.A. (1954b) : “The trace éléments of the plutonic com¬ 
plex of Loch Doon (Southern Scotland) and their petro- 
genetic significance.” Jour. Geol., Vol. 62, pp. 172-181. 

Lundegardh, P.H. (1949) : “Aspects to the geochemistry of 
chromium, cobalt, nickel and zinc.” Sver. Geol. Undersok. 
Ser. C. No. 513-Arsbok 43 No. 11, pp. 1-56. 

Michell, R.L. (1948) : “The spectrographic analysis of soils, plants 
and related material.” Commonwealth Bur. Soil. Sci., Tech. 
Comm., No. 44, pp. 54-77. 

Reynolds, D.L. (1946) : “The sequence of geochemical changes 
leading to granitization.” Quart. Jour. Geol. Soc., Vol. 102, 
pp. 389-446. 

Sarkar, S.N. (1948) : “A petrological investigation of the Spango 
granitic complex and its metamorphic aureoie.” Unpublished 
Ph.D. thesis, Univ. of Edinburgh. 

Walker, F. (1928) : “The plutonic intrusions c: the Southern 
Uplands east of the Nile Valley.” Geol Mag., Vol. 65, 
pp. 153-162. 









94 


BULLETIN DE L’INSTITUT D'EGYPTE 


Table la. 


Chemical composition of the chief rocks 
of the Spango ccmplex. 



A 

B 

c 

D 

E 


S/186 

S/41 

S/162E 

501/D 

531/G 

Si0 2 

56.62 

57.26 

54.24 

58.68 

65.18 

A1 2 0 3 

17.88 

18.42 

18.03 

17.57 

16.93 

Fe 2 0 3 

2.64 

0.24 

0.96 

1.17 

0.94 

FeO 

6.74 

7.82 

8.08 

4.96 

3.42 

MgO 

5.72 

4.71 

5.72 

3.64 

2.18 

CaO 

tr. 

1.64 

3.19 

5.66 

2.63 

Na 2 0 

2.04 

2.65 

4.02 

3.64 

3.53 

K„0 

2.58 

2.69 

2.94 

2.79 

3.04 

H 2 0 — 

4.27 

2.45 

0.87 

0.96 

0.98 

H 2 0 — 

0.49 

0.48 

0.16 

0.05 

0.14 

Ti0 2 

0.87 

1.37 

1.26 

0.84 

0.72 

P s 0 5 

0.06 

0.07 

0.06 

0.07 

0.04 

MnO 

0.17 

0.05 

0.14 

0.09 

tr. 

Total 

100.08 

99.85 

99.67 

100.12 

99.73 


Analyst: W.H. Herdsman. 

A TJnmetamorpkosed mudstone, near Fingland Farm, about 1)00 ft. from 
the Knochensliag diorite (Sarkar, 1948, Table 1, analysis 1). 

B Cordierite-biotite- hornfels, a metamorpliosed mudstone of medium-grade, 
250 ft. from the Knochensliag diorite border (Sarkar, 194S, Table 1, 
analysis 2). 

O Biotite-amphibole-plagioclase-liornfels from near the Bucht Hill diorite 
margin (Sarkar, 194S, Table 1, analysis 3). 

D Porphyritic micro-diorite inclusion witliin the granodiocrite, from the right 
bank of Brocklaw Burn (Sarkar, 1948, Table 1, analysis 4). 

E Ilornblende-biotit.e-granodiorite, from the right bank of Brocklaw Burn 
(Sarkar. 1948, Table 1, analysis 5). 


PETUOGEXETïC SÏGNIFIUAXCE OF THE TRACE ELEMENTS 95 



T r ac e- elemen t 

Table lb. 

contents in ppm. of the chief 
of the Spango complex. 

rocks 


Elé¬ 

Sensi¬ 

A 

B 

C 

Average 

D 

E 

Average 

ment 

tivity 

S/186 

S/41 

S/162E 

BC 

501/D 

501/G 

DE 

Rb 

1 

85 

150 

220 

185 

180 

140 

160 

U 

1 

70 

500 

100 

300 

90 

80 

85 

Ba 

5 

1700 

1200 

2800 

2000 

2200 

2000 

2100 

Sr 

S 

120 

600 

2500 

1550 

2200 

2000 

2100 

Cr 

1 

160 

180 

350 

265 

120 

90 

105 

Co 

2 

30 

25 

50 

38 

30 

15 

23 

Ni 

2 

150 

150 

190 

170 

60 

30 

45 

Zr 

10 

180 

200 

280 

240 

1000 

800 

900 

La 

30 

s»: 

30 

30 

30 

30 

40 

33 

Y 

30 

70 

90 

150 

120 

160 

120 

140 

Cu 

3 

30 

50 

5 

28 

10 

12 

11 

V 

5 

110 

120 

140 

130 

130 

110 

120 

Ga 

1 

35 

35 

45 

40 

35 

40 

37 

Tl 

30 








Sn 

5 

* 

* 

-i' 

* 


* 

* 

Pb 

10 

10 

20 

10 

12 

10 

12 

11 

Sc 

10 

10 

20 

25 

23 

12 

10 

10 

Mo 

1 

1 

1 

2 

1.5 



* 

Ge 

10 


« 

* 


* 

=1= 

* 

Be 

5 

* 

* 


* 

* 

* 

* 

Ag 

1 

* 

1 

* 

•k 

3 

4 

3.5 

In 

10 




* 

* 

* 

* 


Ânalyst: R.A. Higazy. 

(*) Elément if présent is in amounts considerably less tlian its lirait of 
sensitivity. 


A — E are as given in Table la. 




















* 




TECTONICS OF EGYPT AS ANTICIPATED 
FROM FACIES OF SEDIMENTATION ( ) 

by 

RIAD A. HIGAZY, Ph. D. (Chicago), D. Sa (Edinu) 

Geology Department, University of Alexandria 

and 

IBRAHIM A. M. FARAG, Ph. D. (Cairo) 

Acting Head, Geology Department, Cairo University. 


ABSTRACT 

The different types of the Egyptian sédiments are discussed. 
The pre-Cambrian meta-sediments are mainly slates, greywackes 
and conglomérâtes They belong to the géosynclinal faciès and 
mark intense orogenic movements. The Paleozoic and Mesozoic 
sédiments are chiefly autochthonous limestones and orthoquart- 
zitic sandstones belonging to the epirogenic faciès (platform). 
They indicate relative crustal stability during these eras. The 
Tertiary sédiments, however, are a mixture of platform faciès 
sédiments and of conglomérâtes. They are suggestive of minor 
crustal movements taking place principally in Cretaceous-Eocene, 
earlv Middle Eocene, late Middle Eocene, late Upper Eocene, Oli¬ 
gocène, late Oligocene-early Miocene, late Middle Miucene, late 
Miocene-early Pliocène and late Pliocène. 


INTRODUCTION 

The sedimentological studies of Bailey (1930 and 1936), Jones 
(1938), Krynine (1941) and Pettijohn (1943) hâve clearly shown 
that tectonics govern the petrographical features of the different 
types of sédiments. Moreover, Pettijohn (1949) emphasizes that 
sédiments which form during the three tectonic stages, namely, 
the early géosynclinal (peneplanation), géosynclinal and post- 
geosynclinal (faulting) belong to the epirogenic (platform), 
orogenic (géosynclinal) and post-orogenic faciès of sédimentation 
respectively. The présent paper deals with the classification of 


(1) Communication présentée en séance du 9 avril 1956. 









98 


99 


BULLETIN DE L’INSTITUT D’EGYPTE 


the Egyptian sédiments according to the faciès concept, with 
emphasis on their relation to tectonics prevailing during their 
formation. 

PRE-CAMBRIAN SEDIMENTS 

According to Hume (1935, p. 652) the Metarchean rocks of 
Egypt include fine sédiments and contain abundant intrusive 
sills of dioritic and porphyritic composition. Moreover, he (Hume, 
1935) mentions that the Eparehean sédiments are composed 
chiefly of slates, conglomérâtes and breccias with fragments of 
granités and andésites. Consequently, such sédiments are ob- 
viously polymictic in composition. The recent investigations of 
the Egyptian Geological Survéy also indicate that the folded 
metamorphosed pre-Cambrian sédiments of the different régions 
of the Eastern Desert are principally conglomérâtes, slaty rocks 
and greywackes. 

In Gebel Ineigi District, Moustafa, Kabesh and Abdulla 
(1955, p. 9) found that the metasediments of Bint Abu Quraiya 
are massive mudstones, as well as granulites (argillites) and slate- 
greywackes, becoming prominent in Wadi El-Miyah and Gindi- 
Daghbag Districts. Among the rock fragments represented in 
these sédiments are : metamorphosed arenites and argillites, fine- 
grained granité and trachyte. 

It is important to notice that Amin, Sabet and Mansour 
(1953) in their description of the mudstones of Atud District, 
mention that these rocks represent a group of fine arkosic 
mudstones and are composed of quartz and feldspar grains, with 
an average diameter of 0.01 mm., together with chloritic matter. 
These features are obviously suggestive of the greywacke nature 
possessed by these sédiments. Moreover, these authors (Amin, 
Sabet and Mansour, 1953) State that there is gradational relation- 
ship between the mudstones and the metamorphic schists of Atud 
District. This fact would imply that the latter types also hâve 
greywacke affinities. Besides the muddy sédiments of this 
district, there are varieties of proper greywacke as well as others 
of conglomerate. The latter are widely distributed and their 
fragments reach 20 cm. in diameter and, in places, their thickness 
approaches 30 meters (Amin, Sabet and Mansour, 1953). 

The important feature of the presence of iron bands inter- 


TEUTONIUS OF EGYPT 


calated with pre-Cambrian metasediments in Abu Diab District 
(Amin, Moustafa and Zaatout, 1954) should not be overlooked. 
The iron-rich rocks of this district (Abu Diab) exhibit features 
similar to those of Wadi El-Karim near Kosseir, Wadi Abu Lassaf 
and Wadi Um Hagalig studied by Attia (1949). They vary in 
thickness south of Gebel El-Maiyit (Abu Diab District) from a 
few centimètres to 10 métrés. They form discontinuous bands of 
magnetite which, in places, are associated with others of jasper. 

It should be stated that magnetite-chert formations are known to 
be represented in the géosynclinal sédiments of (1) Timiskaming 
âge in different parts of the U.S.A. and (2) Upper Huronian of 
Upper Michigan (Pettijohn, 1943). The pre-Cambrian meta¬ 
sediments of Naba District (Amin, Mansour, Kabesh and El-Far, 
1953) and Umm Lassaf District (Amin and Mohamed, 1954) are 
similar to those of the above-mentioned districts. 

In general, the pre-Cambrian metasediments in the Central 
Eastern Desert (Amin, 1955) comprise (1) Eparchean-Metarchean 
amphibolites, mudstones and related greywacke and conglo¬ 
merate mixed with metavolcanics, ortho-green schists and pyro- 
clasts and (2) Post Gattarian purple slates, greywackes and poly¬ 
mictic conglomérâtes. 

Igneous intrusions, volcanicity, migmatization and granitiza- 
tion are ail well established phenomena which took place during 
the pre-Cambrian. Moreover, arenaceous rocks which possess 
orthoquartzitic nature, as well as autochthonous limestones, are 
lacking. Dolomitic rocks, however, are represented but they are 
related genetically to the serpentinites and talc-carbonate rocks 
(baramites) and they are not products of dolomitization of original 
limestones. Cross bedding and ripple marks which are commonly 
met with in the sédiments of the platform faciès are not en- 
countered in the pre-Cambrian metasediments. Ail these features 
lead us to the belief that the Egyptian pre-Cambrian sédiments 
belong to the géosynclinal faciès of sédimentation. They 
resemble the rock associations known from the Middle and Upper 
Huronian of the Upper Peninsula of Michigan, the Lower Paleo- 
zoic of Wales and the South Highlands of Scotland, the Jurassic 
of the Coast Ranges of California, the Triassic of Alaska and the 
Tertiary of the Alps. Ail these occurrences are known to mark 
strong diastrophism. It can be mentioned, therefore, that thj3£^ 
pre-Cambrian in Egypt, as evidenced from its sédiments, i^^îu ' 


100 


EFLLETIN DK 1/INSTITUT D'EGYPTE 


era of remarkable orogeny and great crustal movements accom- 
panied by folding, mountain building and rapid érosion and 
déposition. 


PALEOZOIC-MESOZOIC SEDIMENTS 

The contrast between the pre-Cambrian sédiments on the 
one hand, and those of both the Paleozoic and Mesozoic, on the 
other, is very striking. The latter eras are characterised by 
surprising prédominance of orthoquartzitic sandstones, limestones 
and maris; and lack of greywacke, feldspathic arenites and thick 
polymictic conglomérâtes as discussed below. 

- The marine Lower Paleozoic sédiments hâve not, so far been 
recorded with certainty in Egypt. The Carboniferous is, how- 
ever, recognized at Gebel Owenat (Western Desert), Wadi Araba, 
Wadi Abu Darag (Eastern Desert) and Umm Bogma in Sinai 
(Farag, 1953). Bail (1939) mentions that the Carboniferous seas 
spread over far larger areas than those covered by Carboniferous 
rocks. Moreover, he (Bail, 1939) States that the basal beds of 
the Nubian Sandstone may possibly belong to the Carboniferous 
period, or may even be of an earlier âge. On the whole, the 
Carboniferous in Egypt is composed mainly of beds of limestones 
and dolomites between two sériés of sandstones with noticeable 
ripple marks in the upper sériés. Glauconitic maris are en- 
countered in places, for instance, Abu Darag (Farag, 1953). 
Moreov.er, manganèse ores are présent intercalated with the 
Carboniferous formations in Sinai. 

Marine Permian formations are not known so far in Egypt. 
However, some of the unfossiliferous Nubian Sandstone may be 
Permian in âge. 

It can be stated, therefore, that the Paleozoic deposits in 
Egypt belong to the platform faciès of sédimentation. They are 
composed fundamentallv of autochthonous limestones and ortho¬ 
quartzitic sandstones which occasionally possess ripple marks. 
Such sédiments indicate that (1) the Paleozoic was an âge of 
relative crustal stability and (2) érosion and déposition were of 
slow rate during this era. 

Triassic sédiments occur at Gebel Areif El-Naga in Eastern 
Sinai (Awad, 1945). They comprise mainly of limestones, maris, 
gypsiferous clays, sandstones and dolomites (Awad, 1945). 


TECTONICS OF EGYPT 


101 


The Jurassic formations are more widely distributed than 
those of the Triassic. They are to be found in Gebel Maghara, 
Gebel Minshera (Northern Sinai), Northern Galala Plateau- 
Sukhna, Ras El-Abd, Wadi Am Lug and Wadi Araba on the 
scarp facing the Gulf of Suez (Farag, 1941, 1948 and Nakkady, 
1955). They are represented mainly by limestones, chalk, oolites, 
dolomites, maris, sandstones and shales, The sandstones are 
occasionally cross bedded. 

The Cretaceous rocks cover approximately two fifths of the 
surface of Egypt. They comprise Nubian Sandstone, chalk, lime¬ 
stones, maris, clays, phosphatic beds and iron formations. 
According to Higazy and Wasfy (1956), the Cretaceous Nubian 
Sandstones of Aswan District contain negligible amount of feld- 
spars (less than 5 per cent). The sandstones may possess glau- 
conite and, in places, are represented by orthoquartzitic conglo¬ 
mérâtes. The limestones are mainly autochthonous. They are 
often dolomitized and/or silicified and may hav.e chert 
nodules or bands. Arkosic sédiments, greywackes and 
polymictic conglomérâtes are not widely recroded in this 
period. However, the arkosic conglomerate bands at the base of 
the Mesozoic Nubian Sandstones exposed in a few localities in 
the Eastern and Western Deserts and the Nile Valley (Sandford, 
1935 and Farag, 1953), are thin and, therefore, should not be 
considered of the tectonic type. 

It is obvious, therefore, that the Mesozoic sédiments of 
Egypt, similar to those of the Paleozoic, belong to the platform 
faciès of sédimentation. This would imply that marked tectonic 
movements did not take place during this era and that peneplana- 
tion accompanied by slow déposition prevailed. 

TERTIARY SEDIMENTS 

The Cretaceous-Eocene relation features an interesting pro- 
blem in the stratigraphy of Egypt. The detailed character of the 
contact between these two periods is beyond the scope of the 
présent work. It can be stated, however, that unconformity 
marked mainly by conglomérâtes has been recognized by several 
investigators in different places, for instance, Abu Roash, Baha- 
riya Oasis and Gebel Maghara. In those localities, the conglo¬ 
mérâtes separate either the Cenomanian or the Maestrichtian 











102 


BULLETIN DE L’INSTITUT D’EGYPTE 


from the Middle or Upper Eocene. There are other places 
however, (Wadi Abu Durba in Sinai, Gebel Duwi in the Eastern 
Desert, Tramsa-Tukh in the Nile Valley at Qena and the Farafra 
Oasis in the Western D,esert) where continuity in sédimentation 
was recorded between the two periods under considération 
(Farag, 1953). Moreover, Shukri (1954) gives data, provided by 
Oil Companies of Egypt, which confirm the présence of both 
these contrasted relationships between the Cretaceous and the 
Eocene in different places of the Western and Eastern Deserts 
and Sinai. Our knowledge concerning the detailed pétrographie 
features of the Cretaceous-Eocene conglomérâtes is still meagre. 
However, these conglomérâtes, Wherever they ar présent, seem 
to mark a relatively slight tectonic movement. It is interesting 
to find Picard (1943) stating that the Syrian Arcs orogenic 
movement took place in post Cretaceous âges. This movement 
would account for the modification in the type of sédimentation 
faciès from typical platform in pre-Upper Cretaceous times to 
conglomeratic deposits encountered in places between the Upper 
Cretaceous and the Eocene. Moreover, Hassan (1951) in his 
study of the palaeontology and stratigraphy of the Maestrichtian- 
Paleocene of Kharga Oasis, came to the conclusion that the Syrian 
arcs uplift seems to be responsible for the formation of an euxinic 
sea south of the NE-SW Syrian ridge. Thus Paleocene shales 
characterised, in places, by the presence of dwarfed fauna 
(euxinic faciès) were deposited. 

The Eocene sédiments cover at least one fifth of the surface 
of Egypt. They belong to the Lower Eocene, Middle Eocene 
(Lower Mokattam) and Upper Eocene (Upper Mokattam). The 
Lower Eocene is represented by limestones which often contain 
chert nodules and bands, maris and shales; the latter are, in 
places, of Paleocene âge. The Middle Eocene sédiments are 
mainly chalk and limestones. The Upper Eocene rocks are 
noticeably different from those of both the Lower and Middle 
Eocene. They comprise sandstones and maris of brown ochreous 
colour, with occasional intercalations of limestones and chalk. 
Moreover, limestones and gypsiferous clays overlain by ferru- 
ginous sandstones with lignite and plant remains are encountered 
near Qasr El-Saga (Farag, 1953). 

Eocene conglomérâtes, other than those forming the un- 
conformity between the Mesozoic and the Tertiary, are also met 


TECTOMC'S OF EGYPT 


103 


with. Conglomerate beds were recorded in the Lower Mokattam 
by Cuvillier (1929). A thin conglomerate intervenes between the 
Middle Eocene and the Upper Eocene at Qait Bey (Farag, 1953). 
A conglomerate band was found above the Lower Eocene 
deposits at Khodeid El-Dib dôme (eastern coast of the Gulf of 
Suez). 

The Oligocène sédiments cover only 1.5 per cent of Egypt’s 
surface and its deposits are markedly different from those of 
the Eocene. They comprise chert pebbles and gravels, unfossi- 
liferous sandstones, grits, travertines and silicified wood frag¬ 
ments. In addition, both fluviatile and marine Oligocène deposits 
are encountered in places. The former are represented by 
alternating sands, maris and calcarenites, while the latter are 
composed of limestones, sandy maris and calcarenites with inver- 
tebrate fossils. It is interesting to find that the Oligocène rocks 
in Egypt include volcanic types, mainly of basaltic nature en¬ 
countered in several régions, for instance, Bahariya Oasis, Gebel 
Katrani, Abu Roash, Abu Zaabal, Cairo-Suez road and Wadi 
Araba. Reference should be made to Andrew (1937) for the 
detailed geographical distribution of these Tertiary basaltic rocks 
in Egypt. Moreover, hydrothermal activities started in late 
Oligocène resulting in the formation of hard iron-stained quart- 
zites in Gebel Ahmar and Gebel El-Nasuri District (Shukri and 
Akmal, 1953) and continued during post Oligocène times as 
discussed in detail by Shukri (1933). However, Ismail and Farag 
(1956) recorded hydrothermal activity producing cylindrical 
pipes between the Upper Eocene and the Pliocène deposits, east 
of Helwan. Conglomeratic bands are recorded with dolerites and 
'Red Beds” at Tanka on the eastern coast of the Gulf of Suez. 

The Miocène deposits are more widely spread than those of 
the Oligocène. They cover about 12 per cent of Egypt’s surface. 
They are represented by different types of sédiments. These are : 
(1) marin deposits showing local variations and comprising 
essentially sands, grits, maris, marly sands, limestones and gypsi¬ 
ferous clays occurring in the northern plateau of the Western 
Desert, as well as along the Cairo-Suez road in the northern 
strêtch of the Eastern Desert ; (2) fluvio-marine sédiments com¬ 
posed of sandstones, limestones and gypsiferous maris with 
marine invertebrates and land vertebrates and silicified woods, 
being similar to those of the Oligocène and the Upper Eocene. 










104 


BULLETIN DE L'INSTITUT D'EGYPTE 


Such sédiments are présent in the Moghra District (Western 
Desert) ; (3) saline deposits composecl of anhydrite and gypsum 
existing in the Gulf of Suez area and in Northern Sinai, and 
(4) fresh water shellv chalks and sandy beds represented south 
of Siwa and north of the Galala El-Bahariya plateau. 

It is worth mentioning that conglomeratic beds reaching 
40 métrés and composed of granitic. boulders are found at the 
top of the Middle Miocene at Abu Shaar and Dishet El-Daba. 
Moreover, conglomérâtes occur in the early Middle Miocene at 
Ras Matarma and Sudr Oil Fields, but their exact âge is still a 
matter of controversy. Towards the eastern border of the graben 
faults nearly ail the members of the Miocene, on the eastern 
coast of the Gulf, seem to change laterally into gritty sandstones, 
clays and conglomérâtes (Tromp, 1951). 

The Pliocène sédiments are encountered in places in the 
Western Desert, the Nile Yaley and along the coast of the Gulf 
of Suez and the western side of the Red Sea. The deposits of 
this period are mainly marine limestones and clays. In Wadi 
Natrun, however, estuarine sands and gypsif,erous clays with 
land remains of fishes, reptilians and mammals are encountered. 
Near the Pyramids, the Lower Pliocène marine beds are 
s,eparated from the Eocene by a conglomerate. Another conglo- 
merate intervenes between the Upper Eocene and the Upper 
Pliocène marine calcareous deposits at Quait Bey (Farag, 1953). . 
Early Pliocène terrestial conglomérâtes, gravels and sands occur 
in the Nile Valley south of Béni Suef. These are derived from 
sedimentary rocks of Cretaceous and Eocene âge, with little or 
no crystalline rock pebbles. At the western coast of the Gulf of 
Suez the Pliocène deposits are mainly rock sait and diatomaceous 
earth. 

It is évident, therefore, that the Tertiary rocks are, in 
general, different from those of both the Paleozoic and Mesozoic. 
They are characterised by the presence of (1) autochthonous 
limestones and orthoquartzitic sandstones and (2) conglomérâtes 
fluviatile deposits and basaltic flows. The former types indicate 
epirogenic conditions of sédimentation, whereas the lattei aie 
suggestive of development during relatively minor crustal distur¬ 
bances. It is known that the Alpine orogeny took place during 
the Tertiary giving rise to the flysch (géosynclinal) sédiments of 
the Alps. It would appear that Egypt was affected inter 


TECTONICS OF EGYPT 


105 


mittently by puises of this great diastrophic movement which 
was taking place at a relatively remote distance. The faciès of 
sédimentation of the different Tertiary rocks bear witness to 
such puises, which caused uplifts, faulting and basaltic flows. 
There are sédiments (mainly conglomérâtes) and volcanic flows 
marking minor crustal disturbances in the following âges : Early 
Middle Eocene, late Middle Eocene, late Upper Eocene, Oligocène, 
late Oligocene-early Miocene, late Middle Miocene, late Miocene- 
early Pliocène and late Pliocène. 

CONCLUSIONS 

The Egypt.ian sédiments are principally of three distinct 
types : 

(1) The pre-Cambrian sédiments are mainly slates, grey- 
waekes and conglomérâtes mixed with greenstones and tuff- 
stones. They belong, therefore, to the géosynclinal faciès of sédi¬ 
mentation. They mark the great orogenic movements which 
prevailed during this era. 

(2) The Paleozoic and Mesozoic sédiments are remarkably 
different from those of the pre-Cambrian. They are chiefly ortho¬ 
quartzitic sandstones and autochthonous limestones belonging to 
the platform faciès of sédimentation. They are suggestive of the 
relative stability, peneplanation, and slow érosion and déposition 
which took place during the different periods of both the Paleo¬ 
zoic and the Mesozoic. 

The conglomérâtes which are encountered, in places, 
between the Cretaceous and Middle or Upper Eocene are indi¬ 
cative of local uplifts (the Syrian Arcs orogenic movement). 

(3) The Tertiary sédiments are a mixture of types which 
belong to the platform faciès of sédimentation and of conglo¬ 
mérâtes, fluviatile and fluvio-marine deposits. Basaltic flows of 
late Oligocène âge are encountered in different places. Such 
rocks are suggestive of intermittent slight crustal movements. 
These movements appear to be puises of the great Alpine 
orogeny. The âges of these puises are principally early Middle 
Eocene, late Middle Eocene, late Upper Eocene, Oligocène, late 
Oligocene-early Miocene, late Middle Miocene, late Miocene-early 
Pliocène and late Pliocène. 












106 


P,rLUCX'IX DE 1/INSTITUT D’EGYI’TK 


REFERENCES CITED 


Amin, M.S. (1955) : “Some régional features of the pre-Cambrian 
in the Central Eastern Desert, Egypt.” Bull. Inst. Desert 
d’Egypte. Tome 5, No. 1, p. 193-208. 

Amin, M.S.; Mansour, M.S.; Kabesh, M.L.A. and El-Far, D.M. 
(1953) : “Geology of the Naba District.” Geol. Surv. Egypt, 
Government Press, Cairo, p. 51. 

A mi n M.S. and Mohamed, I.H. (1954) : “Geology of Umm Lassaf 
District.” Geol. Surv. Egypt, Cairo, p. 13. 

Amin, M.S.; Moustafa, G.A. and Zaatout, M.A. (1954) : “Geology 
of Abu Diab District.” Geol. Surv. Egypt, Cairo, p. 42. 

Amin, M.S.; Sabet, A.H. and Mansour, A.O.S. (1953) : “Geology 
of Atud District.” Geol. Surv. Egypt, Cairo, p. 79. 

Andrew, G. (1937) : “The late Tertiary igneous rocks of Egypt 
(field relations).” Bull. Faculty of Science, Cairo, No. 10, 

p. 1-61. 

Attia, M.I. (1949) : “A new mode of occurrence of iron-ore 
deposits in the Eastern Desert of Egypt.” Bull. Inst. d’Egyp¬ 
te, Tome 31, p. 50-68. 

Awad, G.H. (1945) : “On the occurrence of marine Triassic 
(Muschelkalk) deposits in Sinai.” Bull. Inst. d’Egypte, Tome 
27, p. 397-427. 

Bailey, E.B. (1930) : “New light on sédimentation and tectonics.” 
Geol. Mag., Vol. 67, p. 77. 

Bailey, E.B. (1936) : “Sédimentation in relation to tectonics.” 

Geol. Soc. America Bull., Vol. 47, p. 1716-1718. 

Bail, J. (1939) : “Contributions to the geography of Egypt.” Surv. 

Mines Dept., Government Press, Cairo, p. 307. 

Cuvillier, J. (1929) : “Les conglomérats de Kait-Bey.” Bull. Inst. 
d’Egypte, Tome 10, p. 73-77. 

Farag, I.A.M. (1941) : “The Jurassic formations in Egypt.” Ph.D. 
Thesis, Cairo University. 

Farag, I.A M. (1948) : “Deux nouveaux gisements de Bathonien 
fossilifère sur la rive occidentale du Golfe de Suez en 
Egypte.” C.R.S. de la Soc. Geol. France, Séance 15 Mars, 
p. 109-110. 

Farag, I.A.M. (1953) : “Stratigraphy of Egypt.” Geol. Dept., Cairo 
University. 

Farag, I.A.M. and Ismail, M.M. (1956) : “Contribution to the 
stratigraphy of Wadi Hof Area (north east of Helwan, 
Egypt).” Bull. Faculty of Science, Cairo (in the press). 
Hassan, M.Y. (1951) : “The stratigraphy and paleontology of the 
Maestrichtian-Paleocene rocks of Kharga Oasis, Egypt.” 
Ph.D. Thesis, Bristol University. 


TECTONICS OF EGYPT 


107 


Higazy, R.A. and Wasfy, H.M. (1956) : “Petrogenesis of granitic 
rocks in the neighbourhood of Aswan, Egypt.” (in prépara¬ 
tion). 

Hume, W.F. (1935) : Geology of Egypt, Vol. II, Part II. “The 
later plutonic and minor intrusive rocks.” Surv. Dept. 
Egypt, Government Press, Cairo, p. 387. 

Ismail, M.M. and Farag, I.A.M. (1956) : “Contribution to the stra¬ 
tigraphy of the area east of Helwan, Egypt.” Bull. Inst. 
Désert d’Egypte, (in the press). 

Jones, O.T. (1938) : “On the évolution of a geosyncline.” Geol. 
Soc. Quart. Jour. London, Vol. 94, p. lx. 

Krynine, P.D. (1941) : “Différentiation of sédiments during the 
life history of a landmass.” Geol. Soc. America Bull., Vol 52, 
p. 1915. 

Moustafa, G.A.; Kabesh, M.L. and Abdulla, A.M. (1955) : “Geology 
of Gebel Ineigi District.” Geol. Surv. Egypt, Cairo, p. 40. 

Nakkady, S.E. (1955) : “The stratigraphy and geology of the 
district between the Northern and Southern Galala Plateaus 
(Gulf of Suez Coast, Egypt).” Bull Inst. d’Egypte, Tome 36, 
p. 253-268. 

Pettijohn, F.J. (1943) : “Archean sédimentation.” Geol. Soc. Am. 
Bull., Vol. 54, p. 925-972. 

Pettijohn, F.J. (1949) : “Sedimentary rocks.” Harper and Bros., 
New York, p. 526. 

Picard, L. (1943) : “Structure and évolution of Palestine.” Geol. 
Dept., Hebrew University, Vol. IV, Nos. 2, 3 and 4. 

Sandford, K.S. (1935) : “Geological Observations on the North 
West Frontiers of Anglo-Egyptian Sudan and the Adjoining 
Part of the Southern Libyan Desert.” Quart. Journ. Geol. 
Soc. London, 91, 323-381. 

Shukri, N.M. (1953) : “On cylindrical structures and colouration 
of Gebel Ahmar near Cairo, Egypt.” Bull. Faculty of Science, 
Cairo, No 32, p. 1-23. 

Shukri, N.M. (1954) : “Remarks on the geological structure of 
Egypt.” Bull. Soc. Geogr. d’Egypte, Tome 27, p. 65-82. 

Shukri, N.M. and Akmal, M.G. (1953) : “The geology of Gebel El- 
Nasuri and Gebel El-Ankabiya District.” Bull. Soc. Geogr. 
d’Egypte, Tome 26, p. 243-276. 

Tromp, F.W. (1951) : “Preliminary compilation of the macro- 
stratigraphy of Egypt.” Bull. Soc. Geogr. d’Egypte Tome 24. 
p. 55-106. 











NOTICE NECROLOGIQUE SUR LE PR. G. V. ANREP 
(23 Septembre 1893 - 10 Janvier 1955) 


par le 

Prof. CH. AV 1ER INOS 

Un grand physiologiste, un des plus hauts représentants de 
la Médecine Egyptienne, notre cher collègue, le Prof. Anrep, a 
succombé le 10 janvier 1955, alors que quelques mois avant sa 
mort il était encore sur la brèche, en plein travail scientifique. 
Né le 23 Septembre 1893 à Saint Petersburg, Anrep descendait 
d’une vieille famille de nobles, originaires de Riga. Il fit ses 
études médicales en Russie et les terminait en 1915, époque à 
laquelle survint la grande tourmente. Anrep s’engagea alors dans 
l’armée Russe, et fut blessé deux fois, après avoir été au feu 
17 fois. 

Quelques années plus tard, en 1918, il obtint son doctorat 
en médecine et devint assistant de l’éminent professeur physio¬ 
logiste Ivan Pavlov. Son maître exerça sur sa destinée médicale 
une influence décisive, et sous l’égide de ce savant, le défunt que 
nous commémorons aujourd hui acquit les bases de la physio¬ 
logie et prit le goût de la recherche médicale, qu’il sut, d’ailleurs, 
pousser si loin avec autant de mérite que de valeur. 

Anrep quitta la Russie en 1920 et vint s’installer à Londres 
ou il fut promu professeur agrégé de physiologie à l’Université 
de Londres, sous la direction du Pr. Starling. En 1925, il reçut 
le Doctorat ès sciences. Trois années plus tard il était élu mem¬ 
bre de la Société Royale, juste récompense pour ses précieux 
travaux sur la cardiologie et la digestion. 

Au cours de la même année, il était élu professeur agrégé 
de physiologie à l’Université de Cambridge, puis, en 1930, il ar¬ 
rivait au Caire pour être nommé, l’année suivante, Professeur 
titulaire de la chaire de physiologie à la Faculté de Médecine 
de Kasr-el-Aini (Université du Caire), succédant à notre collègue 
le Professeur Wilson ; il conservait ce poste jusqu’en 1952, date 
a laquelle atteint par la limite d âge il était mis à la retraite. 





110 


DI’LEDIT N DE LTXSTTTTT D'EGYPTE 


Il gravit ainsi tous les échelons jusqu’aux plus hautes distinc¬ 
tions médicales et scientifiques. Jusqu à sa retraite on le tiou 
vait aussi alerte qu’à ses débuts. Jamais son zèle ne se ralentit 
pendant ces vingt deux années qu’il occupa la chaire de physio¬ 
logie à la Faculté de Kasr el-Aini. Il conservait le même enthou¬ 
siasme, et la même activité scientifiqùe. 

Dans cette tâche, il ne se contenta pas seulement de former, 
avec d’ailleurs un succès toujours croissant, plusieurs généra¬ 
tions d’étudiants, mais il réunit autour de lui certains jeunes 
médecins, et créa entre eux une union scientifique, en les orien¬ 
tant vers la recherche expérimentale. Travailleur ardent, d une 
activité débordante, possédant la bibliographie mondiale, diri¬ 
geant heureusement les recherches de son Laboratoire, il était 
un physiologiste d’une sûreté incomparable. 

Il excellait dans les travaux de recherches qu’il présentait 
avec clarté et précision, réunissant autour de lui des collabora¬ 
teurs qualifiés et dévoués. 

Son travail obstiné, ses qualités morales et intellectuelles 
méritèrent à Anrep, une renommée mondiale, qui ne fut que la 
juste gloire et la récompense de sa brillante carrière. La re¬ 
nommée du grand défunt avait, depuis longtemps, dépassé les 
frontières de l’Egypte, si bien qu’il était devenu membre de 
plusieurs Sociétés savantes tant de l’Ancien que du Nouveau 
Monde. 

Il a eu la satisfaction d’avoir formé pendant ces longues 
années de travail, d’excellents élèves, plusieurs desquels sont 
actuellement des maîtres dans notre science. Parmi eux, je cite¬ 
rais Blalock, qui professe avec éclat la chirurgie cardio-vasculaire 
à Baltimore et dont le nom, grâce à l’opération imaginée par lui 
et la Dr. Taussig est devenu célèbre universellement. Parmi eux 
encore, le Dr. Talaat du Caire, excellent physiologiste et Profes¬ 
seur à la Faculté de Médecine de Kasr-el-Aini, Downing, 
Hauesler, King, Stacey, Saalfeeld et bien d’autres encore, qui 
ont exécuté de remarquables travaux scientifiques. .. 

L’œuvre scientifique d’Anrep est en réalité considérable et 
nombreux sont ses travaux qui lui acquirent une:iplace,prédo¬ 
minante dans le domaine de la physiologie. Plus de .*'90 .publicar 
tions en effet viennent confirmer son ardeur communicative iaui 
travail et son génie créateur. . ■>:?& •dloupuï 


NOTICE NECROLOGIQUE SUR LE 1*11. G. V. ANREP 111 

Par ses travaux, il sut contrôler et discuter pertinemment 
les données classiques, enrichissant la physiologie contemporaine 
de nouvelles ,et originales conceptions. 

Par mi les travaux physiologiques du Pr. Anrep, il convient 
de citer tout d’abord ses recherches sur la circulation corona¬ 
rienne. Il poursuivit des travaux expérimentaux sur ce problème 
pendant dix années.et il précise les règles qui régissent la cir¬ 
culation coronarienne. Il résulte de ces travaux importants que 
la systole ventriculaire constituerait un obstacle à la circulation 
coronaire, d’autant plus grand que la contraction cardiaque serait 
plus énergique. Ainsi, d’après Anrep et ses collaborateurs, le 
flux coronaire s’effectue-t-il sans résistance principalement pen¬ 
dant la révolution cardiaque, qui correspond à la diastole, dépen¬ 
dant ainsi de la pression moyenne systolique-diastolique de 
l’aorte. 

Dans un autre groupe de travaux, il compléta les conclusions 
de son maître Pavlov sur la digestion. 

Son œuvre était tellement diffusée et appréciée à l’étranger 
qu’il fut appelé, en 1935, par l’Université Stanhope de New York 
pour donner une série de conférences sur le système cardio¬ 
vasculaire, qui ont été publiées par la Société Harvey. Avant 
son départ des Etats Unis, on lui proposa la chaire de physio¬ 
logie à l’Université Stanhope : il la refusa et retourna en Egypte. 

Durant les dernières années de sa vie, il s’est occupé de la 
question, toujours aussi actuelle, de l’allergie. Son œuvre n’était 
cependant pas encore achevée ; il lui restait un dernier devoir 
à remplir ; celui-ci suprême : présider le Congrès International de 
physiologie de Londres du 15 Avril 1955, et communiquer les 
résultats de ses ultimes études sur l’allergie. 

II serait inutile de rappeler et d’analyser ici tous ses travaux 
scientifiques et les contributions capitales apportées encore par 
lui dans le domaine physiologique. 

Un grand esprit et un grand cœur ont disparu : le Professeur 
G.V. Anrep n’est plus. Tous ceux qui l’ont connu dans l’éclat de 
son enseignement magistral comme dans l’intimité de son Labo¬ 
ratoire éprouveront certainement un profond serrement de cœur. 

Elève de deux savants physiologistes réputés, Anrep, mérite 
vraiment à tous égards, par toutes ses qualités intellectuelles et 












112 


BULLETIN DE J/INSTITUT D'EGYPTE 


morales, la renommée mondiale pourtant si difficile à acquérir. 
Aussi, la postérité inscrira-t-elle dans son livre d’or le nom 
d’Anrep, comme celui d’un être d’élite, esclave du devoir, qui 
s’est donné, corps et âme, au culte de la science dont il était le 
noble et dévoué serviteur. * 

Le nom d’Anrep est un titre de gloire pour la Faculté de 
Médecine du Caire : il y laisse une superbe pléiade d’élèves ; 
ceux-ci diront mieux que moi, par leurs actes et leurs paroles, 
toutes les qualités du Savant et du Professeur. 

Il m’avait honoré de son affection et de sa confiance scien¬ 
tifique, il me les a témoignées à maintes reprises de façon si 
touchante et si spontanée qu’aujourd’hui m’adressant à Mme 
Anrep et à son fils, je veux leur exprimer au nom de mes collè¬ 
gues et en mon propre nom nos respectueuses condoléances et 
l’assurance de notre vive sympathie dans leur grande douleur. 
Je dépose sur sa tombe l’hommage profondément ému de mon 
admiration. 


List of Scientifie Contributions made by and under the immédiate 
direction of Dr. G.V. Anrep, Doctor of Medicine, Master of Arts, 
Doctor of Science, Fellow of the Royal Society, at présent Professor 
of Physiology at the Faculty of Medicine, University of Cairo, Egypt. 

1. “On the part played by the suprarenals in the normal vascular 
reactions of the body.” J. Physiol., 1912, 45, 307. 

2. “On local vascular reactions and their interprétation.” J. Phy¬ 
siol., 1912, 45, 318. 

3. “The influence of the vagus on pancreatic sécrétion.” J. Phy¬ 
siol, 1914, 49, 1. 

4. “The influence of the vagus on pancreatic sécrétion.” (Second 
communication). J. Physiol, 1916, 50, 420. 

5. “Pitch discrimination in the dog.” T. Physiol, 1920, 53, 367. 

6. “The mode o,f action of vaso-dilator nerves. Phys. Proc, 1920. 

7. “Electrical variations of the pancréas.” Proc. Physiol. Soc, 

1921. 

8. “Note on the supposed identity of the water-soluble vitamin B 
and secretin.” J. Physiol, 192Ï, 54, 349. 

9. “The relation of salivary to gastric sécrétion.” Biochem. 
Journ, 1922, 16, 390. 

10. “Observations on augmented salivary sécrétions.” J. Physiol, 

1922, 56, 263. 


NOTICE NECROLOGIQUE SUR LE PR. G. V. ANREP 


113 


11. “The Metabolism: of the salivery. — I. The relation of the chor- 
da tympani to the nitrogen metabolism. of the submaxillary 
gland.” J. Physiol., 1921, 54, 320. 

12. “The metabolism of the salivery glands. 11. — The blood sugar 
metabolism of the submaxillary gland.” [. Physiol., 1922, 56, 
248. 

13. “The metabolism of the salivery glands. III. — The blood 
sugar metabolism of the submaxillary gland.” J. Physiol., 1922, 

57, 1. 

\ 4 . “The Metabolism of the salivery glands. IV. — The metabo¬ 
lism of the reducing substance of the submaxillary gland.” I. 
Physiol, 1922, 57, 7. 

15. “The metabolism o.f the salivery glands. V. — The process of 
reconstruction of the submaxillary gland.” T. Physiol, 1924, 

58, 302. 

16. “The concentration of lactic acid in the blood in experimental 
alkalemia and acidæmia.” J. Physiol, 1923, 58,244. 

17. “The irradiation of conditioned réflexes.” Proc. Roy. Soc, B. 
1923, 94, 404. 

18. “A new rnethod of crossed circulation.” Proc. Roy. Soc, B. 1925, 
97, 444. 

19. “The output of adrénaline in cérébral anæmia as studied by 
means of crossed circulation.” Proc. Roy. Soc, B. 1925, 97, 450. 

20. Central and reflex régulation of the circulation.” Proc. Roy. 
Soc. B., 1925,97,463. 

21. “Observations on the pulmonarv criculation.” |. Physiol, 1925, 
60, 175. 

22. “Observations on pancreatic sécrétion.” |. Phvsiol, 1925, 59, 
434. 

23. “Observations upon reactive hyperæmia.” Heart, 1926, 12, 281. 

24. “The isométrie contraction of the frog’s ventricle.” Heart, 
1926, 13, 61. 

25. “Concerning the part played by the sinus caroticus in the cen¬ 
tral régulation of the circulation.” roc. Physiol. Soc, 1926. 

26. “Observations on the effects of température and of drugs on 
the coronary and systemic arteries.” Proc. Physiol. Soc, 
February, 1926. 

27. “A rnethod for the quantitative measurement of quick in the 
out low of liquids.” Journ. Scient. Inst, 1926, April, Vol. III. 

28. “The central and reflex régulation of the heart rate.” T. Phy¬ 
siol, 1926, 61, 215. 

29. “The coronarv circulation in the isolated heart.” T Physiol, 
1926, 61, 615/ 

30. “The régulation of the coronarv circulation.” Heart, 1926, 13. 
239. 

31. The régulation of the coronary circulation Physiol. Revs, 
1926, 6, 5%. 










114 


32. 

33. 

34. 

35. 

36. 

37. 

38. 

39. 

40. 

41. 


42. 


43. 

44. 

45. 

46. 

47. 

48. 


49. 


50. 

51. 

52. 


BULLETIN DE L'INSTITUT D’EGXPTE 


“A contribution to the physiology of the coronary circulation.” 
"The coronary circulation in relation to the cardiac cycle. 

Heart., 1927, 14, 111. . „ T 

“Réactions of isolated systemic and coronary arteries. J. rny- 

“Vascular properties of traumatised and laked bloods. J. Phy- 

siol., 1927, 64, 155. . 

“Comparative effect of various drugs upon the coronary circu¬ 
lation.T. Physiol., 1927, 64, 187. 

“The influence of mechanical factors of the circulation upon 
the heart.” volume. J. Physiol., 1928, 65, 146. 

“The significance of the diastolic and systohe blood pressures 
for the maintenance of the coronary circulation.” J. Physiol., 

“The coronary circulation : — I. Ihe effect of changes of the 
blood pressure and of the output of the heart.” J. Physiol., 

1928,65,357. , 

“The coronary circulation: — II. Ihe effect of changes of 
température and o.f heart rate.” J. Physiol., 1929, 67, 299. 
“The coronary circulation: — III. The dependence of changes 
in the coronary blood flow on cardiac and local vascular fac¬ 
tors.” I. Physiol., 1929, 68, 324. 

“Neue Üntersuchungen ueber Physiologie und Pharmakologie 
der Koronargefæsse.” Verhandlungen der Deutschen Pharmak. 


Gesell. 

“A modified cannula for perfusion of the isolated heart.” Proc. 

physiol Soc., 1928, 6 d. , 

“The distribution of the blood in the coronary blood vessels. 

T. Physiol., 1929, 67, 87. 

“The replacement of depleted adrénaline in the suprarenals. 

J. Physiol., 1929, 68, 313. 

“The carotid sinus.” J. Physiol., Proceedings, 1930, 69. 

“A reversed action of the chorda typani on the venous outflow 
from the submaxillary gland.” J. Physiol., 1930, 70, 449. 

“The relation between amplitude of contraction and rate of 
rhytm in the mammalian ventricle. Including interprétation of 
the apparent indirect action of the vagus on amplitude of ven- 
tricular contraction.” J. Physiol., 1930, 70, 455. 

“Beobachtungen ueber den Coronarfluss im Reptilienherzen/ 
Pfluegers Arch. 1931, 288, B and, 652. 

“Studies on the coronary arteries of the human heart.” Journ. 
Pharmacol. and Expt. Therap., 1932, 45, 65. 

“Effect of asphyxia and of anoxæmia on the electrocardio- 
gram.” The Amer. Heart Journ , 1932, 8, 259. 

Der Hitzdraht-Anemometer und seine Anwendung zur Messung 
von Blutstroemen.” Arch. f. Exp. Pathol, und Pharmak.. 1931, 
163 band, 311. 


NOTICE XECIlOCOCIorE SUR LE PR. G. V. ANHEP 


115 


53. “The effect of puise pressure upon the coronary blood flow.” 
J. Physiol., 1931, 73, 405. 

54 . “The coronarv circulation in the isolated perfused heart.” J. 
Physiol., 1932' 74, 1. 

55. “Herzreflexe pulmonalen Ursprungs.” Pfluegers Arch., 1932, 
231 Band 33. 

56. “Observation upon the blood flow through skeletal muscle by 
the use of the hot wire anemometer.” Amer. T. Physiol., 1930, 
95, 554. 

57. “Double vagotomy in relation to respiration.” T. Physiol., 1932, 
67, 1. 

58. “Venoeser Blutdruk und Herzreflexe pulmonalen Ursprungs.” 
Pfluegers Arch. 1933, 231 Band, 724. 

59. “The effect of cardiac contraction upon the coronary flow.” J. 
Physiol., 1933, 79, 317. 

60. “Der Einfluss der Herzkontraktion Auf Den Blutstrom in Dem 
Coronararterien.” Klin. Wchr.ft., 1933, Nr. 35, S. 1353/1355. 

61. “Die Mechanik der Atmung bei Uromastix (Lacertilia).” Pflue¬ 
gers Arch., 1933, 233 Band, 431. 

62. “Die nervoese Regulierung der Atembewegungen bei Uromastix 
(Lacertilia).” Pfluegers Arch., 1933, 233 Band, 449. 

63. “La curva aminoacidemica nelkuremia sperimentale.” 1933, Mi- 
nerva Medica., Year XXIV, Vol. II. 

64. “l/Effet de la thyroxine, de la parathvroidine et de l’ergostre- 
rol sur la régénération des os.” Proc Surgical Soc. of Egypt. 
Vod. I., Tune 1933. 

65. “Influenza délia tiroxina, délia paratiroidina e délia vitamina 
sulla rigenerazione delle ossa.” 1933, annali Italiani di chirurgia., 
Year XII, Fasc. 8. 

66. “Respiratorv variations of the heart rate.” Archivio di Scienze 
Biologiche., 1933, Vol. XVIII. No. 1 - 4. 

67. “Beobahtungen ueber den Coronarfluss im Vogelherzen.” 
Pfluegers Arch., 1934, 234 Band. 225. 

68. “Humoral Uebertragbare Vaguswirkungen bei Uromastix 
(Lacertilia).” Pfluegers Arch., 1934, 235 Band, 22. 

69. “Humoral uebertragene Vaguswirkungen im ganzen Tier.” 
Plfuegers Arch., 1934, 235 Band, 15. 

/0. “The effect of muscular contraction upon the blood flow in the 
skeletal muscle.” Proc. Roy. Soc., B, 1934. 114, 223. 

71. “The effect of muscular contraction upon the blood flow in the 
skeletal muscle, in the diaphragm and in the small intestine.” 
Proc. Roy. Soc., B, 1934, 114. 245. 

/2- Ihe part plaved by the splanchnic innervation in the emptying 
time of the stomach.” T. Physiol., 1935, 84, 232. 

73. “The action of acetone and of the Ketone bodies présent in dia- 
betic blood upon the heart.” Journ. Exp. Pathol., 1935, 16, 25. 









116 


BULLETIN DE L'INSTITUT D’EGYPTE 


74. “The blood flow through the skeletal muscle in relation to its 
contraction.” J. PhysioL, 1935, 85, 375. 

75. “Appearance of histamine in the venous blood dur in g* muscular 
contraction.” J. Phvsiol., 1935, 85, 409. 

76. “Distribution of histamine between plasma and red blood 
corpuscles.” J. PhysioL, Proceedings/1935, Vol. 85. 

77. “Histamine destruction by the kidney.” J. Phvsiol., Proc. 19o6. 
Vol. 86. 

78. “A method for détermination of carbon dioxide applicable to 
blood and tissues.” J. PhysioL, 1936, 86, 153. 

79. “Liberation of histamine by the heart muscle. J. Phvsiol., 
1936, 86, 431. 

80. “The reflex mechanism of the respiratory arrhythmia. Proc. 
Roy. Soc, B, 1936, 119, 191. 

81. “The central mechanism of the respiratory arrhythmia. Proc. 
Roy. Soc., B, 1936, 119, 218. 

82. “Lequivalente istaminico nel sangue in diverse condizione pato- 
logiche.” Minerva Medica., 1936, Anno XXVII, Vol. I, No. 23. 

83. “Ueber die Ursache der respiratorischen Arrhythmie.” P.flue- 
gers Arch., 1936, 238 Band, 108. 

84. “The circulation in plain and striated muscles in relation to 
their activity.” The Harvey Lectures., 1934 - 35. 

85. “L’Histamine du sang en rapport avec la contraction musculai¬ 
re.” Bulletin de L’Académie de Médecine de Roumanie. 1ère 
Année, Tome I. 

86. “The histamine équivalent of the Arterial blood during the 
Chemical phase of gastric sécrétion.” 

In addition to the above scientific publications the following 
books were written or edited : 

Experimental Physiology, Churchill. 1925. 

Conditioned reflexes (Pavlov) Oxford Universitv Press, 1926. 
The Cooper Lane Lectures, Standford Universitv Press. 1936. 


ANTHROPOMORPHIC AND ZOOMORPHIC 
LETTERS IN THE HISTORY OF 
ARABIC WRITING ( ) 


by 

Dr ADOLF GROHMANN 

It is now just 110 years since Michelangelo Land published 
the first samples of both kinds of these fancy forms of writing in 
ois “Seconda opéra Cufica, Trattato delle simboliche Rappresen- 
tanze Arabiche, Paris 1845-46 ( 1 2 ). And although Joseph von 
Karabacek ( 3 ), the originator of scientific Arabie Paleography, 
has occasionally shown the interesting rôle, which these Drôle¬ 
ries Arabes” played in art and in the history of script, nobody 
has yet consecrated spécial studies to it ( 4 ). 

In my last lecture “The Origin and Early Development of 
Floriated Kufic” (on 25th April, 1955) I had already lightly 
touched upon these strange and fantastic products of the niai- 
vellous art of Arabie writing. I hâve tried to show, in what 
close connection with Hellenistic book-illumination the évolution 
of “Coufique fleuri” happened to be. Now the same can be 
stated concerning the group of “fancy letters, ’ anthropomorphic 
as well as zoomorphic, the former using human bodies or parts 
thereof. the latter bodies of animais or parts thereof, as éléments 
of Arabie script. 

Kurt Weizmann ( 5 ), in a brilliant study on the Greek 
sources of Islamic scientific illustrations, has lately shown, how 


(1) Communication présentée en séance du 5 mars 1950. 

(2) Trattato delle simboliclie Rappresentanze Arabiche e délia varia ge- 
nerazione de* musulman! caratreri sopra différent! mntorie operati (Paris 3845- 
1840) Bis. XXIX, XXX. XL-XLLXLV. XLYI. 

(o) Die persisehe Nadelmaierei Susandschird (Leipzig 1881), pp. 229, l.»0. 

(4) Cf. Y. Kondakov, Zoomorphe Initialen in gricchischen und glngoli- 
thischen Ilamlschriften des 10. bis 11. Jahrlmnderts in den Bibliothek >n des 
Siuai (Petersburg 1905). 

(5) Arehaoologien Orientalia in memoriam Ernst Uerzfvld ed. G. C. Miles, 
New York. 1952, pp. 244-200. especially p. 205. 











118 


BULLETIN DI»; L INSTITUT D’EGYPTE 


strongly “Arab illustrators were exposed to Byzantine influences 
not only in the stage of the first réception from the Greek, but 
even long thereafter, since they adapt step by step the innova¬ 
tions which in the Greek manuscripts themselves developed only 
gradually.” The présent study may form a further contribution 
to the problem how far and in which way Arabie art preserved 
and developed the héritage of Hellenistic art. 

Without going into further details I shall try to draw only 
a rough sketch of the évolution concerned here. 

The décoration of letters with floral éléments begins in the 
sphere of Greek and Latin writing as early as the third century 
A.D. ( 6 ) In the fourth century the vertical stroke of Jota is 
filled in with a herring-bone ornament in the codex of Virgilius 
Augusteus in Rome ( 7 ), in the sixth century A.D. the Orosius- 
codex in the Bibliotheca Laurentiana in Florence shows zigzag 
lines and the herring-bone ornament, and even a modest tendril 
as décoration of the initiais ( 8 ) (Plate I, 1). In the seventh cen¬ 
tury A.D. the parchment psalter in the National Library in 
Paris ( 9 ) (Plate I, 2) shows a zigzag band, and in the eighth 
century A.D. a Greek lectionary (Plate 1,3) in the Library of the 
Propaganda Fidei in Rome a letter Pi (7r)with plaited band. ( ,0 ) 

Both motifs are v.ery frequent in Coptic (PI. I, 4) ( 1L ), Greek 
and Armenian initiais in the following nineth, tenth and 
eleventh centuries (PI. I, 5, 6) ( 12 ). But very early Greek book- 


(0) Cf. Martial xiii, 75, Ausonius. — J. 8trzygowski, Byzantiniselie 
Denkmaeler I, p. 90. 

(7) C. Nordenfalk, Before the liook of Durrow, Acta Arelmeologiea 
XVIII (1947), p. 152. fig. 9. 

(8) Ibid., p. 152, fig. 10. 153, fig. 11, 154. fig. 13. For the Orosius-codex 
ef. also C. Nordenfalk, Eu senantik initialhandskrift.Kunsthistorik Tidskrift 
XVI (1937), pp. 117 ff. 

(9) Codex Coislinianus Xo. 180, cf. Btassoff, L’Ornement Slave et Orien¬ 
tale, PI. 120, Xo. 22. 

(10) Stassoff, op. cit.. PI. 132, Xo. 17. 

(11) Ibid., PI. 132 No. 21, a Coptic Lectionary Ms. 32, eighth century A.D. 
in the Library of the Propaganda fidei in Rome. 

(12) Cf. Chaghhakeank', Die fürstliche Familie der Cliaghier oder Pro- 
schier, col. 170, fig. 70. Garegln Howsapian, Materialieu und Studien zur 
Kunst- und Kulturgéscliichté, fasc". A (Jérusalem 1935), p. 20, fig. 3. Plate 1,5 
is given after II. Bordier, Description des peintures et autres ornements con¬ 
tenus dans les manuscrits Grecs de la Bibliothèque Nationale (Paris 1885), 
p. 97, fig. 39 (Ms. grec 438), Plate 1,6 after p. 117, fig. 55 (Ms. Grec 654, 
tenth century A.D.) of the same work. 


ANTHROPtIMORPHIC AND ZOOMORPH1C LETTERS 


119 


illumination did not confine itself to mere floral or geometrical 
éléments : the human figure as well as the figure of animais 
were included in the décoration of initiais as early as the sixth 
century A.D. The first appearance of human figures is proved 
by the Book of Kells, which is dated in the sixth — from some 
scholars in the ninth — century A.D. ( 13 ) ? that of animais in a 
Latin Gospel manuscript in the National Library in Paris 
(PI. I, 7) ( 14 ), where e.g. the right shaft of A is formed by a 
fish (seventh century A.D.), or in a manuscript of the eighth 
century A.D. in the library at Laon, where fishes form the initial 
Iota and a dragon’s head the initial Sigma (S) (PI. I, 8) ( 15 ))* 
To the same time belongs a Greek gospel manuscript in the 
National Library in Paris, in which e.g. the initial Alpha shows 
a dragon (PI. I, 9) ( l6 ). This animal also forms an initial in the 
ninth century A.D. ( l7 ), and a bear with a snake occurs in the 
Beta (B) in a Greek gospel manuscript of the tenth century A.D. 
in the National Library in Paris (PI. II, 1) ( l8 ). 

Birds preferably are used for the composition of ingeniously 
designed initiais, e.g. the initial L in a Bible of the tenth 
century A.D. formerly in the Abbey St. Martial de Limoges ( 19 ), 
or the codex Vaticanus Graecus No. 1162 of the eleventh century, 
where an Epsilon G is compounded of a hawk and a falcon with 
a hare in the middle ( 20 ). In Armenian manuscripts, e.g. of the 
thirteenth, fourteenth centuries A.D. the whole alphabet is 
formed of such birds (PI. II, 2) ( 21 ) ; it may go back here as far 
as even the ninth century A.D.( 22 ). In the sphere of Islamic 
art the first attempts to combine letters with an anthropomorphic 


(13) Cf. L. v. Kohell, Kunstvolle Miniaturen und Iuitialen ans den Hand- 
scliriften des 4.-10. Jahrliunderts (München 1890), p. 0. 

(14) Lecoy de la Marche Les manuscripts et la miniature, (Paris s. a), 
p. 137, fig. 32 (Codex Latinus No. 256). 

(15) Ibid., p. 139, fig. 33. 

(16) H. Bordier, Description des peintures et autres ornements contenus 
dans les manuscrits Grecs de la Bibliothèque Nationale, p. 60, fig. 3 (Codex 
Grec No. 277). 

(17) Lecoy de la Marche, op. eit., p. 141. 

(18) H. Bordier, op. cit., p. 105, fig. 48 (Ms. grec No. 64, fol. 12). 

(19) A T . Kondakoff, Histoire de P Art Byzantine (Paris, 1886), p. 27. 

(20) 8 . Beissel, Vatikanische Miniaturen (Freiburg i/Br. 1893), PI. XV. 

(21) •/. Strzygowski, Byzantiniselie Denkmaeler, I, p. 90. — Cf. Chargh- 
hakeank 9 , op. cit. col. 234, fig. 102. 

(22) J. Strzygowski, op. cit. I, p. 95. 










120 


BULLETIN DE LTNSTITUT D’EGYPTE 


or zoomorphic ingrédient begins in the twelfth eentury A.D. 
The occasion thereto is offered by the knoblike top of Alif, 
already occurring in manuscripts of the eleventh eentury A.D. 
(PI. II, 3) ( 23 ). On a bronze-kettle, dated 559 A.H. (1163 A.D.) 
in the Ermitage Muséum in Leningrad, made in Herât ( 24 ), the 
top of Alif is transformed into a human head in the inscription 
of the first and fifth line (PI. II, 4), and similar tops of Alif are 
to be seen on a bronze-ewer in the Gulistân Palace Muséum in 
Teherân (twelfth eentury A.D., PI. II, 5) ( 25 ), a candle-stick of 
bronze in the same Muséum ( 26 ), on a brass-ewer in the British 
Muséum (PI. II, 6) in the first and last band of writing ( 27 ), 
a brass-ewer in the Musée du Louvre (twelfth/thirteenth cen- 
tury A.D., PI. II, 7) ( 28 ), in the first and last bands of writing. 
In a brass-casket in the Victoria and Albert Muséum, South 
Kensington, this form of the Alif is merely used as an ornament 
and shows no human face ( 29 ). It is by no means difficult to 
point to parallel ornaments in Greek illuminated manuscripts : 
e.g. PI. II, 8 shows the initial in the Greek manuscript in the 
Bibliothèque Nationale in Paris of the tenth eentury, ending in 
two human heads ( 30 ). Anyhow, it needed two centuries, before 
this décoration found its way into the embellishment of Arabie 
letters j not only for the letters Alif and Lâm, but of other letters 
also. So the inscription on a golden vessel, originally in the 
possession of the Roman jeweller Rota ( S1 ), (PI. II, 9), shows 
human heads at the top of ail letters of the inscription 

<u*-LaJ iUjjJijSjuiiU S apLJÜIj L*1L iLiUJIj oULlj oUL j * aJjaIIj <ù f 


(2.°,) E. g. PEIi Inv. Clmrt. Ar. 17051 (AI PE K IV, p. 80). 

(24) .4. Pope, A Survey of Per si an Art, VI (1939), PI. 1308. 

(25) Ibid. PI. 1314, Ars Islamiea V/2, 1938, fig. 1 opposite p. 113- 

(26) Ibid. PI. 1316. 

(27) Ibid. PI. 1325. 

(28) Ibid. PI. 1328. Human heads turned to the right deeorate tlie slinfts 
of Alif and Lâm in the Naskhî inscription of a eandlestiek, published by 
THshr Paris, Essai sur l’esprit de la décoration islamique (Conférences de 
l'Institut Français d’Archéologie Orientale, III. Cairo 1952) PI. IA T b and p. 29. 
It was made in Mosul about 1294 A.D. 

(29) Ibid., PI. 1359. 

(30) Lecroy de la Marche, op. eit., fig. 95, p. 285. 

(31) M. Lanei, Seconda opéra cufica, vol. HT, PI. xxix, vol. II, p. 63. 


ANTHKOPOMOKÏTIIO AND ZOOMORPIIIC LETTERS 


121 


and a gold-ewer and plate in the same collection ( 32 ), later be- 
longing to the Odiot -collection in Paris, shows the same elaborate 
kind of writing. The ewer (PI. III, 1) J\j JtiVl j jJI 

the plate (PI. III, 1) ^Jl j UJIj UUI j VaÜj Ü J\j LîJIj UJI j jJ\ 

IjüI <U>-Lai 

A further example is offered by the goblet in the Muséum in 
Bologna ( 33 ). Already in the thirteenth eentury A.D. animal heads 
are used in addition to human heads on a pen-case in the Freer 
Gallery of Art, Washington (PI. III, 2) made by Shâkir, the 
engraver, in 607 A.H. (1210/11 A.D.) ( 34 ) : 

L-» jj ^iUJÎ Li 
j j jUJi j yfu 

The hastae of Alif and Lâm end in human heads, but a 
goat’s head forms the top of Kâf, and furthermore heads of a 
lion, a dragon, a dog adorn the tendril intersecting the letters, 
while in the upper inscription Râ, Yâ and Sîn end in bird-heads 
(PI. III, 2). It, therefore, recalls the inscription on a seal of 
the sixth eentury A.H. (Xllth eentury A.D. ? PI. IV, 1) ( 35 ) 


oie Vf «Ii 

where the Kâf in i , Râ in jjj and Nûn in ûlc VI end in 
bird-heads, while the other letters are richly decorated with 
floral éléments, and on a textile from Palermo ( 36 ) of the twelfth 
eentury A.D., where the tops of Alif also end in bird-heads. We 
hâve already seen that the décoration with bird-heads is 
frequently used in Greek manuscripts of the tenth eentury A.D. 
and may, in Armenian manuscripts, go back even as far as the 
nineth eentury A.D. 

The culminating point in the création of zoomorphic and 
anthropomorphic letters is then reached in the course of the 
twelfth eentury A.D. in the well known bronze-vessel made at 


(32) Ibid. op. cit., vol. III, PI. xxx, vol. II, p. 64. 

(33) Ibid., vol. III, PI. XL, XLI. 

(34) Ars Orientalis, I (1954), fig. 8, p. 27. 

(35) M. Lanei, Seconda opéra Cufica, vol. III, PL LXIII, 7 ; J, von Ka- 
rahaeek, Susandschird, p. 130. 

(36) F. Fis chh a ch, Ornamente der Gewebe (Hanau 1SS3), PL XIX. 









122 


BULLETIN DE L'INSTITUT D'EGYPTE 


Mosul in 629 A.H. (1232 A.D.) in the collection of the Duke of 
Blacas ( 3T ) (PI. IV, 2), where the inscription ;iajdl 

consists of human and animal bodies. 

A similar piece is known from the collection of Don Philipp 
Andrea Doria Pamphili Landi ( 38 ) with the inscription : 

aJijjl 41 j jüU-’I ^IjJI >JI 

It is important to State that in the Islamic sphere of art 
zoomorphic and anthropomorphic letters appear comparatively 
late, but early enough to be contemporary with Byzantine and 
Armenian manuscripts. The highest degree of perfection in the 
artistic décoration of the initiais was reached by Irish monks, 
who greatly influenced the Carolingian revival of book-art. We 
know that they travelled as far as Egypt in the sixth century 
A.D., and they may hâve been able to see the marvellous produc¬ 
tion of Alexandrian book-art, of which almost nothing has re- 
mained. So their manuscripts of the eighth to the nineth 
centuries A.D., which hâve been connected with the popular art 
of the Celts and Teutons, may reflect some Oriental influence 
which is unfortunately not so tangible, as one would wish, for 
the lack of comparative material of this period. Possibly the 
Arabie pièces shown here form steps on the long road of Crossing 
and intersecting influences originating from Greco-Roman and 
Oriental art, as does the colophon of the Haggadah of the four- 
teenth century A.D. ( 39 ), in which ail Hebrew letters are com- 
posed of human bodies only. 


(37) M. Lan ci, op. eit., vol. III, PI. XLIIL, 1; J. von Karabacek, 
Susandschird, p. 129. 

(38) M. Land, op. eit., vol. III, PL XLY, XLVI, 2. 

(39) Cf. S. Qrayaél, A liistory of the .Tews (Philadelphia, 194S). fig. 41, 
p. 382. 


PLATE I 



1. Orosius-Codex 
VIth cent. A.D. 




J 


2. Psalter (Paris) 
Yllth cent. A.D. 



3. Lectionary. 
Ylltli ('eut. A.D. (Home) 





7. Latin Gospels, Cod 
lat. 25(5, Paris, Bihl. 
Nat. Yllth cent. A.D. 


8. Initiais from a Ms. 
in Laon, VlIIth cent. A.D. 


9. Ms. Grec 
No. 277, VlIIth cent 
A.D. (Paris). 






























PLATE II 



1. Ms. Grec. No. 04, 
Bibl. Nat. Paris, 
Xtli cent. A.D. 



2. Armeuiau bird-initials 
(lîJTa A.D.) 



. Al if i il PEU 1 11 V- 
Ar. 17(1*11 

(Xltll CHMlt. A.D.) 



4. Bronze-Kettle in 
tlie Hermitage Muséum 
(Leningrad) 11GG A.I). 



5. Bronze-ewer 
XlI/XIIIth cent. A.D. 
(Téhéran, Gulistan 
Palace Muséum) 



G. Bronze-ewer, 
Pritish Muséum 

XII/XIIltli cent. A.D. 



7. Brass-ewer 
(Louvre) 

XI I/XIIItli cent. A.D, 



8. Greek Ms. 054 
in tlie Bibliothèque 
Nationale, Paris, 
Xth cent. A.D. 






h. Gold-vessel in the Rota-Collection. 


PLATE III 



1. Above: gold-ewer in the Rota-Collection, 
helow: gold plate in the sanie Collection. 




2. Pen-cnse, dated 007 A.H. (1210 A.D.), Freer Gallery of Art. 



































































































PLATE IV 



1. Inscription on m seul, VIth cent. A.H. (Xlltli cent. A.D.) 



~. Bronze-vessel in the Collection of tlie Duc <le Binons. 



Vessel in tlie Collection. Don Pliilipp Andrea Doria. 


1 


PHYSIOLOGICAL SIGNIFICANCE OF RESISTANCE 
AND SUSCEPTIBILITY - TO FUSARIUM WILT — 
OF SOME EGYPTIAN COTTON VARIETIES : 
(III) Mycelial post-penetration fate and enzymic activity. 

by 

M. A. MOSTAFA, M.Sc. (Cairo), Ph.D. (Cambridge) 

and 

M. S. NAIM, M.Sc. (Cairo), Ph.D. (Cairo) 

Faculty of Science. Cairo University 


1. INTRODUCTION 

In two previous papers (Mostafa and Naïm 1954), the foî- 
lowing aspects of physiological significance of résistance and 
susceptibility — between “Giza 26” and “Karnak” cotton varieties 
on one hand and Fusarium solani sensu Snyder and Hansen on 
the other hand — hâve been elucidated : (a) Fusarium mycelial 
and conidial development as influenced by cotton-seedling root 
metabolies; (b) Cotton-séedling vigour as influenced by rhizo- 
spheric Fusarium métabolites; and (c) Mode of fungal pénétra¬ 
tion in the two experimental cotton varieties. The présent work 
has been subsequently carried out in an attempt to elucidate the 
following problems : 

(i) The capacity of the fungus to invade the roots of the 
résistant “Karnak” cotton variety and its possible fate within 
its tissues. 

(ii) Anatomical responses — to fungal invasion — in both 
résistant and susceptible cotton varieties. 

(iii) Fusarium enzymic potentialities as influenced by the 
nature of the experimental cotton variety. 

During the post-penetration phase of fungal invasion, the 
host plant may be induced to form cork layers impregnable to 
the mycélium. It has been suggested by Fahmy (1928) that the 
cork formation is responsible for the résistance of the Egyptian 
“Ashmouni” cotton variety to Fusarium wilt. Other examples 




































128 


ÎUT.LETIX DE L'INSTITUT D’EGYPTE 


of résistance^ due to cork formation, are manifested by flax 
(Tisdale 1917 résistant to Fusarium Uni wilt and by cotton 
résistant to black root-rot due to Thielaviopsis basicola (Conant 
1927). Varieties of potato résistant to scab (Actinomyces scabies) 
form cork more quickly, when woundecl, than do susceptible 
varieties, and believed to owe their résistance to this charac- 
teiistic (Jones 1931). Similarly, the ability to form a cork barrier 
is greater in varieties of narcissus résistant to basal rot, due to 
Fusarium bulbigenum, than in susceptible ones (Ghamrawy 
i932). On the other hand, Thomas (1934) found that the newly- 
formed layer of cork cells was penetrated by invading hyphae 
of Armillaria mellea and that the cork layer did not successfully 
stop its advance. Brown (1936) stated that there is some doubt 
as to whether the cork layer really functions at ail or whether 
it is formed after the fungus has been stopped by some mecha- 
nical means. Gum barrier, which cannot be permeated by the 
mycélium, has been also recorded to account for the recovery 
from a certain disease or to confer a type of résistance under 
certain seasonal conditions (Brooks and Co-workers 1923-1926). 
The gum barrier is formed by the reaction of the host plant ; 
the resuit is the occultation of the invading fungal pathogen, 
which gradually dies out. Mostafa (1948) demonstrated the 
importance of gum-barrier formation within certain seasonal 
periods, as a response to invasion with one fungus and not with 
another, in compétitive fungal parasitism. 

The rôle of fungal enzyme (i.e. pectinase) in conferring ré¬ 
sistance or rendering susceptibility to a certain host plant for a 
spécifie pathogen may manifest itself in two ways : 

(i) Différences in the effect of the substrate on pectinase 
sécrétion (Vasudeva 1930, Horne 1930, Menon 1934 and Fer¬ 
nando 1937). 

(ii) The activity of the enzyme as influenced by the condi¬ 
tions of the host cells (Klotz 1927 and Chona 1932). 

The capacity of any particular pathogenic fungus to para- 
sitize, and cause rotting of host tissues, was attributed to its 
ability to produce an active enzyme capable of macerating the 
middle lamellae of host cell-walls (De Bary 1886, Ward 1888 and 
Brown 1915). The enzyme, responsible for such type of macéra¬ 
tion, was referred to as cytase (Brown 1917) and as protopec- 
tinase (Davison and Willaman 1927). In the présent work, the 
initiation of the post-penetration phase is manifested by the 


129 


RESISTANCE AND SUSCEPTIBILITY TO COTTON WILT 


traversing of Fusarium mycélium through cotton cortical cells 
until it becomes finally well established within the wood 
éléments. During this initiation, Fusarium enzymic activity — 
as influenced by the nature of the experimental cotton variety — 
would be of primary importance. 


2. FUNGAL POST-PENETRATION FATE 

Seedlings, of either “Giza 26” or “Karnak” cotton variety, 
were raised on both sterilized and F u sariu m - i n oc u 1 a t ed clay 
soil in the same method previously described (Mostafa and Naïm 
1954). Roots, of raised seedlings of varying maturation, were 
fixed and embedded in paraffin in the usual way; microtome 
sections were made and double-stained with thionin and 
orange G (Stoughton 1930). 

During the post-penetration phase, the fate of the invading 
mycélium differs according to the nature of the exeperimentai 
cotton variety. In both cotton varieties, the fungal hyphae 
ramified inside the cortical cells. Inside “Karnak” cotton roots 
(Fig. 1 A), the fungal hyphae fade in the cortical tissues; they 
were never seen penetrating through endodermal cells and were 
completely absent from wood éléments. On the other hand, in 
“Giza 26” infected roots, the fungal mycélium penetrated through 
the cortical cells and continued passing through the endodermal 
cells into wood éléments and pith cells. It seems that the 
mechanical hinderance, rendered by thickened endodermal cells, 
stimulâtes the swelling of the fungal hyphal tips — in contact 
with their outer tangential walls — before pénétration ; minute 
hyphae, developed from these swellings, achieved actual pénétra¬ 
tion of endodermal cells (Fig. 1 B). The cortical cells, as well 
as pericycle, phloem parenchyma and xylem vessels, become 
impregnated with a deep brown gummy substance (Fig. 2) ; the 
latter was apparently pregnable for fungal hyphae. The walls of 
the vessels became discolourcd and assumed a dark brown colour. 

Karnak roots, eut off from infected raised seedlings, showed 
a very characteristic mechanical response — to cortical fungal 
invasion by formation of cork cells in the pericycle (Fig. 3). 
This pericyclic cork-cambial activity was clearly seen in a région 
lying slightly above the root-hair zone and higher up till the 
collar. This may play an important rôle in hindering the further 
mycelial advançe into the vascular cylinder of “Karnak” roots ; 












130 


IU/LLETIX DE L’INSTITUT D’EGYPTE 


the fungus was never observed in wood éléments of these roots 
at different levels and at varying stages of seedling maturation. 


3. FUNGAL ENZYMIC ACTIVITY 


Fusarium enzymic activities hâve been tested — on different 
cotton extracts — as influencecl by the variation of the following 
factors : (a) The nature of the experimental cotton variety ; 

(b) The stage of cotton seedling naturation ; (c) The type of 

sterilization treatment to which the original extract — on which 
Fusarium growth occurs — is subjected, whether it has been 
autoclaved or cold-sterilized ; (d) The concentration of the 
original cotton extract upon which Fusarium metabolism takes 
place ; (e) The PH variation due to previous Fusariuvi. growth 
in the filtrate, and its possible effect on the fungal enzvmic 
activity, has been eliminated by comparing the enzymic activity 
of such filtrate and on the same filtrate with its pH value 
restored to that of original extract ; (f) The aging of the fungal 
filtrate, as determined by incubation period, on the résultant 
enzymic activity ; and (g) Fusarium enzymic activities, at 
varying intervals, were also tested on a synthetic medium of 
known constitution (i.e. Dox’s liquid) for comparison. 

(i) Experimental Technique: 

Aqueous cotton extracts were obtained from either two- 
weeks or four-weeks old “Giza 26” and “Karnak” whole seedlings 
as well as from roots of two-weeks old seedlings ; autoclaved full- 
strength Dox’s liquid was also prepared for comparison. The 
cotton extracts were obtained by weighing 100 grams of experi¬ 
mental seedlings or roots, cutting them into small pièces and 
washing with sterilized water for several times, and subsequently 
pounded for a period of five minutes — at full speed — in an 
electric grinding machine. The pounded extract was treated 
with sterilized water, filtered off, and the residue was washecl — 
with water — for several times. The filtrate, as well as the 
aqueous solution resulting from washing the residue, were com- 
pleted to one litre ; this is considered to be 10% concentration 
and 5% was also prepared by its dilution. For each treatment 
and concentration, the extract was divided into two lots : one 
lot was autoclaved and the other was cold-sterilized by Menon’s 


131 


RESISTANCE AND StJSCEPTIBlLlTY TO COTTON WILT 


technique (Menon 1934). The latter involves the transference 
of the extract, into an ice chest for 24 hours, heated for ten 
minutes at 60°C, and then rapidly transferred again to the ice 
chest ; the whole process has to be repeated for three consecutive 
times. 

A standardized mycelial dise, from the edge of four-days old 
Fusarium. culture, was eut and transferred into 25 c.c. of the 
experimental cotton extract and incübated at 30°C. A sample 
flask was chosen after the elapse of either one of the following 
incubation intervals : 2, 4, 7, 14 and 21 days. After the elapse 
of each experimental incubation period, the final pH value of 
Fusarium filtrate was determined colourimetrically ; each 
filtrate was then divided into two portions : one portion was kept 
with its pH unchanged and the pH value of the other was 
restored to that of the original ünconsumed extract. The 
enzymic activities, of the differently-treated Fusarium filtrâtes, 
were determined by Brown’s dise method. This involves the 
détermination of the average time required to achieve complété 
macération of three potato dises of a known standardized size 
(i.e. 0.5 X 18.0 mms.). The time required for complété macéra¬ 
tion is known as the reaction time (R.T.), and the enzymic 
activity — of the tested fungal filtrate — is expressed as the 
inverse reaction time multiplied by 100 (i.e. ~ T X 100). Ail 
the tested potato dises were eut, at the same time, from the 
medullary tissues of the same tuber. The enzymic activity — 
for each particular filtrate — was tested at its final and restored 
pH values. Controls were also used, where the potato dises were 
put in the original cotton extracts and in sterilized distilled 
water for comparison. In order to avoid bacterial contamination 
— through a period of 24 hours — two drops of toluene were 
added for every particular treatment. 

(ii) Experimental Results: 

A comparison on different treatment and concentrations of 
cotton extracts and on Dox’s liquid, has been deâlt with according 
to the following sequence of Fusarium enzymic activities on : 
(a) Two-weeks old seedling ,extract, (b) Four-weeks old seedling 
extract, (c) Root extracts from two-weeks old cotton seedlings, 
and (d) Dox’s liquid. An attempt has been also made to inter¬ 
relate the effects of these various experimental factors upon the 
résultant Fusarium enzymic activities. 










132 


BULLETIN DE L’INSTITUT D’EGYPTE 


(a) Two-weeks Ofd Seedling Extrac t. 

The production of macerating exo-enzymes, by Fusarium, 
is very feeble under ail experimental conditions. Enzymic 
activities (Table 1) could be only demonstrated in filtrâtes of 
comparatively younger âges (i.e. up to seven-days old), and they 
are of very low values. On two- or three-weeks old filtrâtes the 
reaction times exceed, however 24 hours in ail treatments and 
concentrations of original cotton extracts, this means zéro 
enzymic activity. The fungal growth results always in an 
increase in the pH value (Table II) ; on two- and three-weeks 
old Fusarium filtrâtes, from the two experimental concentrations 
of “Giza 26” and “Karnak” two-weeks old whole seedlings 
extracts, the pH values become highly alkaline (i.e. 8.5 or more). 
The complété dégradation of Fusarium exo-enzymic activity in 
filtrâtes of comparatively older âges could not be correlated with 
the resulting high alkalinity, since the restoration of the pH 
values of such filtrâtes — to those of original corresponding 
extracts — fails completely to reactivate such degraded exo- 
enzymes. It is quite possible that the increased aging of filtrate 
is associated with a certain type of fungal metabolic potentiality 
inhibitory — in some way or another — for Fusarium exo- 
ehzymic production or activity. 

The résultant Fusarium exo-enzymic activity, in filtrâtes of 
comparatively younger ag.es, is found to be the oulput of the 
interaction of the following experimental factors : 

(1) Type and treatment of original extract, whether cold- 
sterilized or autoclaved. 

(2) Age of fungal filtrate. 

(3) Concentration of original cotton extract on which 
Fusarium metabolism occurs. 

(4) pH of filtrate, whether îeft unchanged ,or restored to 
that of original extract. 

(5) Cotton variety from which the original extract has been 
obtained. 

On the whole, Fusarium exo-enzymic activity is compara¬ 
tively slightly great,er on two-days old filtrâtes from “Giza 26” 
than from “Karnak” metabolized cold-sterilized extracts. The 
différence becomes, however, gradually eliminated with increased 


RESISTANCE AND S U SOEPT l P» 11 HT Y TO COTTON WILT 


133 


TABLE I 

Fusariwn enzymic activity, after varying periods of tihie, on 
cold-sterilized (M) and on autoclaved (A) 5% or 10% aqueous 
extracts from two-weeks old “Giza 26” (G) and “Karnak” (K) 
cotton whole seedlings; the enzymic activity is considered zéro 
when the reaction time exceeds 24 hours (< 24). 


Extract 

conc. 

* 

Time 

in 

days 

Cotton 

variety 

Treatment S 

pH value 

Reaction time 

Enzymic activity ; 

‘ , j 

Original 

) 

Final 

pH 

(unchan 

ged) 

PH 

(restored) 

i 

pH 

(unchan 

^ed) 

pH 

(restored) 




(M) 

6.7 

7.4 

16 / 

• 18, 

6.3 

5.6 



(0) 

(A) 

7.0 

7.4 

22 

<24 

4.5 

- 


2 


(M) 

7.0 

7:4 

18 

20 . 

5.6 

5.0 



(K) 

(A) 

7,6 

7.9 

<24 j 

<24: 

— 

— 




(M) 

6.7 

7.6 

17 

r 17 

5.9 ! 

5.9 

5% 

4 

(G) 

(A)- 

7.0 | 

7.6 

24 ! 

<24 

4.2 

— 1 





7.0 ! 

7.6 

18 

22 

5.6 

4.5 



(K) 

(J U 
(A) 

6.7 ' 

7.9 

<24 

-<24 

r t 

— 

— t 




(M) 

6.7 

7.9 

22 

22 

4.5 

— 



(G) 

(A) ! 

7.0 

.7.9 

<24 

<24 

— 

— 


7 


(M) ! 

7.0 

7.6 

22 

<24 

4.5 

— 



(K) 

(A) 

6.7 j 

8.5 

<24 

<24; 

— 

" 1 




(M) 

1 6.4 

7.6 

16 

<24 

6.3 




(G) 

(A) 

7.0 

7.4 

20 

<24 

5.0: 



2 


(M) 

7.0 

7.4 

18 

20 

5.6 

5.0 



(K) 

(A) 

7.9 

8.1 

<24 

<24 

— 

— 




(M) 

| 6.4 

7,6 

17 

<24 

5.9 

— ^ 



(G) 

(A) 

7.0 

7.6 

22 

; <24 

4.5 

- s 

10 % 

4 












(M) 

7.0 

7.6 

17 

22: 

5.9 

4.5 



(K) 

(A) 

7.9 

8.5 

<24 

<24 

—- 

— ; 




(M) 

6.4 

7.9 

21 

<24 

4.8 ; 

— j 



(G) 

(A) 

7.0 

7.9 

<24 

<24: 


— i 


7 


(M) 

7.0 

7.6 

21 

<24 

4.8: 

— 



(K) 

(A) | 

7.9 

8.5 

<24 

<24 

' “ — 

— 


* 


(*) After 14 and 21 days, enzymic activity is zéro. 











































134 


miULKTlN DK L'INSTITUT ÎVEOÏPTB 


TABLE II 

pH variations induced by Fusarium growth, on either 5% 
or 10% extracts from two-w,eeks old seedlings of “Giza 26” (G) 
and “Karnak” (K) cotton varieties after varying periods of time ; 
the original extract is either cold-sterilized or autoclaved. 


Extract 

conc. 

Time 

in 

days 

Cotton 

variety 


Extract 

treatment 


( Cold - ster il ized ) 

(Autoclaved') 

.pH 

(Original) 

PH 

; (Final) 

! 

PH 

(Original) 

PH 

(Final) 


2 

(G) 

6.7 

7.4 

7.0 

7.4 



(K) 

7.0 

7.4 

7.6 

7.9 


A 

(G) 

6.7 

1 

7.6 

7.0 

7.6 


4 

(K) 

7.0 

i 7.6 

■ 

7.6 

7.9 


7 

(G) 

6.7 

7.9 

7.0 

7.9 

D /G 

l 

(K) 

7.0 

7.6 

7.6 

8.5 


•1 A 

(G) 

6.7 

8.5 

7.0 

8.5 



(K) 

7.0 

8.5 

7.6 

8.8 


9 1 

(G) 

6.7 

8.5 

7.0 

8.5 


Z I 

(K) 

7.0 

8.5 

7.6 

8.8 

j 


9 

(G) 

l 

6.4 

.6 

7.0 

7.4 


Z 

(K) 

7.0 

7.4 

7.9 

8.1 


A 

(G) 

6.4 

7.6 

7.0 

7.6 


4 

(K) 

7.0 

7.6 

7.9 

8.5 

1 D Of~ 

7 

(G) 

6.4 

7.9 

7.0 

7.9 

l U yc 


(K) 

7.0 

7.6 

7.9 

8.5 i 


1 A 

(G) 

6.4 

8.5 

7.0 

8.5 


1 4 

(K) 

7.0 

8.5 

7.9 

8.3 


9 1 

(G) i 

6.4 

8.5 

7.0 

8.5 


Z i 

(K) 

7.0 

8.5 

7.9 

8.8 


RESISTANCE AND SUSCEPTIBILITY TO COTTON WILT 


135 


aging of filtrâtes of the two types of cotton extract. Autoclaving 
of original cotton extracts seems to induce an earlier or complété 
dégradation of Fusarium exo-enzymic activity in comparison 
with that on corresponding cold-sterilized extracts ; the relative 
occurrence of such complété dégradation would dépend upon the 
experimental cotton variety from which the original extracts 
hâve been obtained. Thus, autoclaving of original “Karnak” 
seedling extracts results in a complété dégradation of the 
resulting Fusarium exo-enzymic activity, in comparison with its 
relative feebleness in filtrâtes from originally cold-sterilized 
extracts, at a very early stage of filtrate incubation and on 
filtrâtes obtained from the two experimental concentrations. On 
the other hand, complété Fusarium exo-enzymic dégradation — 
on “Giza 26” autoclaved extract — takes place in filtrâtes of a 
comparatively older âge (i.e. seven-days old) ; two- and four- 
days old pH-unchanged filtrâtes, from originally-autoclaved 
“Giza 26” seedling extracts, show comparatively weeker exo- 
enzymic activities than corresponding filtrâtes from cold- 
sterilized extracts. Autoclaving may resuit in either destroying 
certain extract constituents essential for Fusarium exo-enzymic 
activity or changing the original extract constitution in such a 
way that the resulting fungal metabolitic activity is suppressive 
for exo-enzymic production. Concerning âge of filtrate, in cases 
where exo-enzymic activities are manifested, successive increase 
in âge is generally associated with graduai decrease in enzymic 
activity. 

With regard to pH factor, it manifests its effect in the two 
following aspects : 

(a) The pH change, in filtrâtes of varying âges, and its 
possible effect on Fusarium exo-enzymic activity. 

(b) The exo-enzymic activity as influenced by the restora- 
tion or non-restoration of the pH value of the same filtrâtes. 

The relative enzymatic activities, as influenced by pH shifts 
due to successive aging of the same filtrate, hâve been alreadv 
dealt with. On the other hand, restoration of pH values of 
filtrâtes — to those of original extracts — results usually in 
either partial or complété dégradation of exo-enzymic activities. 
This might indicate that Fusarium exo-enzymic activity increases 
with increasing pH of filtrate due to previous fungal growth on 
original cotton extract. 





































136 


BULLETIN DE L’INSTITUT D’EGYPTE 


The variation in the concentration of original extracts, from 
which fungal filtrâtes are subsequently obtained, does not ap- 
preciably influence the resulting Fusarium exo-enzymic activities 
in pH-unchânged filtrâtes from extracts of both cotton varieties 
as well as in pH-restored filtrâtes from “Karnak” extract. On 
the other hand, the restoration of pH values of filtrâtes — 
obtained from cold sterilized “Giza 26” extracts — results, on 
increasing the extract concentration, in causing an earlier dégra¬ 
dation of exo-enzymic activity (i.e. complété dégradation starts 
to occur in two days old filtrâtes at 10% concentration of original 
extract). This might be due to the possible presence of de- 
activating factor, which exerts more accumulative effect with 
increased concentration of the cold-sterilized “Giza 26” extract 
at restored pH. 

(b) Four-weeks Old Seedling Extract. 

Fusarium* exo-enzymic activity is found to be completely 
degraded on ail filtrâtes obtained from differently-treated 
extracts of four-weeks old “Giza 26” and “Karnak” cotton 
seedling. On comparing the pH values of cotton extracts from 
four-weeks old seedlings (Table III) with those obtained from 
two-weeks old seedlings (Table II), the former are found to be 
comparatively more acidic. Accordingly, Fusarium. metabolism 
on four-weeks old seedling extracts results generally in producing 
filtrâtes of lower pH values than corresponding filtrâtes from 
two-weeks old seedling extracts. The complété dégradation of 
Fusarium exo-enzymic activity at varying final pH values of 
filtrâtes, some of which approach those of active filtrâtes from 
two-weeks extracts, might indicate that the pH variations are 
not the primary cause. It may be, however, explained on the 
ground of either a change of host metabolism — as manifested 
by extract constitution — or more accumulation of a factor 
deactivating for enzymatic activity with increased maturation 
of seedlings of both the two experimental cotton varieties. 


(c) Root Extracts from Two Weeks Old Cotton Seedlings. 

On two-davs old filtrate, from originally cold-steriîized root 
extracts, Fusarium exo-enzymic activity is slightly greater in 
“Giza 26” than in “Karnak”. On the whole, the fungal enzymic 
activity is only demonstrated in comparatively younger filtrâtes 
obtained from cold-sterilized root extracts of both cotton varieties 


RESISTANCE AND SUSCEPTf Rl LITY TO COTTON WILT 


137 


TABLE III 

pH variations induced by Fusarium growth, on either 5% 
or 10% extracts from four-weeks old seedlings of “Giza 26” (G) 
and “Karnak” (K) cotton varieties after varying periods of time ; 
the original extract is either cold-sterilized or autoclaved. In 
ail cases, the enzymic activity is considered to be zéro. 


Ex tract 

conc. 

Timo 

ip. 

days 

- N 

Cotton ! 

variety j 

Extract treatment 

(Cold sterilized) 

(Autoclaved ) 

! 

pH 

(Original) 

pH 

(Final) 

PH 

(Original) 

PH 

(Final) 


O 

(0) 

5.2 

5.6 

i 

6.4 

6.7 


Z 

(K) 

5.4 

5.8 

6.7 

6.9 


4 • 

(0) 

5.2 

6.4 

6.4 

6.7 



(K) 

5.4 

6.4 

6.7 

6.9 

5% 

7 

(0) 

(K) I 

i 

5.2 

5.4 

6.7 

6.7 

5.4 

6.7 

7.4 

7.4 


14 

(G) 

5.2 

7.6 

6.4 

7.9 


(K) 

5.4 

7.9 

6.7 

7.9 


21 

(G) 

5.2 

1 8.5 

6.4 

8.5 


(K) 

5.4 

8.5 

6.7 

8.5 


9 

(G) 

5.4 

5.8 

6.7 

6.9 


Z 

(K) 

5.6 

5.8 

7.0 

7.4 


4 

(G) 

5.4 

6.4 

6.7 

6.9 



(K) 

5.6 

6.4 

7.0 

7.4 

\0°/o 

7 

(G) 

(K) 

5.4 

5.6 

6.7 

6.7 

6.7 

7.0 

7.6 

7.6 


14 

(G) 

5.4 

7.6 

6.7 

7.9 



(K) 

5.6 

7.9 

7.0 

7.9 


21 

(G) 

|l 54 

8.5 

6.7 

8.5 


(K) 

1 5 - 6 

8.5 

7.0 

8.5 




































138 


BULLETIN DE L'INSTITUT D’EGYPTE 


(Table IV); it acquires its maximal value in two-days old 
filtrâtes and becomes successively decreased with increasing âge 
of fiitrate up to seven-days old, above which it becomes com- 
pletely degraded (i.e. in two-weeks and three-weeks old filtrâtes). 
Filtrâtes, of similar âge and from originally cold-sterilized root 
extracts, generally manifest the same value of exo-enzymic acti- 
vity quite independent of : 

(a) pH value of fiitrate (i.e. whether left unchanged or 
restored to that of original extract). 

(b) Variation in experimental concentrations of original 
extract (i.e. 5% or 10%). 

Fumrium filtrâtes, of varying âges and obtained from 
originally autoclaved root extracts of both cotton varieties, are 
proved to be exo-enzymically inactive. Autoclaving of original 
root extracts results always in shifting the pH values towards 
high alkalinity (Table V), which might indicate that autoclaving 
results in inducing a change in the constitution of the original 
extract. Accordingly, the failure of Fusarium to express any 
exo-enzymic activity on autoclaved root extracts may be due to 
either one or more of the following possibilities : (a) The change 
in the constitution of the original extract, through autoclaving, 
results in establishing a nutritive condition suppressive for the 
production of macerating exo-enzymes, (b) The modification in 
the constitution of the original root extract, induced by auto¬ 
claving, results in changing the subséquent Fusarium metabolic 
potentiality in such a way as to interfère with either the forma¬ 
tion or activity of the fungal exo-enzymes through the produc¬ 
tion of a deactivating substance, and (c) High alkalinity of root 
extract, induced by autoclaving, interfères with Fusarium- exo- 
enzymic activity or production. 

(d) Dox’s Liquid 

Fusarium exo-enzymic activity on a synthetic medium of a 
known constitution “i.e. Dox’s liquid’’ is found also to be very 
feeble (Table VI). It similitudes that on cotton extracts so far 
as the following points are concerned : 

(1) Fusarium exo-enzymic activity, on pH-unchanged 
filtrâtes, decreases successively with increased aging of fiitrate; 
three-weeks old filtrâtes express practically no nzymic activity. 


139 


ItESISTANCÉ AND SUSOEPTtBIUITY TO COTTON WlET 


TABLE IV 

Fusarium enzymic activity, after varying periods of time, on 
cold-sterilized (M) and on autoclaved (A) 5% and 10% aqueous 
extracts from roots of two-weeks old “Giza 26” (G) and “Karnak” 
(K) cotton seedlings ; the enzymic activity is considered zéro 
when the reaction time exceeds 24 hours (< 24). 


Root 

extract 

conc. 

O 

Time 

in 

days 

Cotton 

variety 


pH value 

Reaction time 

Enzymic 

activity 

Orignal 

Final 

pH 

(unchan 

ged) 

PH 

(restored) 

pH 

(restored) 

pH 

(restored) 




(M) 

6.7 

7.4 

16 

16 

6.3 

6.3 



(G) 

(A) 

8.8 

1 

8.8 

<24 

<42 

- 

- 


2 


(M) 

7.0 ; 

7.4 

18 

18 

5.6 

5.6 



(K) 

(A) 

8.8 

8.8 

<24 

<24 

— 

— 




(M) 

6.7 

7.6 

18 

18 

5.6 

5.6 

r Gf- 

A 

(G) 

(A) 

8.8 

8.5 

<24 

<24 

- 

- 

D /C 

4 


(M) 

7.0 

7.6 

18 

<24 

5.6 

5.6 



(K) 

(A) 

8.8 

8.8 

<24 

<24 

— 

— 




(M) 

6.7 

! 7.9 

22 

<24 

4.5 

_ 



(G) 

(A) 

8.8 

1 8.5 

<24 

<24 

- 

- 


7 


(M) 

7.0 

7.9 

22 

<24 

4.5 

— 



(K) 

(A) 

8.8 

8.8 

<24 

<24 

— 

— 




(M) 

6.4 

6.7 

16 

16 

6.3 

6.3 



(G) 

(A) 

9.1 

8.8 

<24 

<24 

- 

- 


2 


(M) 

7.0 

7.4 

18 

18 

5.6 

5.6 



(K) 

(A) 

9.1 

8.8 

<24 

<24 

— 

— 




(M) 

6.4 

7.4 

18 

18 

5.6 

5.6 



(G) 

(A) 

9.1 

8.5 

<24 

<24 

— 

— 

] 0 % 

4 











(K) 

(M) 

7.0 

7.6 

18 

18 

5.6 

5.6 



(A) 

9.1 

8.8 

<24 

<24 

— 

— 



(G) 

(M) 

6.4 

7.9 

20 

<24 

5.0 

— 



(A) 

9.1 

8.8 

<24 

<24 

— 

— 


7 


(M) 

7.0 

7.9 

22 

<24 

4.5 

— 



(K) 

(A) 

9.1 

8.8 

<24 

<24 

— 

— 


(*) After 14 and 21 days, enzymic activity is zéro. 









































Î40 


BULLETIN 1)E L’INSTITUT D'EGYPTE 


TABLE V 

pH variations induced by Fusarian growth, on either 5% 
or 10% extracts from roots of two-weeks old seedlings of 
“Giza 26” (G) and “Karnak” (K) cotton varieties, after varying 
péri ods of time ; the original extract is either cold-sterilized or 
autoclaved. 


Extract 

conc. 

1 

Time 

in 

days 

Cotton 

variety 


Extract treatment 


(Cold-sterilized) 

Autoclaved) 

PH 

| (Original) 

PH 

(Fihal) 

pH 

(Original) 

PH 

(Final) 


o 

(0) 

6.7 

7.4 

' 8.8 

88. 


Z 

(K) 

7.0 

1 

7.4 

8.8 

88. 


A 

(0) 

6.7 

7.6 

8.8 

8.5 


4 

(K) 

7:0 

7.6 

8.8 

8.8 

5% 

*7 

'G) 

6.7 

7.9 

8.8 

8.5 

/ 

(K) 

7.0 

7.9 

8.8 

8.8 


1 Æ 

(G) 

6.7 

8.5 

3.8 

8.8 


1 4 

(K) 

7.0 

8.5 

. 

8.8 

8.8 


21 

1 

(G) 

6.7 

8.5 

8.8 

8.8 


(K) 

7.0 

8.8 

8.8 

8.8 


O 

(G) 

6.4 

6.7 

9.1 

8.8 


Z 

(K) 

7.0 

7.4 

9.1 

8.8 


A 

(G) 

6.4 

7.4 

9.1 

8.5 


4 

(K) 

7.0 

7.6 

9.1 

8.8 



(G) 

6.4 

7.9 

9.1 

8.8 

10 % 

7 

(K) 

7.0 

7.9 

9.1 

8.8 


14 

(G) 

6.4 

8.5 

9.1 

8.8 


(K) 

7.4 

8.6 

9.1 

8.8 


21 

(G) 

6.4 

8.5 

9.1 

8.8 


(K) 

7.0 

8.8 

9.1 

8.8 


RESISTANCE AND SUSCEPTIBIL1TY TO COTTON WILT 


141 


(2) As in case of cotton extracts, Fusarium growth on Dox’s 
liquid causes an increase in the pH value of the resulting filtrate. 
The restoration of pH values of fungal filtrâtes, to those of 
original unconsumed medium, does not affect exo-enzymic 
activity in filtrâtes of comparatively younger âges (i.e. two- and 
four-days old). On the other hand, in filtrâtes of advanced âges 
i.e. seven-days and more), restoration of pH values of filtrâtes 
results in complété deactivation of Fusarium exo-enzymic 
activity. 


4. DISCUSSION 

The présent work deals with the post-penetration phase, 
with regard to the host-parasite relationship between “Giza 26” 
and “Karnak” cotton varieties on one hand and the wilt-inducing 

TABLE VI 

Fusarium enzymic activity, after varying periods of time, 
on a full strength of autoclaved Dox’s liquid ; the enzymic activity 
is considered zéro when the reaction time exceeds 24 hours 
(< 24). 


Time 

in 

days 

pH value 

Reaction 

time 

Enzymic 

activity 

Original 

Final 

PH 

(unchanged) 

pH 

(restored) 

pH 

(unchanged) 

PH 

(restored) 

2 

5.4 

6.4 

18 

i 

| 

18 

5.6 

5.6 

4 

5.4 

6.7 

18 

18 

5.6 

5.6 

7 

5.4 

| 

7.3 

! 

20 

<24 

5.0 

0 

14 

5.4 

00 

22 

<24 

4.5 

l 

0 

21 

5.4 

8.8 

<24 

<24 

0 

1 

0 











































142 


BULLETIN DE 1/INSTITUT 


D*E(ÎYBTE 


Fusarium on the other hand, so far the two following aspects 
are concerned : (a) Mycelial fate within root tissues, and 

(b) Fusarium, exo-enzymic activity. Concerning the first aspect, 
there is a prominent différence in the final fate of the fungal 
mycélium compared within the root tissues of the two experi¬ 
mental cotton varieties. Thus, within “Karnak” root cortical 
cells, the penetrating hyphae fade gradually in the cortical 
tissues; no trace couîd be detected within root vascular cylinder. 
On the other hand, in case of the susceptible “Giza 26” cotton 
variety, the fungal mycélium could establish itself successfully 
throughout the different root tissues including both vascular 
cylinder and pith cells. Parallel results were also obtained by 
Yablokova (1937) in her studies of the fate of Fusarium bvharium 
in two cotton varieties, one of which was résistant and the other 
was Susceptible. In addition, fungal presence in “Karnak” root 
cortical cells stimulâtes pericyclic cells for cambial activity and 
production of cork-barrier ; similar mechanical responses, due to 
Fusarium invasion, were also recorded by other investigators 
(Tisdale 1917, Fahmy 1928, and Ghamraway 1932). 

Concerning Fusarium enzymic activities, so far as the 
macerating exo-enzymes are concerned, the fungus was found to 
be of the dry-rot type ; no significant différences could be de¬ 
tected in comparing the fungal exo-enzymic activities on extracts 
from “Giza 26” cotton variety on one hand and on those of 
“Karnak” on the other hand. On the whole, feeble macerating 
exo-enzymes could be only demonstrated in fungal filtrâtes, of 
comparatively younger âges, from extracts of “Giza 26” and 
“Karnak” two-weeks old seedlings and from their respective 
roots. The relative Fusarium exo-enzymic activities were found, 
however, to differ according to the variation of the following 
factors : (a) Maturation stage of cotton seedlings from which 

original extracts hâve been obtained, (b) Type of sterilization- 
treatment of original cotton extract, and (c) Aging of fungal 
filtrate. In addition, pH variations of filtrâtes and different 
concentrations of original extract may also pîay a certain rôle in 
influencing the résultant exo-enzymic activity. 

Accordingly, the fading of the fungal mycélium within 
“Karnak” root cortical cells — and its free advance into different 
root tissues of “Giza 26” cotton variety — could not be attributed 
either to pH variation as to Fusarium exo-enzymic activities 
as influenced by the nature of the host variety. It may be, 


RESISTANCE AND SUSCEPTIBIDITY TO COTTON WILT 


143 


however, correlated with either one or more of the following 
responses : (a) Mechanical response by cork-barrier formation, 

(b) Nutritive constitution of root juices and extracts, and the 
possible presence of an inhibitory factor for either conidial ger¬ 
mination or mycelial growth, and (c) The possible fungal meta- 
bolitic potentiality in producing factors either suppressive or 
stimulating for its own further mycelial growth. The first 
response has been already demonstrated in the résistant 
“Karnak” cotton variety ; the possible rôles played by the two 
last responses will constitute, however the subject matters of 
subséquent papers. 


5. SUMMARY 

1. The host-parasite relationship was elucidated, during. the 
post-penetration phase, in relation to the two following 
problems : (a) Mycelial fate, and (b) Fusarium exo-enzymic 
activities. 

2. The post-penetrated mycélium fades in the cortex of 
“Karnak” roots, while it continues to advance and pénétrâtes 
through endodermal cells into vascular cylinder and pith 
cells of “Giza 26” cotton variety. 

3. The most prominent anatomical response — to fungal 
invasion — is expressed by the résistant “Karnak” roots. 
Cork cambial activity is stimulated in pericycle ; it occurs 
at a level higher than the root hair zone and reaches up to 
the collar. On the other hand, no such cambial activity is 
observed in invaded “Giza 26” roots. 

4. Concerning Fusarium, exo-enzymic activities in filtrâtes from 
either “Giza 26” or “Karnak” extracts, différences were 
found to be rather insignificant ; the fungus, in both cases, 
produces feeble macerating exo-enzymes. 

5. Exo-enzymic activity may vary, however, according to the 
interaction of the following factors: (1) Maturation stage 
of cotton seedlings from, which extracts are obtained, 
(ii) Extract concentration ; (iii) Extract sterilization-treat- 
ment ; (iv) Age of filtrate, and (v) pH variation of fungal 
filtrate. 










144 


BULLETIN DE L’INSTITUT D'EGYPTE 


6. REFERENCES 


Brooks, RT. and Storey, B.A. (1923) : “Silver-leaf disease, IV/’ 
Journ. Pom. Hortic. Scien., Vol. III; No. 3. 

Brooks, F.T. and Moore, W.C. (1923): “On the Invasion of Woody 
Tissues by Wound Parasites.” Proc. Cfambr. Philos. Soc., Vol. 
I., No. 1. 

Brooks, F.T. and Moore, W.C. (1926) : “Silver-leaf disease, V.” 
Journ. Pom. and Hortic. Scien., Vol.-V., No.2. 

Brown, \V. (1915) : “Studies in the physiology of parasitism. I — 
The action of Botrytis cinerea.” Ann. Bot., XNIX. 

Brown, W. (1917) : “On the distribution of cytase in culture of 
Botrytis cinerea.” Ann. Bot., XXXI. 

Brown, W. (1936) : “The physiology of host-parasite relation.” Bot. 
Rev., 5. 

Chona. B.L. ( 1932) : “Studies in the physiology of parasitism. 

analysis of the factors underlying specializa.tion of 
parasitism with spécial référencé to certain fungi parasitic on 
apple and potato.” Ann. Bot., XLVI. 

Conant, O.H. (192/ ) : Histological Studies of Résistance in tobacco 
to Thielvia basicola.” Amer. Journ. Bot., XIV. 

Davison, F.R. and Williman, T.F. (192/): “Biochemistry of plant 
diseases, IX. Pectic enzymes, Bot. Gaz.. LXXXIII. 

De Barv, A. (1886) : Ueber einige Sclerotinien and Sclerotien- 
krankheiten.” Bot. Zeit. 

Fahmy, T. (1928): “The Fusarium disease of cotton (Wilt) and 
its control, Bull. Minis. of Agric., Hgypt, No. 74. 

Fernando, M. (1937) : “Studies in the physiology of parasitism, 
Effect of nutrient medium upon the sécrétion and pro- 
perties of pectinase.” Ann. Bot., N.S.I. 

Chamrawy, A.K. (19321: “Experiments on the disease of Narcissus 
due to Fusarium bulbigenum Cke. and Mass.” Thesîs for 
Ph.D. degree, London Universitv 

Horne, A. (1930) : “Biologicaî work on fruit.” Dept. Scien. and 
Indus. Res.. Food Invest. Board, Reprint. 

Jones,, A.P. (1931): '‘The Histogeny of Potato Scab.” Ann Appl 
Biol., XVIII. * 

Klotz, L.J. (1927) : Inhibition of enzymatic action as a possible 
factor m the résistance of tlants to disease.” Science, 66. 
enon K.PA. (1934) : Studies on the physiology of parasitism, 
XJA — comparison of enzymic extracts obtained from various 
parasitic fungi.” Ann. Bot., XLVIII. 

Mostafa, M.A. (1948) : “Studies’ on fungal compétition, III. The 
pathological anatomy of the host plant as a factor in compétitive 
fungal parasitism.” Bull. Fac. of Scien., Cairo University, Egypt, 

Mostafa M.A. and Naim, M.S. (1954): "Physiological Signifiance 
of Résistance and susceptibility — to Fusarium wilt - of 


RESISTANCE AND SUSCEPTIBILITY TO COTTON WILT 


145 


Sonie Egyptian Cotton Varieties. (I) Effect of root metabolities 
on mycelial growth and conidlal germination.” Desert Institute 
1954/ 

Mostafa, M.A. and Naïm, M.S. (1954) : “Physidlogicaf éignificance 
of Résistance and Susceptibility — to Fusarium wilt — of 
Some Egyptian Cotton Varieties’. (II) Effect of fungal méta¬ 
bolites on cotton vigour and mode of pénétration.” Institut 
d’Egypte... 1955, 

Stoughton, R.H. (193b) : ‘‘Thiohin and Orange G for the differential 
stâining of Bacteria and Fungi ip plant tissues.” Ann s Appl. 
Biology, Vol. XVII. 

Thomas, ÏÏ;E. (1934) : “Studies on Armillaria mejlea (Vahl) Quel, 
infection, parasitism and host résistance.” Journ. Agric, ,Res., 48. 

Tisdale, W.H. (1917) : “ f Flax wilt’, a study oS the nature and in- 
heritance of wilt résistance.” Journ. Agric. Res., II. 

Vasudeva, R.S. (1930): ‘Studies on the physiology of parasitism. 
XI — An analysis of the factors ünderlving specializatiop of 
parasitism with spécial rcference to the fungi Botrytis allii 
Munn. and 'Monilio* fructigena Per s.” Ann. Bot., XLIV. | 

Ward, M.H. (1888)4 “A lïly disease.” Ann. Bot., IL 

Yablokova, V.H. (1937) : “Oh the pénétration of Fusarium 
Buharieum into cotton seedlings.” Pt. Prot; Leningr., 13. 









146 


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(A) 

<CIZA 26 ) ( KARNAK) 




Fig. i. - The relative distribution of Fusarium hyphae, during 
post-pcnetration phase, compared witliin “Giza 26*’ and 
“Karnak” cotton roots of two-weeks old seqjdiings (A) ; the 
pénétration of endodermal cclls of “Giza 26” roots is also 
shown (B). “X 480/’ 


RESISTANCE AND ST SCEPTIB II A T Y TO COTTON WILT 


147 



Fig. 2. — Microphotographs of transverse sections of “Giza 26 v 
roots from healthy (A) “X 180” and from infected two-weeks 
old seedlings (B). “X 200.” 
















148 


TiULLUTLV I>U 


INSTITUT D’EGYPTK 


Fig. 



3. — A micniplmtogntph .(A) “X 40” of infectqd roots of 
two-weeks old PKarnak” seedlings' show in g* *the .nicchanical 
response by formation of perkycliç periderm ; th.c pcricyclk 
région is emlârged in (P>). “>( 120.” 


PHYSIOLOGICAL SIGNIFICANCE OF RESISTANCE 
AND SUSCEPTIBILITY — TO FUSARIUM WILT — 
OF SOME EGYPTIAN COTTON VARIETIES : 

(IV) Effect of seedling extracts — as influenced by 
cotton variety — on Fusarium myceliai growth and conidial 

germination. 

by 

M. A. MOSTAFA, M.Sc. (Cairo), Ph.D. (Cambridge) 

and 

M. S. NAIM, M.Sc. (Cairo), Ph.D. (Cairo) 

1. INTRODUCTION 

In previous papers (Mostafa and Naïm 1954), the following 
problems hâve been elucidated with regard to the physiological 
significance of résistance and susceptibility between “Karnak” 
and “Giza 26" cotton varieties and Fusarium solani Sensu 
Snyder and Hansen: 

(a) Pre-penetration phase concerning the effect of cotton- 
root métabolites on Fusarium* myceliai growth and conidial ger¬ 
mination on one hand and the effect of rhizospheric fungal méta¬ 
bolites on cotton-seedling vigour on the other hand. 

(b) Pénétration phase compared in the two experimental 
cotton varieties. 

(c) Myceliai post-penetration fate so far as anatomical 
responses are concerned, as well as fungal macerating exo- 
enzymic activity, as influenced by the nature of the cotton 
variety. 

The présent work includes a study of another aspect of 
post-penetration phase concerning the effect of .extracts from 
seeds, or from various parts of either “Giza 26” or “Karnak” 
seedlings of different maturation stages, on both Fusarium 
growth and conidial germination. Extracts of résistant variety 













150 


BULLETIN DE L’INSTITUT D’EGYPTE 


may contain substances inhibitory for Fusarium growth ; such 
type of résistance is known as Chemical résistance. 

There are many examples which manifest such type of 
Chemical résistance. The presence of catechol and protocatechuic 
acid in cell-sap of coloured résistant onion varieties is believed 
te account for the résistance of these varieties to onion smudge 
caused by Colletotrichum circinans (Link and Walker 1933). 
The action of volatile and non-volatile antibiotics in the fleshly 
scales of onion is considered also to he a definite factor in the 
relative résistance of onion varieties to Collet otrichum circinans, 
Aspergïllus niger and Botrytis allii (Hatfield and others 1948). 
The immunity of monocotyledonous plants to Phy mat otrichum 
omnivorum is found to be due to certain unidentified ether- 
solubfe substances présent in monocotyledonous plants, but ap- 
parently absent in most or ail dicotyledonous ones (Ezekial and 
Fudge 1938). The presence of a high amount of glucosides 
accounts for the résistance of flax varieties to Fusarium Uni 
(Reynolds, 1924 and 1931) and of crucifers to clubroot (Rochlin, 
1934). Similarly, the résistance of a species of Solanum to 
Cladosporium fulvum is believed to be due to the presence of 
higher amounts of solanine (Schmidt, 1933 and Brown, 1936). 
Fontaine and others (1947) suggested that tomatin may be a 
factor in the résistance of certain tomato varieties to Fusarium 
lycopersici. Little and Grubauch (1946) demonstrated that both 
Fusarium conglutinans and Fusarium lycopersici were inhibited 
by juices from wilt-resistant tomato varieties. A substance anta¬ 
goniste to a number of bacteria and fungi, among which was 
Fusarium lycopersici , could be detected in cabbage seed extracts 
(Lucas and others 1946). Antifungal substances were isolated 
from the storage organs of turnip, Kohlrabi and beet (Gerretsen 
and Haagsma, 1951). Braun (1942), working on the relative 
susceptibility of two watermelon varieties to wilt disease due to 
Fusarium bulbigenum variety niveum, found that the fungal 
growth in the less susceptible variety might be retarded by a 
water-soluble substance extracted from the shoot and not from 
the root as the pathogen established itself in the roots of both 
varieties ; ether extracts from dried pulps of both varieties did 
not affect growth. 

Some substances, such as phénols (Newton and Anderson, 
1929; Dufernoy and Edgerton 1940, and Greathouse and Rigler, 
1940) or tannins (Cook and Wilton, 1911, and Cartwright and 


RESISTANCE AND SUSCEPTIBILITY TO COTTON WILT 


151 


Findlay, 1947), are generally associated with résistance. The 
tannin content of wood is inversely proportion al to the rate of 
advance of certain heart-rot fungi (Lutz, 1928). Walker and 
Link (1935) stated, however, that phenolic compounds were not 
always a factor in résistance as they might be présent in con¬ 
centrations that hâve either no or even a stimulating effect on 
fungal growth. 

2. EXPERIMENTAL TECHNIQUE 

Fusarium- mycelial growth, as determined by either growth 
rates on agar cotton extracts or mycelial dry weights on liquid 
extracts, has been elucidated in response to the variation of the 
folio wing factors of cotton extracts : (i) The cotton variety used; 
(ii) Stage of seedling maturation; (iii) The plant part (i.e. se.eds, 
whole seedlings, shoots or roots), and (iv) Sterilization-treatment 
of the extract, whether heat-sterilized by autoclaving or cold- 
sterilized by Menon’s technique (Menon, 1934). The latter 
involves the transference of the extract into an ice chest for 
24 hours, heated for ten minutes at 60°C, and then rapidly trans- 
ferred again to the ice chest ; the whole process has to be re- 
peated for three consecutive times. A comparison of the fungal 
growth on the same type of extract, either autoclaved or cold- 
sterilized, évaluâtes the possible effect of heat. In each type 
of the above treatments, varying concentrations of extracts hâve 
been used. In addition, the effect of different treatments and 
concentrations of cotton extracts, on conidial germination, has 
been studied. 

Accordingly, the présent cultural work, will include the 
study of : (1) Growth responses of Fusarium — as measured by 
growth rates on agar media — to different treatments of aqueous 
cotton extracts ; (2) Growth responses of Fusarium* — as 

measured by mycelial dry weights — to different treatments of 
aqueous cotton extracts; (3) Effect of individual components of 
cotton extracts — as separated by differential dissolution in 
various organic solvents — on Fusarium growth, and (4) Ger¬ 
mination potentialités of Fusarium conidia as influenced by the 
nature and treatment of cotton extract. 

The following method has been applied throughout for the 
préparation of different cotton extracts : Two- and four-weeks 
old healthy seedlings, of either the résistant “Karnak” ,or the 
susceptible “Giza 26” cotton variety, were pulled out carefully 












152 


BULLETIN DK L'INSTITUT D'EGYPTE 


itom the soil and washed thoroughly under running tap water 
ior several hours. They were then dried in between blotting 
papers. In every case, 100 grams were weighed from either : 
(a) Seeds ; (b) Whole seedlings ; (c) Seedling shoots, or (d) Seed- 
ling roots. Each lot was eut into small pièces and washed, for 
several times, with sterilized water. Theÿ were then transferred 
into an electric grinding machine and pounded — for a period 
of five minutes —- at full speed. The pounded extract was 
treated with sterilized water, filtered off, and the residue was 
subsequently washed for several times. The filtrate, as well as 
the aqueous solution resulting from washing the residue, were 
completed to one litre. From this 10% aqueous cotton extract 
the following dilutions were also prepared : 2%, 4%, 6% and 

8%. For each treatment and concentration, the extract was 
divided into two portions : one portion was autoclaved and the 
other cold-sterilized. 


3. GROWTH RESPONSES OF FUSARIUM — AS MEASURED 
BY GROWTH RATES ON AGAR MEDIA — TO DIFFERENT 

TREATMENTS OF AQUEOUS COTTON EXTRACTS. 

Petri-dishes, containing different types and treatments of 
aqueous cotton extract to which 2% agar was added, were 
inoculât,ed with Fusarium. mycelial dises of a standardized size 
and incubated at 25°C. Comparions of Fusarium mycelial 
growth will be made according to the following sequence of 
extracts from : (i) “Giza 26” or “Karnak” seeds ; (ii) “Giza 26” 
or “Karnak” two- and four-weeks old whole seedlings ; (iii) Roots 
of either “Giza 26” or “Karnak” two- and four-weeks old 
seedlings ; (iv) Shoots of either “Giza 26” or “Karnak” two- and 
four-weeks old seedlings, and (v) 10% concentration of “Giza 26” 
and of “Karnak” cotton extracts, from seedlings of different 
stages of maturation, compared with a synthetic medium of a 
known Chemical constitution (i.e. autoclaved Richard’s solution 
agar). The results are expressed as growth rates and repre- 
sented almost diagramatically (Figs. 1-6). 

In such growth-rate curves, three phasés could be dis- 
tinguished : 

a) An initial phase, during which the growth rate remains 
variable — with increasing incubation period — until it reaches 
its optimal value. 


RJOSTSTÀNCfc AND SU SCEPTï RTL f T Y TO COTTON WILT 


153 


b) Optimal phase, in which daily incrément attains its 
highest value. 

c) Post-optimal phase, during which the growth-rate pro¬ 
cedure behaves in either one of the two following ways: (i) It 
remâins more or less constant — throughout the remaining 
incubation period — and this occurs in the absence of staling, or 
(ii) It starts to decrease successively with increasing incubation 
period above the optimal phase, and this désignâtes the occur¬ 
rence of the staling phenomenon. 

There are two points to be considered in discussing the 
various growth-rate curves on different types, treatments or 
concentrations of cotton extracts: (1) The occurrence of staling 
indicates the production — as a resuit of fungal growth — of 
certain métabolites suppressive for its own growth, and (2) the 
successive lowering of optimal phases, with increasing extract 
concentration, dénotés the possible presence of an inhibitory 
factor in the tested extract. 

(i) Seed Extracts (Fig. 1): 

Concerning different concentrations and treatments of 
“Giza 26” and “Karnak” seed extracts, the procedures of growth 
rate curves—during the whole incubation period — do not vary 
considerably on the autoclaved and cold-sterilized same seed 
extract but they are comparatively higher on autoclaved extracts. 
Staling occurs on different seed cotton extracts, although it is 
comparatively more pronounced on “Karnak” than on “Giza 26” 
seed extracts. 

(ii) Whole Seedling Extracts (Fig. 2) : 

Except in two remarkable cases (i.e. 10% “Giza 26” two- 
weeks old seedling extracts and 6% “Karnak” four-weeks old 
seedling extract), no significant différence can be detected in 
procedures of growth-rate curves on the same seedling extract 
either autoclaved or cold-sterilized; the growth-rate curve on 
autoclaved extract lies generally, however, abov,e that on the 
same extract cold-sterilized. The successive dépréssion in 
optimal phases of growth-rate curves, with increasing 
concentrations of “Karnak” two-weeks old seedling extract 
(Fig. 2, 1), might indicate the presence of an inhibitory factor 
for fungal growth, similar inhibitory effect is also shown on 
“Karnak” four-weeks old seedling extract (Fig. 2. 11) which is 












154 


BULLETIN DE L’INSTITUT D'EGYPTE 


more manifested at higher experimental concentrations. 
Accordingly, an increase in the concentration of such an 
inhibitory factor — following increase of extract concentration 
causes a successive dépréssion of the optimal phases of growth- 
late curves. No such effect could be detected, however, on 
increasing concentration of “Giza 26” tfao-weeks old seedling 
extract. On the contrary, in case of four-weeks old “Giza 26” 
seedling extract, the optimal phases becomes successively 
elevated with graduai increasing concentrations of the extract. 

Staling is found to occur on whole-seedling extracts of the 
two experimental cotton varieties ; it is, however, more pro- 
nounced on extracts from “Karnak” than from those of “Giza 26” 
cotton variety. The procedure of staling, in response to increased 
maturation of cotton seedlings, differs on corresponding 
extracts — of similar treatment and concentration — of the two 
cotton varieties. It becomes more pronounced with increasing 
maturation of “Karnak” seedlings, while less pronounced with 
increased maturation of “Giza 26” seedlings. This might indicate 
that the metabolitic activity of Fusarium, results in causing a 
more suppression for its own growth with increased “Karnak” 
seedling maturation, while the reverse condition occurs in case 
of “Giza 26” seedlings. 

(iii) Root Extracts (Fig. 3) : 

The variation in the method of treatment of each particular 
type of root extract, whether cold-sterilized or autoclaved, is not 
found to affect appreciably the mode of procedure of growth-rate 
curves at each particular concentration of extract. An increase 
in the concentration of two-weeks old “Giza 26” seedling root 
extract causes a successive élévation of the optimal phases, while 
no such effect could be detected on root extracts of “Karnak” 
seedlings of a similar âge. Staling is found to occur on ail con¬ 
centrations of root extracts from either “Giza 26” or “Karnak” 
two-weeks old seedlings ; on both types of root extracts, staling 
becomes either partially or completely eliminated with the 
advance of seedling maturation. 

(iv) Shoot Extracts (Fig. 4) : 

As in the case of root extracts, there is generally no appré¬ 
ciable différence in the procedures of growth-rate curves on the 
same shoot extract whether autoclaved or cold-sterilized. The 


RESISTANCE AND SUSCEPTIBILITY TO COTTON WILT 


155 


dépréssion in growth-rate curves on “Karnak” shoot extracts, 
compared in two- and in four-weeks old seedlings, shows that 
“Karnak” shoots become less favourabl.e for Fusarium with 
increasing seedling maturation. Growth-rate curves on shoot 
extracts, from either “Giza 26” or “Karnak” four-weeks old 
seedlings, show that increasing concentration causes successive 
élévation on “Giza 26” extract and graduai dépréssion on 
“Karnak” extract. The more favouritism of “Giza 26” shoot 
extract and the less convenience of that of “Karnak” for fungal 
growth, with increasing seedling maturation, are further sup- 
ported by the sequence of staling in both cases. It is found to 
become less pronounced on “Giza 26” extract, and appreciably 
more pronounced on that of “Karnak,” with increased maturation 
of respective seedlings. 

(v) Comparison: 


A comparison has been made of growth-rate curves at the 
maximal experimental concentration (i.e. 10%) of different types 
and treatments of cotton extracts in relation to those on auto¬ 
claved Richard’s solution agar as a standardized control medium 
of known constitution ; the results can be summarized as follows 
(Figs. 5 and 6) : (1) Except on seed .extract, the growth-rate 

curves of Fusarium become comparatively depressed on similar 
parts and concentrations of “Karnak” than of “Giza 26” ; this 
dénotés the more favouritism of the latter cotton variety ; 
(2) The remarkabl.e dépréssion of growth-rate curves, compared 
on four- and two-weeks old “Karnak” whole seedling and shoot 
extracts, might indicate that “Karnak” shoots and whole seed- 
îings become gradually more suppressive for Fusarium growth 
with their increased maturation ; (3) On differently treated 
extracts from various parts of two-weeks old seedlings, of either 
“Giza 26” or “Karnak” cotton variety, Fusarium shows staling. 
On the other hand, on the control Richard’s solution agar, the 
growth rate remains more or less constant throughout the post- 
optimal phase which indicates the non-staling type of Fusarium 
growth, and (4) In compariscn with the control synthetic 
medium, staling becomes less pronounced on differently treated 
extracts from different parts of four-weeks than on two-weeks 
old “Giza 26” seedlings. On the other hand, an increased déprés¬ 
sion of growth-rate curves on extracts of different parts of 
“Karnak” seedlings, as well as the occurrence of a very pro- 














156 


JUILLET!N I)K L’INSTITUT D’EGYPTE 


nounced staling on shoot and whole-seedling extracts, take place 
on “Karnak.” 

4. — GROWTH RESPONSES OF FUSARIUM — AS MEASURED 
BY MYCELIAL DRY WEIGHTS — TO DIFFERENT TREAT- 
MENTS OF AQUEOUS COTTON EXTRACTS. 

Fusarium growth responses to liquid aqueous cotton extracts 
hâve been similarly tested by mycelial dry-weight détermina¬ 
tions. Cultures were incubated, for ten days, at 30°C, the my¬ 
celial growth was then filtered off, dried at 80°C for 48 hours, 
and the dry weight was determined. 

Concerning seed extracts (Fig. 7), Fusarium mycelial growth 
is always significantly greater on “Giza 26” seed extracts than 
on those from Karnak. The fungus behaves also differentlv 
in response to increasing concentration of the two types of seed 
extracts. The mycelial dry weights continue to increase con- 
stantlv with increasing concentration of “Giza 26” seed extract 
while in case of “Karnak” seed extract — the increase con- 
tiues up to a certain concentration (i.e. 8%), above which the 
growth starts to dégradé. In ail experimental seed-extract con¬ 
centrations of the two cotton varieties, autoclaving results in 
increasing Fusarium growth in comparison with corresponding 
cold-sterilized extracts. This suggests either the possible presence 
of a thermolabile growth-inhibiting factor or that autoclaving 
changes the Chemical constitution of the extract in such a wav 
as to become more favourable for fungal growth. 

Concerning whole-seedling extracts (Fig. 8,1), in ail concen¬ 
trations, the fungal growth is significantly greater on “Giza 26” 
than on “Karnak” extracts from seedlings of a similar âge as 
well as on extracts from four-weeks than from two-weeks old 
seedlings. On the whole, autoclaving results in causing an 
increase in Fusarium growth in a similar manner — and possibly 
due to the same reasons — previously mentioned in seed extracts. 
The procedure of Fusarium growth curve — in response to 
increasing extract concentrations — differs in the two cotton 
varieties. On “Giza 26” extacts, from seedlings of varying 
maturation, the growth continues to increase with increasing 
experimental concentrations ; the rate of increase is, however, 
greater on extracts from four-weeks old seedlings. On the other 
hand, in ail treatments of “Karnak” extracts, the fungal growth 
continues to increase with increasing concentration up to a 


RESISTANCE AND SUSCEPTIBLLITY TO COTTON WILT 157 


maximal value (i.e. about 6%), above which there is an abrupt 
and continuai dégradation with increasing concentration. This 
may indicate the presence of an inhibitory factor in “Karnak” 
extract, which becomes more pronounced at higher concentra¬ 
tions. It would be of interest, therefore, to elucidate the relative 
distribution and potency of this factor in the component parts 
of the same cotton seedling (i.e. shoot and root). \ 

Concerning shoot extracts (Fig. 8,11), the lowest growth is 
shown on extracts from two-weeks old “Karnak” seedlings ; 
there is also a remarkable dégradation in the growth curve at 
higher concentrations. This might indicate the presence of an 
inhibitory factor in such extract. Fusarium growth becomes, 
however, considerably greater on four-weeks old “Karnak” 
seedling extract. Although — on “Karnak” shoot extracts — the 
mycelial dry weights become significantly greater with the 
advance of seedling maturation, yet the growth curve starts still 
to show dégradation at highest experimental concentration. On 
“Giza 26” shoot extracts, there is a constant increase in dry 
mycelial weights with increasing experimental concentrations, 
but the rate of increase is greater on extracts from four-weeks 
than from two-weeks old seedlings. 

Root extracts (Fig. 8,111), from two-weeks old “Karnak” or 
“Giza 26” seedlings, are proved to be inhibitory for Fusarium 
growth ; there is a constant decrease in mycelial weights with 
increasing concentration. On four-weeks old “Giza 26” seedling 
root extracts, the graduai constant increase in Fusarium myce¬ 
lial weights with increasing extract concentration dénotés the 
deactivation of the inhibitory factor with advanced seedling 
maturation. In a similar manner, the inhibitory factor is only 
partially deactivated with increased maturation of “Karnak” 
seedling roots. 

The présent cultural experiments reveal the possible pre¬ 
sence of an inhibitory factor — for Fusarium growth — in 
“Karnak” shoots or roots, as well as in “Giza 26” roots, of two- 
weeks old seedlings. Although these experiments hâve indicated 
the presence of an inhibitory factor in certain types of cotton 
extracts, yet they do not elucidate its real nature. The inhibitory 
factor may be either of nutritive or Chemical nature ; the former 
is due to the increasing concentration of certain nutritive 
constituents of the extract, and the latter is due to the presence 
of certain fungicidal or fungistatical Chemical substances. 
Accordingly, it is found rather essential to take advantage of the 











158 


BULLETIN DE L’INSTITUT D’EGYPTE 


differential dissolution of the latter substances in certain organic 
solvents to détermine their possible presence and identity ; this 
has.been approached by the two following methods : (A) Ring- 
test experiments, and (B) Mycelial dry weights. 

5. — EFFECT OF INDIVIDUAL COMPOUNDS OF COTTON 
EXTRACTS — AS SEPARATED BY DIFFERENTIAL DISSO¬ 
LUTION IN VARIOUS ORGANIC SOLVENTS — ON FUSARIUM 

GROWTH. 

(A) Ring-test experiments: 

In addition to aqueous cotton extracts, alcohol, petroleum 
ether and ether extracts were also prepared. Extracts were 
obtained from seeds, whole seedlings (two- and four-weeks old), 
seedling roots and shoots, of either “Karnak” or “Giza 26” cotton 
variety. In every case, the plant material — after being washed 
thoroughly — was pounded with sterilized water. The resulting 
paste was then mixed with 250 c.c. of the experimental organic 
solvent, and further pounded — for five minutes — in an electric 
grinding machine. The material was left — in contact with the 
solvent for 48 hours. It was shaken from time to time, then 
decanted, filtered off, and the solvent was evaporated under 
reduced pressure. The residue, left after évaporation, was dis- 
solved in sterilized water and diluted to the respective 10% con¬ 
centrations ; dilutions were further made into : 2%, 4%, 6% 

and 8%. The aqueous solution was subsequently either auto- 
claved or cold-steriiized. A ring — of about 6 mms. in diameter — 
was removed under aseptie conditions from the middle of pétri 
dishes containing Richard’s solution agar. Each dish was then 
flooded with 10 c.c. of Fusarium conidial suspension, left for 
five minutes, and the excess was decanted off. Four drops, of 
the experimental cotton extract, were then added in place of the 
removed agar ring ; four dishes were used for every particular 
type of extract treatment. Ail cultures were incubated at 25°C 
and examined carefully every day. The total diameter of the 
neutral zone, formed around the ring, is considered as a criterion 
for the presence and relative potency of the inhibitory factor 
présent in the tested extract. 

The présent ring-test experiments (Table 1 and Fig. 9) 
indicate the presence in “Karnak” two-weeks old seedlings, as 
well as in their respective roots and shoots, of water-soluble and 


RESISTANCE AND SlJNCEPTIRIblTY TO COTTON WILT 


159 


TABLE I 

Growth responses of Fusarium, as demonstrated by ring- 
test experiments, on various components — as dissolved in dif¬ 
ferent organic solvents — of extracts from : whole seedlings 
(W.S) of different stages of maturation as well as from their 
respective roots (R) and shoots (S) of either “Giza 26” (G) or 
“Karnak” (K) cotton variety ; fungal inhibition is expressed as 
(zb) and free development as (—). 




Plant 

part 


Extraction by: 


Seedling 

âge: 

Cotton 

Variety 

Water 

Alcohol 

Petroleum 

ether 

Ether 



(W.S 

(-) 

(-) 

(-) 

( + ) 


(Q) 

(R) 

(-) 

(-) 

(-) 

( + ) 

Two- 

weeks 

old 


(S) 

(-) 

(-) 

(-) 

( + ) 


(W.S) 

i±l 

(-) 

(-) 

<+) 


(K' 

(R) 

(+) 

(-) 

(-) 

( 4- ^ 



(S) 

jj ( + ) 

(-) 

(-) 

<+) 



(W.S) 

(-) 

(-) 

(-) 

(-) 


(0) 

(R) 

(-) 

(-) 

(-) 

(-) 

Four- 

weeks 

old 


(S) 

(-)' 

(-) 

I 

(-) 

i H 


(W.S) 

1 

: 

H 

(-) 

(-) 


(K> 

(R) 

i (-) 

1 

(-) 

(-) 

(-) 



(S) 

! H i 
1 

(-) 

R 

(-) 

















































160 


I » T LLETIX I>E r/ïXSTITUT D’EGYPTE 

ether soluble inhibitory substances for Fusarium growth. In 
case of ether-soluble components, the greatest inhibition was 
manifested by the root extract while that of shoot had a icom- 
paratively lower inhibitory effect (Fig. 9, UC and D). Similarly, 
the potency of the inhibitory factor was detected in “Giza 26” 
however, except in the ether-soluble components of either wholè 
seedling or root extracts of two-weeks old ; the latter express a 
comparativeîy weaker effect than corresponding component 
présent in “Karnak” root extract. On the other hand, no inhibi¬ 
tory effect was exerted by different extract treatments — of 
varying concentrations — of either: (i) Seeds, (ii) Four-weeks 
old seedlings, or (iii) Alcohol and petroleum ether extracts: 

The failure of detecting inhibitory factors, with increased 
maturation of seedlings of both çotton varieties (i.e. four-weeks 
old), may be accounted for by either one of the two foliowing 
possibilities : (a) The inhibitory effect is only restricted to early 
stages of seedling development and becomes gradually dete- 
riorated with increased maturation and (b) The inhibitory factor 
becomes reduced — either in activity or quantity — with 
increased seedling maturation. Accordingly, quantitative c.qltural 
studies will be further carried out to elucidate the fate of .such 
inhibitory factors with increased seedling maturation. 

(B) Myceliai dry weights: 

By the same method already described, 10% autoclaved or 
cold-sterilized solutions were prepared from cotton-extract 
residues left after evaporating the experimental organic solvents 
(i.e. alcohol, ether and petroleum ether) ; 5 c.c. of the aqueous 
solution were then added to every 20 c.c. of Dox’s liquid. Controls 
were also made by using Dox’s liquid as well as Dox plus water. 
Accordingly myceliai dises were transferred into different lots — 
25 c.c. each — of the following treatments : (i) 100% Dox’s 

liquid; (ii) 80% Dox plus 20% water; (iii) 80% Dox plus 20% 
autoclaved extract and (iv) 80% Dox plus 20% cold-sterilized 
extract. Extracts were obtained from whole seedlings (two- 
and four-weeks old) as well as from their respective roots 
and shoots; seed extracts were only prepared as aqueous 
extracts. For each particular treatment, four flask cultures 
were used ; these were incubated, at 30"C, for ten days. 
The myceliai growth was then filtered off, dried, and dry weight 
was determined. Percentage changes were calculated in com- 
parison with Dox’s liquid and with Dox’s liquid plus water as 
Controls. 



* 


RESISTANCE AND SUSCEPTIB1L1TY TO COTTON WJ LT 


161 


The results are found to be more or less in accordance with 
those obtained from previous ring-test experiments and can be 
summarized as follows (Fig. 10, Tables II and III) : (1) The 

addition of aqueous root extract from two- weeks old “Karnak” 
seedlings to Dox’s liquid results in suppressing Fusarium growth 
as indicated by the considérable percentage decrease compared 
with Dox plus water. This water-soluble inhibitory factor seems 
to be thermostable, since it could not be eliminated through 
autoclaving ; (2) No inhibitory factors could be detected in 
aqueous extracts from either seeds or roots and shoots of four- 
weeks old seedlings of both cotton varieties ; (3) Concerning 
ether extracts, considérable percentage decreases occur — in 
comparison with Fusarium myceliai weight on Dox plus water — 
when the following ether extracts are added to Dox’s liquid : 
(a) Ether extract from roots of two weeks old “Giza 26” seedlings 
(i.e. amounts to 86%), and (b) Ether extracts from either roots 
or shoots of two-weeks old “Karnak” seedlings ; the percentage 
decrease is comparativeîy higher than in “Giza 26” (i.e. amounts 
to 98%). The persistance of such an inhibitory effect to a more 
or less equal extent on the same extract, whether cold-sterilized 
or autoclaved, indicates the thermostability of the inhibitory 
factor ; (4) Inhibitory factors in roots of both cotton varieties, 
of comparativeîy very weak potency than those extracted with 
ether, can be detected in petroleum ether extract, and (5) The 
considérable incr.ease in Fusarium myceliai dry weights on Dox 
plus alcohol shoot-extract of either one of the two cotton 
varieties, compared with those on Dox, might be due to the fact 
that alcohol dissolves most of the mono- and di-saccharides pré¬ 
sent in the shoot extract. 

6. — GERMINATIVE POTENTIALITIES OF FUSARIUM 
CONIDIA AS INFLUENCED BY THE NATURE AND 
TREATMENT OF COTTON EXTRACT. 

Comparions of different criteria of Fusarium conidial ger¬ 
mination hâve been made with regard to the following aspects : 
(i) Effect of different concentrations of aqueous extracts (i.e. 2% 
4%, 6%, 8% and 10%); and (ii) Effect of 10% aqueous solu¬ 
tions of differently-dissoluted extract components (i.e. aqueous, 
ailcohol, ether and petroleum ether). Aqueous extracts were 
prepared from seeds, roots and shoots of two-weeks old “Giza 26” 
or “Karnak” seedlings. In Addition, 10% aqueous solutions were 













162 


BUELETIN DE L'INSTITUT D'EGYPTE 


TABLE II 

Percentage changes in Fusarium mycelial dry weights on 
Dox’s liquid plus an aqueous cotton extract (D. + W.E.) com- 
pared with those on pure Dox’s liquid (P.D) and on Dox’s plus 
water (D+W) ; autoclaved (A) or cold-sterilized (M) aqueous 
extracts are obtained from seeds (S.D) as well as from roots (R), 
shoots (S) and whole seedlings (W.S) of either “Giza 26” (G) or 
Karnak (K) two- and four-weeks old. Percentage increase is 
symbolized as ( + ) and decrease as (—). 


Medium 

Seedling 

Cotton 


-W c 
ü ai 

g e 

Mycelial 

weight 

% change compared with: 


âge 

variety 

part 

x rt 
tu g 

(in miras). 

(P.D) 

(DH W) 

(PD) 

- 

— 

- 

- 

101.6 

— 

— 

(D * W) 


— 

— 

- 

86.4 

— 

— 



(Q) 

(S. D) 

(A) 

114.8 

13 (+) 

33 H-) 



(M) 

105.8 

4 (4-) 

23 ( + ) 




(S-D) 

(A) 

99.4 

2 (-) 

15 (4-) 



(K) 

(M) 

92.6 

9 (-) 

7 ( + ) 




(W.S) 

(A) 

94.0 

8 (-) 

9 ( + ) 




(M) 

90.0 

11 (-) 

4 ( + ) 




(R) 

(A) 

80.0 

21 (-) 

7 ( ) 



(G) 

(M) 

76.2 

25 (-) 

12 (-) 

D. + W.E 

T wo- 
weeks 


'S) 

(A) 

(M) 

94.8 

92.6 

7 (-) 

9 (-) 

10 ( +) 

9 (4-) 


(W.S) 

(A) 

82.2 

19 (-) 

5 ( ) 


old- 


(M) 

80.0 

21 (-) 

7 (-) 




(R) 

(A) 

68.2 

33 (-) 

21 (-) 



(K) 

(M) 

60.0 

41 (-) 

31 (-) 




(S) 

(A) 

90.0 

11 (-) 

4 (-) 




(M) 

89.7 

12 (-) 

4 (+) 




(W.S 

(A) 

99.5 

2 (-) 

15 (+) 




(M) 

96.8 

5 (-) 

13 (4 ) 



(G) 

( R) 

<A) 

90.7 

11 (-) 

5 (+) 



(M) 

90.4 

3(-> 

5 ( + ) 




(S) 

(A) 

98.8 

5 (-) 

14 ( + ) 


Four- 

weeks 


(M) 

96.1 

9 <—) 

H ( + ) 



(W.S) 

(A) 

92.2 

9 (-) 

7 + ) 


old- 


(M) 

90.0 

H (-) 

4 ( + ) 



(K) 

(R) 

(A) 

88.2 

13 (-) 

2 (+) 



(M) 

88.0 

13 (-) 

2 (4-) 




(S) 

(A) 

94.2 

7 (-) 

9 (+) 




(M) 

93.6 

8 (-) 

8 ( + ) 


RESISTANCE AND SU8CEPTIBILITY TO COTTON WILT 


163 


TABLE III . 

Percentage changes in Fusarium mycelial dry weights on 
Dox’s liquid plus either ether (D + E.E), petroleum ether 
(D+P.E) or alcohol (D+A.E) cotton extract compared with those 
on pure Dox’s liquid (P.D) and on Dox plus water (D+W) ; 
autoclaved (A) or cold-sterilized (M) extracts are obtained from 
roots (R) and shoots (S) of two-weeks old seedlings of either 
“Giza 26” (G) or “Karnak” (K) cotton variety. Percentage 
increase is symbolized as ( + ) and decrease as (—). 






Mycelial 

% change compared with 

Medium 

Cotton 

Plant 

Extract 

weight 



variety 

part 

treatment 

(in mgms). 

(P.D) 

(D+W) 

(PD) 

- 

- 

- 

101.6 

- 

- 

(D + W) 

- 

- 

- 

86.4 

- 

- 



(R) 

(A) 

12.7 

88 ( ) 

85 (-) 


(G) 

(M) 

1 1.2 

88 (-) 

86 (-) 


(S) 

(A) 

78.2 

23 (-) 

9 (-) 

(D+E.E. 


(M) 

76.4 

25 (-) 

12 (-) 


(R) 

(A) 

1.8 

98 (-) 

98 (-) 


(K) 

(M) 

1.8 

98 (-) 

98 (-) 


(S) 

(A) 

2.2 

98 (-) 

98 (-) 



(M) 

2.2 

98 (-) 

98 (-) 



(R) 

(A) 

72.7 

28 (-) 

16 (-) 


(G) 

(M) 

71.4 

30 (-) 

17 (-) 


(S) 

(A) 

82.4 

19 (- ) 

5 (-) 

(D | P E) 


!M) 

80.6 

21 (-) 

7 (-) 


(R) 

(A) 

68.2 

33 (-) 

21 (-) 


(K) 

(M) 

67.3 

34 (-) 

22 (-) 


(S) 

(A) 

80.3 

21 (-) 

7 (-) 



(M) 

78.6 

23 (-) 

9 (-) 



(R) 

(A) 

96.0 

5 ( ) 

H ( + ) 


(G) 

(M) 

93.9 

8 (-) 

9 (+) 


(S) 

(A) 

124.2 

22 ( + ) 

44 ( + ) 

(D + A-E) 


(M) 

122.2 

20 (+) 

41 (+) 



(R) 

(A) 

102.4 

1 ( + ) 

19 ( + ) 


(K) 

(M) 

101.8 

0 

18 (+) 


(S) 

(A) 

126.4 

24 (+) 

46 ( + ) 



(M) 

121.7 

20 (+) 

41 ( + ) 





















































































164 


BULLETIN DE L'INSTITUT D’EGYPTE 


préparée! trom residual components left after the évaporation of 
the experimeiftal organic solvents from either seediing root or 
shoot extracts. Ail these were cold-sterilized. Hanging-drop 
cultures in Van-Tieghem cells, containing Fusarium conidial 
suspension of uniform density, were made ; duplicates were 
prepared for each particular treatment fcnd concentration. The 
cultures were incubated at 25°C and examined after 2, 4, 6, 8, 
16and 24 hours respectively. The following criteria hâve been 
subsequently determined : (a) Latent period of germination ; 

(b) Rate of germ-tube élongation ; and (c) Percentage germina¬ 
tion after 24 hours incubation. The presence of an inhibitory 
factor could be demonstrated by the following effects : 

(1) Prolongation of latent period of germination. 

(2) Successive dépréssion of germ-tube élongation curves 
either with increasing concentration of the same extract or with 
varying nature of extract components as segregated by different 
organic solvents. 

(3) Decrease in final percentage germination in comparison 
with Controls. 

The germinative potentiâlities of Fusarium conidia, as in- 
flu,enced by varying concentrations of aqueous cotton extracts 
as well as by different segregated components in 10% aqueous 
solutions, can be summarized as foliows (Fig. 11-13, and Tables 
IV and V) : (i) No inhibitory factor has been detected in seeds 
of both cotton varieties ; (ii) Water-soluble components, sup- 
pressive for Fusarimm conidial germination, are présent in roots 
of both cotton varieties ; they are, however, more effective in 
“Karnak” than in “Giza 26” roots. Similar water-soluble sup- 
pressive component is only restricted to “Karnak” shoots ; 
(iii) Ether-soluble components, greatly inhibitory for the ger¬ 
mination of both Fusarium micro- and macro-conidia, occur in 
“Karnak” shoot and root extracts ; a similar component — of 
relative-ly less potency — is restricted only to “Giza 26” root 
extract ; and (iv) Inhibitory components, soluble in petroleum 
ether and suppressive for conidial germination, are only 
restricted to “Karnak” and “Giza 26” shoot extracts. 


7. — DISCUSSION 

In an attempt to elucidate certain aspects of physiological 
significance of “Karnak” résistance and “Giza 26” susceptibility 


RESISTANCE AND SUSCEPTIBILITY TO COTTON WILT 


165 


TABLE IV 

Germination criteria for Fusarium micro- or macro-conidia, 
expressed as latent period of germination and percentage ger¬ 
mination, in response to different concentrations of aqueous 
cotton extracts. 


Cotton 

variety 

Extract 

irom: 

Extract 

conc. 

% 

Germination criteria. 

Latent 

period 

% germination 

Micro 

Macro 

Micro 

Macro 



2 

3 

3 

41 

44 



4 

3 

3 

45 

49 


Seeds 

6 

3 

3 

52 

58 



8 

3 

3 

55 

62 



10 

3 

3 

58 

65 



2 

3 

3 

32 

39 



4 

3 

3 

25 

34 

“Giza 26 ’’ 

Seediing 

roots 

6 

5 

5 

20 

25 



8 

5 

5 

15 

19 



10 

5 

5 

15 

18 



2 

3 

3 

38 

32 



4 

3 

3 

44 

40 


Seediing 

6 

1 

1 

48 

44 


Shoots 

8 

1 1 

1 

40 

42 



10 

1 

1 

45 

54 



2 

3 

3 

52 

48 



4 

3 

3 

45 

42 


Seeds 

6 

3 

3 

50 

50 

\ 


8 

3 

3 

52 

58 



10 

3 

3 

56 

60 



2 

3 

3 

23 

38 



4 

7 

5 

17 

20 

“ Karnak '* 

Seediing 

6 

7 

7 

11 

15 


roots 

8 

12 

7 

10 

10 



10 

12 

12 

9 

10 



2 

3 

1 

45 

48 



4 

5 

3 

40 

42 


Seediing 

6 

5 

3 

32 

38 


Shoots 

8 

7 

3 

28 

30 



10 

7 

5 

18 

24 





















































166 


BULLETIN DE L’INSTITUT D’EGYPTE 


TABLE V 

Gei’minatlon criteria for Fusarium micro- or macro-conidia, 
expressed as latent period of germination and percentage ger¬ 
mination, in response to 10% concentration of differently- 
treated cotton extracts ; a latent period* of germination, which 
exceeds 24 hours, is expressed as (< 24). 


Extract 

from: 

Cotton 

Variety 

Type 

of 

extract 

Germination criteria 

Latent 

period I 

% terminât ion 

Micro. 

Macro. 

Micro. 

Macro. 


"Giza 26” 

Aqueous 

3 

3 

58 

65 

beeds 

‘•Karnak’' 

Aqueous 

3 

3 

56 

60 



Aqueous 

5 

5 

i 15 

18 



Alcohoi 

5 

5 

! 25 

32 


“Giza 26” 

Petroleum 

1 

3 

22 

35 



ether 





Seedling 


Ether 

12 

12 

7 

9 

roots 


Aqueous 

12 

12 

9 

10 



Alcohoi 

3 

3 

29 

32 


“Karnak” 

Petroleum 

3 

3 

30 

37 



ether 







Ether 

i<24 

<;4 

0 

0 



Aqueous 

1 

i 

i 45 

54 



Alcohoi 

5 

5 

17 

20 


‘‘Giza 26'* 

Petroleum 

7 

12 

7 

19 



ether 





Seedling 


Ether 

7 

7 

22 

28 

shoots 


Aqueous 

7 

5 ! 

18 

, 24 



Alcohoi 

3 

3 

20 

23 


“Karnak” 

Petroleum 

7 

7 

11 

29 



ether 







Ether 

<24 

<24 

0 

0 


RESISTANCE AND SUSCEPTIBILITY TO COTTON WïLT 


167 


to Fusarium cotton-wilt, during post-penetration phase of fungal 
invasion, the possible presence of inhibitory components — for 
Fusarium mycelial growth and conidial germination — has been 
tested for in different types of cotton extracts by the following 
cultural methods : (i) Growth-rate curves, (ii) Fusarium 

mycelial dry-weight déterminations ; (iii) Ring-test experiments ; 
and (iv) Fusarium conidial germinative potentialities. Certain 
inhibitory Chemical components-suppressive for Fusarium 
mycelial growth and conidial germination — hâve been detected 
in extracts from both “Karnak” roots and shoots ; these thermo- 
stable inhibitory components are water- as well as ether- 
solubîe. No conclusion could be derived, however, as to whether 
the inhibitory factor is of simple or complex nature. In other 
words, whether the same inhibitory substance shows varying 
degrees of solubility in water and different organic solvents or 
whether it consists of a number of indiviclual components varying 
among themselves in their solubilities in water and organic 
solvents. On the other hand, its presence is only restricted to 
“Giza 26” roots and is mainly ether-soluble ; its effect seems not 
to be so potent as to interfère with the further advance of the 
fungal pathogen. 

It is interesting to recall here the previous work done by 
Marchlewski (1899) and recorded by Thorpe (1939). They stated 
that cotton seed contains, in addition to oil, a highly toxic 
phenolic substance “gossypol” which remains dissolved in the 
oil. This substance has been isolated by extraction with ether ; 
other forms such as apo-gossypol and D-gossypol, which are less 
toxic, are liable to exist. In a similar manner, ether-soluble 
substances inhibitory for Fusarium growth are detected in two- 
weeks old “Karnak” seedlings and in “Giza 26” roots. The 
presence of comparable inhibitory compounds in juic.es and 
extracts of various fungal-resistant plants was recorded by 
various investigators (Newton and Anderson, 1929; Reynolds, 
1931; Link and Walker, 1933; Schmidt, 1933; Brown, 1936 ; 
Ezekial and Fudge, 1938 ; Dufrenoy and Edgerton, 1940 ; Great- 
house and Rigler, 1940 ; Braun, 1942 ; Lucas and other, 1946 ; 
Fontaine and co-workers, 1947 ; Hatfield and others, 1948 ; Ger- 
retsen and Haagsma, 1951 ; and many others). 

The main différence between the two cotton varieties lies 
in the complété absence of inhibitory factors from “Giza 26” 
shoots and their presence and high potency in “Karnak” shoots. 
On the other hand, they are présent in roots of both cotton 

















































168 


BULLETIN DJO L’INSTITUT D’EGYPTE 


varieties ; those présent in “Karnak” roots are, however, of more 
complex nature and greater potency. In addition, the inhibitory 
factor in “Giza” roots becomes gradually deteriorated with 
increasing seedling maturation. Roots of two-weeks old seed- 
lings of both cotton varieties manifest inhibitory effect ; extracts 
from roots of four-weeks old “Karnak” seedlings still maintain 
their inhibitory effect especially at higher concentrations, while 
no such effect could be demonstrated in extracts from roots of 
tour-weeks oîd “Giza 26” seedlings. This may dénoté that 
increased seedling maturation of “Giza 26” renders it more 
favourable for Fusarium mycelial advance, while no such case 
occurs on increased maturation of “Karnak” seedlings. The 
coincidence between increased staling with advanced “Karnak” 
seedling maturation and the simultaneous presence of an inhibi¬ 
tory complex in both its roots and shoots on one hand, and the 
coincidence between decreasing staling with increased “Giza 26” 
seedling maturation and the absence of any inhibitory factor 
in its shoots on the other hand, may partially contribute to the 
relative résistance of “Karnak” and suscepibility of “Giza 26” 
cotton varieties to Fusarium wilt. The great complexity and high 
potency of the inhibitory factor présent in both “Karnak” roots 
and shoots may be of such a degree as to interfère with Fusarium 
free post-penetration mycelial advance, while that — restricted 
to “Giza 26” roots — is comparatively of a simpler nature and 
not so potent as to oppose fungal development. Since the pheno- 
menon of staling serves only as a qualitative indication of the 
possible rôle of fungal métabolites in influencing its own further 
mycelial growth, confirmatory quantitative studies will consti- 
tute the subject matter of the following paper. 

8 . _ SUMMARY 

(1) An élucidation of the possible presence of inhibitory sub¬ 
stances as an expression of Chemical résistance against 
Fusarium wilt — has been mad.e with either “Karnak” or 
“Giza 26” cotton extracts from different seedling parts and 
from seedlings of different âges. 

(2) Fusarium growth-rate curves, on certain types and treat- 
ments of aqueous cotton extracts, hâve évaluated the pre¬ 
sence of inhibitory factors as well as the occurrence of 
staling as an expression of the possible production of inhi¬ 
bitory métabolites. 


RESISTANCE AND SUSCEPTIIULITY TO COTTON WILT 


169 


(3) The presence of inhibitory factors, in différent types and 

treatments of aqueous cotton extracts, has been further 
emphasized by Fusarium mycelial dry-weight détermina¬ 
tions at increasing extract concentrations. An inhibitory 
factor has been demonstrated in : (a) Two- and four-weeks 

old “Karnak” whole seedlings ; (b) Shoots and roots of 

either two- or four-weeks old “Karnak” seedlings ; and 
(c) Roots of two-weeks old “Giza 26” seedlings. 

(4) Ring-test experiments hâve been carried out with different 
aqueous cotton extracts. Water-soluble components, inhibi¬ 
tory for Fusarium mycelial growth, could only be detected 
in different parts of two-weeks old “Karnak” seedlings, 

(5) Ring-test experiments, with aqueous solutions — of a similar 
concentration — of different cotton extract components 
separated by various organic solvents, hâve demonstrated 
the presence of ether-soluble inhibitory components for 
Fusarium mycelial growth in different parts of two-weeks 
old “Karnak” seedlings. On the other hand, they are only 
restricted to “Giza 26” roots and are comparatively of less 
potency than those in “Karnak” roots. 

(6) Quantitative détermination of Fusarium, mycelial growth, in 
response to addition of aqueous extracts or of aqueous solu¬ 
tions of residual extract components — separated by various 
organic solvents to Dox’s liquid, emphasizes the previous 
results as follows : 

a) Ether-soluble thermostable inhibitory components in 
“Karnak” shoots and roots, as well as in “Giza 26” roots, 
of two-weeks old seedlings. 

b) Water-soluble thermostable inhibitory component. in roots 
of two-weeks old “Karnak” seedlings. 

(7) Different components of cotton extracts, as separated by dif- 
ferential solubility in water and various organic solvents, 
were tested for their inhibitory effect on the germinative 
potentialities of Fusarium conidia. 

(8) Both water-soluble and ether-soluble components, inhibitory 
for Fusarium - conidial germination, are présent in roots of 
both cotton varieties as well as in “Karnak” shoots. In 
addition, inhibitory components — soluble in petroleum 

ether_are proved to exist in shoot extracts of both, cotton 

varieties. 










170 


BULLETIN DE L'INSTITUT D’EGYPTE 


9. — REFERENCES 


Braun, A.E. (1942): "Résistance of watermelon to the wilt disease.” 
Amer. Journ. Bot., XXIX, 8. 

Brown,W. (1936): ‘‘The physiology of host-parasite relation.” Bot 
Rev., 5. 

Cartwright, K. St. G. and Findiay, W.P.K. (1947) : “Decav of timber 
and its prévention.” London. 

Cook, M.T. and Wilton, G«W. (1911): “The influence of the tannin 
content of the host plant on Kndothia parasites and related 
species.” N.J. Agric. Exp. St., Bull. CCXCI. 

Dufrenoy, J. and Edgerton, C.W. (1940): “Relation of cclls of 
Sugar-cane Stalk to the red-rot fungus Colletotrichum 
falcatum. (Went). Phytopath., XXX 

Ezekial, W.N. and Fudge, J .F. (1938): “Studies on the cause of 
immumty of monocotyledonous plants to Phvmatotrichum 
root rot.” Journ. Agric. Res., 56. 

Fontaine, T.D., Ivring, G.W. and Doolittle, S.P. (1947): “Partial 
purification and properties of tomatin, an antibiotic agent from 
the tomato plant.” Arch. Biochem., 12. 

Gerretsen, F.C. and Haagsma, N. (1951): “Occurrence of antifungal 
substances in Brassica rapa, Brassica oleracea and Beta 
vulgaris.” Nature, Vol. 168, No 4276 

Greathouse, G.A. and Rigler, N.E. (1940): “The chemistry of ré¬ 
sistance of plants to Phvmatotrichum root rot, IV. Toxicitv 

TT ,?* phenolic and related compounds.” Amer. Tourn Bot XXVli 

Hatfield, W.C., Walkcr, J.C. and Owen, T.H. (1948) : "Antibiotic 
substances m omon in relation to disease résistance.” Journ 
Agric. Res., 77. 

Link, K.P. and Walker, J.C. (1933): “The isolation of catechol from 

fugmented omon scales and its significance in onions.” Tourn 
Bioll. Chem., 100. 

Little, J.E. and Grubauch. K.K. (1946) : “Antibiotic activity of some 
crude plant juices.” Journ. Bact., LII 5 

Lucas, E.H. I ewis, R.W.' and Sell, H..W.’(1946) : “An antibiotic 
principle derived from seeds of Brassica oleracea.” Abstr 
Rev., Appl. Mvcok, Vol. XXVT. 

LntZ vLf ( n 28 ’ ) i> 'u U c ' e rÔle biologique du tanin dans la cellule 
vegetable. Bull. Soc. Bot. Fr., LXXV. 

Marchlewski (1899): Journ. pr. Chem., (II), 60, 84. 

' ^ (1934) : Studies on the physiology of parasitism, 

XIV. Comparison of enzymic extracts obtained from various 
parasitic fungi. Ann. Bot., XLVIII 

M °staLT M.A. and Naim, M.S. (1954): “Physiological Signifiance 
of Résistance and Susceptibility — to Fusarium wilt — of 

on 1 TvSr n C ?u t0n 7 arieties •' (I) Effect of ro «t metabolities 
on mycehal growth and comdial germination.” Desert Institute 


RESISTANCE AND SUSCEPTlHILITï TO COTTON WILT 


171 


Mostafa, M.A. and Naim, M.S. (1954): «Physiological Significance 
of Résistance and Susceptibility — to Fusarium wilt — o.f 
Some Egyptian Cotton Varieties: (II) Effect of fungal 
métabolites on cotton vigour and mode of pénétration.” Institute 
d’Egypte, 1955. 

Mostafa, M.A. and Naim, M.S. (1954): “Physiological Signifiance 
of Résistance and Susceptibility — to Fusarium wilt — o,f 
Some Egyptian Cotton. Varieties: (111) Mycelial post-penetra- 
tion fate and enzymic activity.” Institute d'Egypte 1956. 

Newton, R. and Anderson, J.A. (1929) : ‘'Studies on the nature of 
ruot résistance in whcat, IV. Phenolic compounds of the wheat 
plant.” Canad. Journ. Res., 1. 

Reynolds, E.S. (1924) : “Some relations of Fusarium lini and 
potassium cyanide.” Amer. Journ. P>ot., XI, 4. 

Reynolds, E.S. (1931): “Studies on the physiology of plant 
disease.” Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard., 18. 

Rochlin, H.J. (1934): “On the question of non-susceptibility of 
Cruciferae to Plasmodiophora brassicae Warn.” Abstr. Rev, 
Appl. Mycol., 13. 

Schmidt. M. (1933): “Zur Enwicklungs physiologie von 
Cladosporium fulvum und Ueber die Widerstandfahigkiet von 
Solanum racemigerum gegen diesen Parasiten.” Planta, 20. 

Thorpe, J.F. and Whitely, M.A. (1939) : “Thorpe’s Dictionarv 
of Applied Ciiemistry.” 111, 4th Edition, Longmans. 

Walker, J.C. and Link, K.P. (1935): “Toxicity of phenolic com¬ 
pounds to certain onion bulb parasites.” Bot. Gaz., 96. 











172 


BULLETIN DE L'INSTITUT D’EGYPTE 






Fig. 1. — Fusarium growth-rate curves, at 25°C, on varying con¬ 
centrations of agar aqueous extracts from “Giza 26” and 
“Karnak” Cotton seeds ; each type of extract is applied either 
autoclaved (A) or cold-sterilized (M). 


RESISTANCE AND SUSCEPTIBILITY TO COTTON WILT 173 


cd 



Fig. 2 —- Fusarium growth-rate curves, at 25°C, on varying con¬ 
centrations of agar aqueous extracts from either two-weeks 
(I) or four-weeks (II) old “Giza 26” and “Karnak” cotton whole 
seedlings ; each extract treatment is applied either autoclaved 
(A) or cold-sterilized (M). 





























































174 


BULLETIN DE L'INSTITUT D’EGYPTE 


( 11 ) 





' 


K ESI STANCE AND SUSCEPTIBILITY TO COTTON WILT 


175 


( 1 ) 



Fig 3. — Fusarium growth-rate curves, at 25°C, on varying con¬ 
centrations of agar aqueous extracts from “Giza 26” and 
“Karnak” cotton roots of either two-weeks (I) or four-weeks 
(II) old seedlings; each type of extract is applied either auto- 
claved (A) or cold-sterilized (M). 




































































•su» 


176 


i 


Iîl'KKETIN DK 1/INSTITUT D'EGYPTE 


(. 1*0 



TIME I N DAYS 


- 


177 


HE SI ST ANC 1 K AND SI ’ SOEPTI1 »1 L1TY TO COTTON W1LT 





TIME IN OATS 

Fig. 4. — Fusarium growth-rate curvcs, at 25°C, on varying con¬ 
centrations' of agar aqueous extracts from “Giza 26’ and 
“Karnak” cotton shoots of either two-weeks (I) or four-weeks 
(II) old seedlings each type of extract is applied either auto- 
claved (A) or cold-sterilized (M). 







































































mrns 


178 


BULLETIN DE L’INSTITUT D’EGYPTE 


(?X) 



RESISTANCE AND SüSOEPTIBILITY TO COTTON WILT 


179 



TIME IN DAYS 

Fig. 5. — Fusarrium growth-rate curves, at 25°C, on different 
treatmënts of seed extracts (S,D.), extraots' from two-weeks 
old whole seedlings (W) as weil as frorn their respective shoots 
(S) and roots (R), and on autoclaved Richard’s solution agar 
(R.G.) ; each type of cotton extracts is apptied either auto¬ 
claved (A) or cold-sterilized (M). 





















































180 


BULLETIN DE L TNSTÏTÜT ®’»G¥PTK 



TIME IN DAYS 

Fig. 6. — Fusarium . growth-rate curves, at 25°C on different 
treatments of extracts from four-weeks old whole seedlings(W) 
as well as from their respective shoots (S) and roots (R) and 
on autoclaved Richard’s solution agar (R.G.) ; each type of 
cotton extract is applied either autoclaved (À) or cold-sterilized 
(M). 


RESISTANCE AND S U SCÊl*T IB II A T Y TO C OTTON WILT 


181 



Fig. 7. — Fusarium mycelial dry weights, at 25°C, on varying 
concentrations of autoclaved (A) and cold-sterilized (M) ex- 
tracts’ from “Giza 26” (G) and “Karnak” (K) seeds. 



























MGMS 


182 


BULLETIN DE L'INSTITUT D’EGYPTE 



Fig. 8. — Fusarium mycelial dry weights, at 25°C, on varying 
concentrations of either autoclaved (A) or cold-sterilized (M) 
aqueous extracts from : (I) Two-weeks old seedlings of “Giza 
26” (G.W) and “Karnak” (K.W) and corresponding four-weeks 
old seedlings (i.e. G 4 W and K 4 W), (II) Shoots of two-weeks 
i.e. GoS and K 2 S) and .four-weeks (i.e. G,S and K 4 S) old seed¬ 
lings, and (III) Roots from respective seedlings (i.e. GoR KoR, 
G 4 R, and K 4 R). 


RESISTANCE AND SUSCEPTIBILITE TO CQTTON WILT 


183 



Fig. S. — Fusarium experiments with 10% .aqueous 1 (I ) or ether 
(II) extracts from: (A) “Giza* 26” seedlings roots (B) “Giza 
26” seedling shoots, (C) “Karnak” seedling roots, and (D) 
“Karnak” seedling shoots ; ail cultures are reduced to about 
1/3 of original size. 

















184 


BULLETIN DE L’INSTITUT D’EGYPTE 


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RESISTANCE AND SUSCEPTIBIL1TY TO COTTON W1LT 


185 



Fig.ll. — Germ-tube élongation rate, of Fusarium microconidia 
(A) or macroconidia (B), on varying concentrations of aqueous 
extracts from “Giza 26” and “Karnak” seed extracts. 



















































BULLETIN DE L'INSTITUT D'EGYPTE 


135 


en 



Fig.12. —* Germ-tube élongation rate, of Fusarium microconidia 
(A) or macrocoriidia (B), on varying' concentrations of 
aqueous extracts 'from “Giza 26” and "Karnak” seedling root 
(I) and shoot (II) extracts. 


UN6TH ur _TUSc . (l M ;^,CB0NS| 


RESISTANCE AND SUSCEPTIBILITÉ TO COTTON WJ LT 


187 


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( G I Z A 26) 


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lêngth of germ tube ('n microns) 


188 


BULLETIN DE L'INSTITUT D'EU Y DTE 


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Fig.13. — Germ-tube élongation rate, of Fusairium microconidia 
(A) or macroconidia. (B), in response to 10% concentration of 
differently treated extracts or “Giza 26’’ and “Karnak” seed- 
ling roots (I) or shoots (II). 


RESISTANCE AND SUSCKPTII!] LITY TO COTTON WILT 


189 


(vlT 








































uk» 



THE IGNEOUS AND METAMORPHIC ROCKS 
OF THE AREA BETWEEN GEBEL ATSHAN 
AND GEBEL HAMADAT, NEAR QOSEIR, 
EASTERN DESERT OF EGYPT ( l ) 


by 


AMIN R. GINDY, 

University of Alexandria 


ABSTRACT 

This communication deals with the petrography of a small 
sector (of about 50 sq. km.) of a wide terrain of old pre-Cambrian 
plateau lavas, mostly andesitic, eut by doleritic intrusions. These 
rocks were then orogenically deformed and were injected first 
by small quartz-diorite bodies and then by a granité boss which 
may represent a cupola among others that belong to a much 
larger subjacent intrusion. 

The country rocks are in the gre.enschist faciès except in the 
contact aureole of the granité where epidote-amphibolite and 
amphibolite faciès are présent. The variability in the character 
of the granité and the post-granitic hydrothermal activities are 
also described. 

Dyke swarms of late minor intrusions eut ail preceding 
rocks. 


ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 

The writer wishes to record his deep thanks to the Egyptian 
Phosphate Mining Company at Qoseir, particularly to Signor A. 
Laurenti, to Mr. Fouad el Shall and to their assistants at Atshan 
Mine for their kind hospitality. He is also grateful to his 
colleague Dr. Mourad I. Youssef for making available to him his 
large-scale topographie field-maps and for the information about 


(1) Communication présentée en séance de 5 Décembre 1955. 











192 


BULLETIN DE L’INSTITUT D’EGYPTE 


the post-Nubian sedimentary rocks incorporated in fig. 1. Mr. 
Ahmed Ezzat of Alexandria University has very kindly prepared 
the photographs in the plates. 


I. — INTRODUCTION AND PREVIOUS LITERATURE 

The phosphate-mining area near Qoseir has recently become 
a frequent centre for geological university excursions ; the main 
interest has been so far in the stratigraphy and structure of the 
sedimentary rocks of the area but the older pre-Nubian Sandstone 
and pre-Cambrian rocks hâve hitherto received very limited 
attention and, as far as the présent writer is aware, no 
detailed study had been carried or published on them. The 
writer therefore had felt the need to fil] the gap in our knowledge 
of the older geology of that area and he hopes, as far as circum- 
stances permit, to consider this geology in a sériés of commu¬ 
nications covering different sectors of the Qoseir terrain. 

This first communication deals with a sector of about fifty 
square kilométrés roughly limited by longitudes 34° 8' and 
34° 14' E. and latitudes 25° 59' and 26° 5' N. This area which i§ 
one of the most readily accessible and most frequented by 
university excursions, is shown in fig. 1. Original field mapping 
of the pre-Nubian sandstone rocks was made on topographic^l 
maps of a scale 1 : 50,000. Details of the post-Nubian rocks 
included in the figure are taken from Dr. M. I. Youssef’s map 
(1949) of these rocks in a larger area. 

Very little concrète or systematic description is mentioned 
about the older pre-Nubian rocks around Qoseir. What has been 
written on these rocks is mostly in the form of observations in 
the field recorded during few reconnaisance traverses, e.g. the 
régional works of Barron and Hume (1902), Hume (1907), Bail 
(1912), Hume et. alter. (1920) and Beadnell (1924). In the 
geological maps of Beadnell (1924, near northmost boundary of 
Plate I), and Hume (1934, Plate LXXVI) ail the older rocks are 
given the same colour without any distinction of their included 
members. 

As the présent communication is concerned only with the 
pre-Nubian rocks, references to the physical geology of the 
Qoseir area should be made to the works quoted abqve or to 


THE IGNEOUS AND METAMORPHIC ROCKS NEAR QOSEIR 193 


M. I. Youssefs (1949) recent detailed study of the post-Nubian 
rocks of that area. 

As no detailed study has yet been carried on correspondmg 
rocks of areas adjacent to the présent sector, no corrélation or 
reference to the likely extension outside the présent sector of 
the rock types identified here can be made with neighbouring 
areas, and in this paper ail descriptions and conclusions corne 
from rocks and evidence available within the confines of this 
sector of the Qoseir terrain. Consequently, the conclusions 
drawn here are strictly applicable to this sector but if applied 
to the larger Qoseir terrain they will certainly be subject to 
further details and modifications as other adjacent sectors of 
the terrain become studied in the future, 

11. — SUMMARY OF THE PRE-NUBIAN 
GEOLOGICAL HISTORY 

The geological events recorded in the pre-Nubian rocks of 
the présent sector as deduced by the writer are as follows starting 
with the oldest and ending with the youngest events available 
in the sector : 

1. Extrusion of huge bodies of plateau-like lavas, mostly of 
andésite with subordinate more acidic or more basic 
varieties. 

2. Intrusion of dykes, sills, sheets, laccoliths etc. of dolente, 
gabbro and kindred types. 

3. Orogenic disturbances causing structural changes in the lava 
beds and associated intrusions ; bedding and resulting schis- 
tosity strike roughly NNW-SSE. 

4. Intrusion of small bodies of quartz-diorite, perhaps in the 
later phases of the orogeny or afterwards. 

5. Intrusion of a large granité body, variable in detail ; with 
a rare suite of aplite dykes. 

6. Intrusion of quartz veins and dykes without or with a 
variable content of epidote, calcite, chlorite and sometimes 
pyrite. The quartz dykes distinctly strike NE-SW, along 
what was probably a pre-existing and easily opened joint 
System. 

7. Intrusion of Igneous dark or red long dykes in swarms 
cutting ail pre-existing rocks in a very roughly N-S direction 
along what was probably tensional jointing at this epoch. 








194 


BTJMiEl’lN DK 1VINSTITUT D’EGYPTE 


III. — GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS 
OF THE COUNTRY ROCK 

In the présent area, the country rock of the large granité 
intrusion is generally made up of a thick mostly massive sériés 
of what was probably extensive old la^a beds and igneous 
intrusions of variable composition and appearance. It is not 
possible, from the confines of the présent area, to détermine the 
géographie trend of this ancient volcanic belt but it is beyond 
doubt that we are dealing with a sector from a large and 
important terrain of andesite-basalt volcanic associations. The 
outer extension of this volcanic terrain lies beyond the limit of 
the présent area and has to be sought after and determined in 
future detailed studies of neighbouring areas. In the Survey 
Memoirs, e.g. Baron and Hume (1912) and Hume (1934, 1935), 
there are scattered references about the occurrence of andésites, 
dacites etc. particularly north of latitude 26°, north of the présent 
area. Similar volcanics seem also to extend southwards to the 
Sudan. 

The original total thickness of these volcanics is probably 
measurable in thousands of métrés. For example, the thickness 
of the volcanics west of Gebel Atshan in the présent area, is in 
the lange of 3000 métrés and this would only represent part of 
the succession. However, great caution must be excercised in 
such estimâtes for the beds may be repeated by strong mono- 
clinal foldings or by faultings but no proof for this exists in the 
présent area and the beds are not distinctly different from each 
other so as to allow their corrélation over different exposures. 

Age problems and corrélation of members of the country 
rock and their associated granités, veins etc. will be discussed 
in a separate paper ( x ). 

Pétrographie studies of the country rock are rendered rather 
difficult by the fact that these rocks hâve suffered several 
extensive altérations y “progressive” and retrogressive meta- 
morphisms during lengthy periods of their history. Repeated 
shearings and hydrothermal activities along these shear belts 
did much to obscure the original identity of some of the sheared 


(1) Paper dealing with a larger area to be read before the Third Arab 
Science Congress, Beirut, September 1957. 


THE IGNEOUS AND METAMORPHIC ROCKS NEAIi QOSEIR 1 95 


rocks.. Thus within the présent area, there is no décisive proof 
of the original occurrence of tuff and ash-beds or other pyro- 
clastics of fine to medium grain ; nor is there any good indications 
of the presence of distinct greywaekes and other sedimentary 
beds. It thus cannot be said with certainty whether the 
vulcanism here was intermittent or continuous ; probably the 
latter. While fine tuffs or ash beds are suspected in certain 
places, no coarse agglomérâtes, conglomérâtes or breccias were 
observed in the présent area ; and if the volcanic activities were 
intermittent, the evidence from this area would not be in favour 
of long intervening periods of érosion ( 2 ). 

Éxcept for the conspicuously porphyritic andésites and the 
dark green amphibolites (metabasalts and metadolerites), it is 
frequently rather difficult in the field to distinguish clearly 
between the different kinds of country rock présent. Indeed 
some of these présent quite a misleading appearance. For 
example, some of the extensively sheared and leached andésites 
and dacites (as determined from thin section) appear like pale 
or creamy coloured and banded psammites, semipelites or flag- 
stones and weather in a papery manner. In other cases, 
the shearing is so strong that the original nature of the rock 
under the microscope is lost. 

The general impression is that in this area we hâve a com- 
plex volcanic suite which, apart from the doubtful tuff beds and 
sédiments, consists largely of porphyritic andésite lavas 
alternating with variants of andesite-basalts, basalts and dacites 
and the whole suite are eut by doleritic sheets, dykes and 
laccoliths or bulbous thick intrusions. As it is not possible to 
détermine clearly the order of éruption of the different lavas, 
no corrélation betw.een the Chemical composition and order of 
éruption can be made. Probably, however, such a relation did 
not exist and éruptions of different compositions alternated 
without definite order as hâve been recently observed in some 


(2) Coarse agglomérâtes, breccias and conglomérâtes as well as sédiments 
intercalating the thick andesitic sériés were ail discovered later in the larger 
area, to the west of the présent sector. The bedded iron ores of Wadi Kareim 
and the ferruginous conglomérâtes and breccias might represent in part original 
weathered products from these volcanic rocks and from ultrabasic and basic 
igneous rocks. 











196 


BULLETIN DE L’INSTITUT D’EGYPTE 


andesitic volcanic associations (e.g. see Turner and Verhoogen 
1951, pp. 212-224). 

Tectonics and structure of the country rock From fig. 1 
it can be seen that the general bedded succession of the country 
rock strikes in a NNW-SSE direction and generally with high 
dips (between 70“ - 80°) to the SWW. This is true for the country 
rock west and opposite Gebel Atshan but at its portion just 
opposite the Southern end of Gebel Atshan there appears to be 
a tight fold as the direction of dip briskly changes. Strong 
contortion is observed in certain localities especially in the 
western part of the area. Steep isoclinal folds are, as said before, 
very doubtful and improbable. The general trend of strong 
shearing and shear belts is similar to that of the strike of 
bedding. 

In the country rock southeast of Gebel Atshan, whenever 
determinable, the structural trend becomes somewhat shifted to 
NW - SE and is apparently parallel to the border of the granité 
boss there as if the latter had shouldered and pushed the country 
rock there. Later block faulting may also hâve contributed to 
this small change in trend. 

In the field, strong foliation is only seen along shear lines 
or belts at the contacts between the different members or in the 
easily affected members between more massive ones and it is 
intresting to note that the very late hydrothermal pyrite cubes 
are conspicuously formed in the country rock in such sheared 
zones as they afford the best planes of easy accessibility for 
hydrothermal solutions. Some of the massive andésites and 
dolerites show in handspecimen no foliation or schistosity at ail 
while others can be easily cleaved by the hammer into pencil- 
lik,e straight rods. Indeed, good foliation as exemplified by the 
perfect parallel growth of flaky or prismatic minerais is not 
typically seen in the présent area. This may be due to the 
general very low grade of metamorphism of the rocks as well as 
to the original largely massive nature of these igneous rocks. As 
will be seen from the petrography of the country rock, these 
rocks are mainly in the greenschist faciès (corresponding to the 
chlorite zone) except in the contact aureole of the granité where 
minerai assemblages of the epidote-amphibolite and amphibolite 
faciès are found (équivalent to biotite, garnet and other high 
grades of régional metamorphism or medium grades of contact 


THE IGNEOUS AND METAMORPHIC ROCKS NE A R QOSEIR 197 


metamorphism). The production of retrogresive chlorite in 
abundance might obscure any weak schistosity that had existed 
in such rocks. 

As Schürmann (1953) had recently shown in the northern 
part of the Eastern Desert, the structural tr;end of the country 
rock here also corresponds to that of the young folded sedi- 
mentary rocks overlying them. 

In the following pages the rocks of the area are dealt with 
in their chronological order (as given earlier) starting with 
those of the country rock : the meta-andesites and metadolerites. 
Each of the latter is considered under two divisions : outside and 
inside the contact aureole of the granité. Original varieties of 
the common meta-andesites and metadolerites are mentioned in 
appropriate places within the petrography of each rock. 


IV _ METAMORPHISM OF THE META-ANDESITES 
AND RELATED ROCKS 

The meta-andesites in handspecimens are massive, very fine 
grained with a dull looking greenish grey matrix in which occur 
white (sometimes reddish or yellowish because of hématite or 
limonite dust) porphyritic plagioclases. These phenocrysts lack 
lustre and are of ail dimensions below 1 cm. (fig. 4). Many of 
them are of euhedral outline and are sometimes crudely arranged 
in a subparallel manner suggesting an original flow effect. In 
the porphyritic meta-andesites, the average modal percentage 
of the phenocrysts of plagioclase with their longest diameter 
above 1 mm. is roughly about 19% by volume (average of 14 
déterminations) ; the extremes being 30% and 13%. The 
fourteen specimens selected were the least sheared and were 
collected from ail over the area irrespective of their metamorphic 
“grade”. It has been found that the meta-andesites of the sector 
SE. of Gebel Atshan hâve generally a higher modal original 
porphyritic plagioclase than the corresponding rocks of the 
western half of the area, though these déterminations are 
probably below the actual original values as some of the smaller 
porphyritic crystals may be lost through alteration or are below 
the 1 mm. limit. 

The sheared varieties can be easily broken into long or fiat 
slabs or, as is common, the whole rock is intensely sheared and 









198 


BUrXBTIN DE L’INSTITUT D’EGYPTE 


drawn into irregular subparallel small lensoid fragments weakly 
cemented together by quartz or calcite veins. The sheared rocks 
are often of paler colour than the less sheared ones or they may 
be irregularly tinted pink or red through the alteration of their 
iron ingrédients, particularly the late hydrothermal pyrite, into 
hématite. Rarely, they are tinted green» because of malachitic 
stains ; probably alterations after any late hydrother-mal copper 
sulphides. 


A. General petrography of the mieta-andesites outside the contact 

auréole of the granité: 

■ The commonest minerai assemblages observed in thin 
sections comprise two or more of the following minerais : 

Albite or albitic oligoclase, chlorite, white sericite-like mica, 
calcite and quartz with rare or without epidote. Such 
assemblages point at once to a low grade of metamorphism. 

Plagioclase in large phenocrysts, in many cases still retaining 
their euhedral outline (figs. 3 & 4), occurs in different degrees of 
alteration in different specimens. It may be variably replaced 
by sericite, kaolin (opaque dust, white in reflected light), calcite 
and may be sieved by tiny quartz and chlorite. This chlorite as 
well as some other material in the altered plagioclase are due to 
migration of alteration products from pre-existing adjacent ferro- 
magnesian minerais or from the matrix. Sometimes, plagioclase 
is altered more in certain zones than in the others denoting an 
original zoning, and an outer less altered but more albitic zone 
may be présent. The outline of the plagioclase is sometimes 
rounded and may indicate an original partial résorption while 
in others phenocrysts show through the alterations several 
oscillatory zones which are probably original but the outer 
albitic clear mantles are probably of metamorphic origin. Beside 
the phenocrysts, smaller lath shaped plagioclase felspars (some¬ 
times with fairly well developed subparallel flow arrangement) 
may occasionally be preserved in the matrix. In some sheared 
andésites, the plagioclase phenocrysts are bent or fractured and 
in extreme cases, along shear zones, they are entirely destroyed. 
Some of the large pehnocrysts may show indications of fracture 
during the original flow of the lava as the matrix between the 
phenocrysts does not show any corresponding shears. Beside 


THE IGNEOUS AND METAMORPHIC ROCKS NEAR QOSEIR 


the tiny laths, plagioclase occurs in the matrix in a very fine 
grained mosaic (average grain diameter below 0.07 mm.) 
together with quartz, chlorite and sericite. In some cases the 
mosaic is so fine that it is difficult to distinguish its constituent 
minerais, and may represent the products of devitrification of 
orginal glassy or cryptôcrystalline matrices between the pheno¬ 
crysts. ' 


Beside the large plagioclase phenocrysts, there are also 
large dark green areas occupied by aggregates of pale green 
chlorite, calcite and much subordinate epidote in variable 
amounts in different specimens. In few cases do these 
aggregates retain a regular outer outline suggesting pseudo- 
morphs of ferromagnesian phenocrysts but more commonly their 
outline is in the form of roughly subparallel lenses (lengths up 
1 cm.). These lenses are probably due to drawing by shear of 
the original pre-existing ferromagnesian phenocrysts and from 
their sheared material, the présent chlorite-calcite aggregates 
were then formed (fig. 3). Tiny roughly subparallel chlorite 
flakes (length below 0.1 mm.) also occur traversing the fine 
mosaic between the plagioclase phenocrysts and ferromagnesian 
knots, but more often because of the late hydrothermal activities 
these chlorites as well as those of the large aggregates occur in 
the form of tiny radiating tufts without any orientation. In 
general, chlorites outside the contact aureole show in thin section 
a pale green washed colour and are of very low biréfringence, 
almost isotropie under crossed niçois without any abnormal 
polarisation colours. In ail observed cases, except one, they are 
optically positive. Calcite (and probably other kinds of car¬ 
bonate) is quite common in such rocks and characteristically 
occurs as tiny irregular amœboid or shredded grains in the 
matrix or in larger grains in the chloritic knots, sometimes 
almost replacing them and still preserving their outline, Some 
carbonate grains absorb stains of iron oxide and appear brownish. 


Epidote (epidote proper or clinozoisite) is either con- 
spicuously absent or présent only in very tiny granules especially 
in the ferromagnesian aggregates. It is never as frequent here 
as in varieties of the contact aureole ; probably because the meta¬ 
morphic températures here rarely attained degrees favourable for 
epidote production. 

Tiny colourless flakes of mica (average length 0.05 




m 4 













200 


BULLETIN DE LTNSTLTUT D’EGYPTE 


occur in variable amounts in the fine matrix as well as th.e 
plagioclase phenocrysts. They are simply referred to here as 
sericiüe but some may be of paragonite or colourless clay 
minerais. Occasionally the sericite flakes become roughly oriented 
in two sets Crossing each other and at the same time diagonal to 
the general trend of any foliation or schistosity présent and may 
represent late hydrothermal flakes that hâve formed along 
s-planes. Sericite flakes may also traverse the coarse chlorite 
tufts. 

Other minerais observed are occasional apatite, tiny sphenes, 
ilmenite, sometimes leucoxenic, limonite, hématite and amor- 
phous clay particles ; prehnite and zeolite minerais are also 
suspected in some varieties. 

The typical minerai association of the meta-andesites is thus 
albite-quartz-chlorite-calcite-sericite and is characteristic of the 
greenschist faciès. 

In a vague and doubtful case, rounded structures filled by 
tiny granular quartz and wrapped from outside by sheaves of 
chlorite simulate the pre-existence of amygdaloidal structures. 

Quartz, calcite, epidote and rare tourmaline-quartz veins 
traverse these rocks and are mentioned later with hydrothermal 
activities, as shearing and hydrothermal activities must hâve 
occurred in several different épisodes during the history of these 
rocks. In extensively sheared meta-andesites, typical quartz- 
sericite-chlorite-calcite schists are formed and ail pre-existing 
features of the rock are obliterated. In such rocks the shear 
and schistosity planes help hydrothermal solutions to travel 
along them and leach much of the chlorite so that the rock be- 
comes of a buff white colour, Late idiomorphic pyrite cubes 
deposited from such solutions are better and more developed in 
such sheared rocks than elsewhere ( 3 ). 

The Tuffs : Although these rocks resemble the meta- 
andesites in mineralogy, they differ from them in having a rather 
irregular and heterogeneous texture and minerai distribution. 
Some are relatively poor in chlorite and are thus of buff light 
colour. In thin section, some patches represent much altered 
andésite particles (with ghosts of pre-existing plagioclase pheno- 


(3) The iron leaehed from the chlorites etc. ma.v be ntilized at the same 
time for the production of pyrite. 


THE IGNEOUS AND METAMOKPHIC ROCKS NEAR QOSEIR 201 


crysts in a felsitic mosaic) while in other patches of the same 
slide large grains of quartz (apparently not vein quartz) ar,e of 
dimensions much beyond those frequent in the meta-andesites. 
In the field, foliation and shear features are usually displayed 
best in such rocks but once this is intense no distinction can be 
drawn between the meta-andesites and tuffs. Actually, the 
original presenc of tuffs and related sédiments in the présent 
sector cannot be definitely established. Coarse pyroclastics or 
agglomérâtes are absent. 

The Dacites : Some massive and pale yellowish fine grained 
specimens showed in thin section a more acidic natur,e than that 
of andésites. They seem to represent pre-existing dacites. 
Prophyritic crystals of both albite and euhedral or resorbed 
quartz occur in the matrix (fig. 7). This quartz is definitely 
different in habit, size and shape of any hydrothermal or vein 
quartz. Chlorite is scarce and the fine quartzo-felspathic matrix 
is spangled by tiny radiating sericite flakes. 

Metadacites appear to be quite subordinate in amount to 
the meta-andesites and most probably represent more acidic 
original differentiates from the and,esitic magma while 
appréciable increase of chlorite, calcite, leucoxene, sphene etc. 
in the usual meta-andesites indicate more basic varieties and 
link them to the basalts. 

B. Petrography of the meta-andesites in the contact-aureole: 

The width of the contact aureole is about a kilométré on 
the western border of the granité boss and is double that 
distance at the northern border as measured from the main 
outcrop of the large granité. The aureole becomes much wider 
to the east so that the country rock up to the Southern tip of 
Gebel Atshan display s signs of high “grade”. This may indicate 
the presence of an unexposed granité, probably an extension of 
the exposed one, underlying the country rock there at no great 
depths (fig. 2, fig 2A). Rocks in the contact aureole show dif¬ 
ferent features from those outside it. Thus the meta-andesites 
there hâve matrix mosaics (quartz and acid plagioclase) of 
relatively coarser grain than before so that the average diameter 
may exceed 0.1 mm. especially in country rocks adjacent to the 
border of the granité. At the same time the mosaic becomes 
more sutured and thin sections as a whole become clearer and 











202 


BULLETIN DE L’INSTITUT D'EGYPTE 


not so much clouded as before. This is due to the graduai 
decrease and disappearance of tiny grains of calcite, chlorite, 
sericite, ore granules etc, Biotite of olive green or red brown 
(hornf.els) colour as well as hornblende and clinozoisite are 
formed in variable proportions in the different specimens ; most 
probably on account of the diminishing chlorite, calcite etc. that 
might hâve originally resulted from the shearing and “retro- 
gressive” metamorphism of the andésites prior to their contact 
metamorphism. This is further proved by the fact that the 
large newly formed biotite and hornblende crystals are clearly 
concentrated in a decussate manner within the dark ferro- 
magnesian knots which outside the aureole are occupied by 
chlorite aggregates. Sometimes the outer shape of such knots is 
scill preserved. Some material or ingrédients from the plagio- 
clase must hâve also gone to the building of hornblende, clino¬ 
zoisite and biotite (cf, Harker 1939, pp. 282-3). 

Biotite is usually of two dimensions; the larger (1.5 mm. 
long) and thicker flakes just mentioned and the smaller flakes 
traversing the matrix in a very crude subparallel manner (fig. 5). 
This arrangement is probably not as much due to directed pres¬ 
sure during their formation than to a mimetic habit provided 
by pre-existing schistose or shear planes offering planes of 
least résistance to the growth of the flakes. This is proved by 
the fact that the large decussate flakes in the ferromagnesian 
knots do not usually show such parallelism. At direct contact 
with the granité, ail the biotite flakes become decussate. 
Pleochroic dark haloes are frequent in the biotite. Biotite to the 
exclusion of hornblende may occur in only few cases. 

Hornblende occurs both in the matrix and the ferro¬ 
magnesian knots. In the outer parts of the aureole it is rather 
actinolitic or tremolitic with small extinction angles when com- 
pared with that in meta-andesites near the granité. Hornblende 
in prisms up to 1.5 mm. long is pleochroic usually with Z deep 
bluish green, Y grass green and X pale yellow or green. In 
the matrix hornblende usually occurs in highly sieved poikilo- 
blastic plates of paler colour in the interior than the outer borders 
of the plates, Clinozoisite is either in poikiloblastic plates or 
in well defined tiny crystals distributed ail over the matrix, and 
is rather distinct from the late retrogressive or hydrothermal 
deep green epidote. 


THE IGNEOUS AND METAMORPHIC ROCKS NEAR QOSEIR 203 


Plagioclase becomes decidedly more basic than before. It 
is either albitic oligoclase or more commonly intermediate 
oligoclase Abs ü An 20 . The outline of the large porphyritic crystals 
is still preserved in variable degrees. Where not hydrothermally 
altered the plagioclase becomes clear and homogeneous without 
trace of oscillatory zoning. Even the albite lamellar twinning 
becomes feeble or absent. However, the plagioclase becomes 
riddled with small well defined crystals of biotite, hornblende, 
clinozoisite and grains of quartz, sphene and apatite. In some 
cases these are so numerous that they swamp the host plagio¬ 
clase whose outline shows only under crossed niçois as faint 
ghost sieved by the other minerai granules (fig. 6). The latter 
must hâve formed at least in part from the chloritic, calcitic, 
iron ingrédients etc. that had previously migrated into the 
plagioclase, perhaps along its cleavage prior to their présent 
metamorphism. No large new plagioclase porphyroblasts are 
formed, only the old porphyritic ones, sometimes perhaps with 
new thin outer rims are found. 

As regards the accessory minerais, notable changes occur 
in the iron opaques. They are seen in ail stages changing to 
sphene ; in intermediate stages the opaque cores are surrounded 
by botroyoidal whitish growth of leucoxene. Apatite becomes 
quite frequent in ail meta-andesites of the aureole. Tourmaline, 
pleochroic in bluish and violet colours is found in a spot 2 km. 
southeast of the Southern tip of Gebel Atshan, but it may be 
related to the lat,e hydrothermal tourmaline-quartz veins that 
traverse the rock there and from which it must hâve diffused. 

In only very few examples particularly in the vicinity of 
the contact with the granité at its western border, definite 
rrdcroclzne has been found. It is in the form of very tiny 
granules and intergranular films particularly replacing the 
plagioclase. Its total amount is quite small but the rock may 
acquire a pinkish tinge and looks like a fine grained dark granité. 
It will thus be noticed that apart from the small introductions 
in boric and alkali ingrédients, there is on the whole no 
pronounced variation in the total Chemical composition of the 
rocks inside or outside the aureole and no signs of any granitising 
effects are présent. In the rare cases at the contact where 
microcline is formed, its amount is so small that the rock can 
hardly be described as felspathised. 










204 


BULLETIN DE L’INSTITUT D’EGYPTE 


The typical minerai association of meta-andesites in the 

contact aureole is thus : qiMrtz-oügoclase-harnblerid 

clinozoisite-sphene indicating assemblages équivalent to the 

epidote-amphibolite and amphibolite faciès. 

* 

Basic varieties of the meta-andesites of this aureole are 
indicated by the impressive increase in the proportion of horn¬ 
blende and biotite (metabasalts and metadolerites) while the 
reverse holds for acidic (metadacitic) varieties with occasional 
large quartzitic areas. Retrogressive features, mainly due to 
late post-granitic hydrothermal stages of alteration, are not 
usually very pronounced in the rocks of the aureole except in 
certain localities. Such features include the production of 
epidote, sericitisation of oligoclase, chloritisation and prehnitisa- 
tion of biotite and hornblende with release of ore granules, pyri- 
tisation, calcitisation and even some silicification. Chlorite 
pseudomorphs after biotite are decidedly much different from 
the chlorites outside the aureole. Here, the chlorite is deep 
green, strongly pleochroic pennenite with abnormal interférence 
colours. Large and broad hydrothermal muscovite flakes in 
porphyroblastic habit may form and replace the quartzo- 
felspathic matrix but they particularly attack the large oligo- 
clase plates in some localities adjacent to the granité (especially 
the yellow granité) and are probably directly related to hydro¬ 
thermal solutions conveyed by the latter. 

The retrogressive hydrothermal alterations had unfortunate- 
ly attacked a strikingly spotted rock near the contact of the 
granité in the southeastern side of the map-area. The “spots” 
are large and elongated (up to 1 cm. long) of dark green colour, 
simulating crystalline outlines and are set haphazardly in a 
whitish very fine quartzo-felspathic matrix (fig. 8). Under the 
microscope, the dark “spots” are now pseudomorphed by a dense 
mess of tiny chlorites and much more sericite flakes in shimmer 
aggregates. Not a trace of th,e pre-existing minerai survives 
though it must hâve occupied about 34% by volume of the rock. 
It thus cannot be known what metamorphic minerai had formed 
there or whether the rock might hâve even represented a rare 
variety of the igneous country rock that had such an appearance 
prior to its metamorphism. 


THE IGNEOUS AND METAMORPHIC ROCKS NEAR QOSEIR 205 


V. — METAMORPHISM OF THE METADOLERITES 
AND RELATED ROCKS 

As said earlier the metadolerites represent basic dolerite 
intrusions into the andésites and associated rocks. In the field, 
they give the hills a dark greenish hue and because of their 
superior résistance to weathering they appear sometimes as 
capping the hills. 

The orogenic deformations had strongly sheared many of 
these ancient intrusions, especially the smaller ones and some¬ 
times had boudinaged and drawn them into lensoid bodies. 

The metadolerites ar,e fine-grained except in larger intrusions 
which are coarser. They are usually massive unless extensively 
sheared in which case their dark greenish colour becom.es paler, 
probably because of the leaching of part of their ferromagnesian 
content and the pronounced development of hydrothermal calcite. 
As in the meta-andesites, hydrothermal pyrites are frequent in 
the scheared metadolerites. In composition and texture the 
metadolerites appear to hâve varied from true dolerites with 
typical and uniform doleritic texture to dolerites and basalts with 
porphyritic plagioclase linking them originally with the andésites. 
Coarser gabbroic varieties had also originally occurred in the 
thicker intrusions but dolerites were the commonst type. For 
brevity, ail these varieties are referred to here as metadolerites ; 
the metabasalts and metagabbros being included in the general 
term metadolerite. 

As in the meta-andesites, the metadolerites are considered 
under two divisions ; those regionally metamorphosed outside 
the contact aureole of the granité and those inside it. 

A. Régional metadolerites outside the contact aureole: 

Mineralogy : In thin section, the most common varieties 
show very fine grained and uniform ill defined irregular 
aggregates of greenish chlorite lamellæ and wisps. The chlorite 
is almost isotropie under crossed niçois and without abnormal 
polarisation colours. Length of flakes and lamellæ is below 
0.1 mm. Between these chlorite lamellæ occurs a very fine, 
inconspicuous granular mosaic of felspar and quartz with perhaps 
rare and doubtful granules of clinozoisite. As far as can be 
determined, the plagioclase appears to be albite but it is definitely 









206 


BULLETIN DE L’INSTITUT D’EGYPTE 


not more basic than acid oligoclase Apart from the late hydro¬ 
thermal pyrite crystals, opaques probably in the form of magne- 
tite, ilmenite or titaniferous magnetite are prominent in 
tiny spindles, lenses, needles or plates of haphazard orienta¬ 
tion (fig. 9). Carbonates in large irregular and shredded plates 
are quite common. Apatite in tiny granules is frequent in some 
varieties and late tiny sericite flakes roughly trending in two 
directions diagonal to any weak foliation (especially in the 
coarser patches) may be présent. Sericite flakes dissect and eut 
the chlorite lamellæ. Casual large hydrothermal grains of quartz 
may also occur. 

The typical metamorphic minerai assemblage of the régional 
metadolerites is thus : chlorite, albite, calcite, opaques and quartz. 

Textures and structures : In such low grade “retrogressive” 
metadolerites hardly any original textures or structures are 
preserved or can easily be ascertained in the fine chlorite-calcite- 
plagioclase-quartz aggregates, However, sometimes when thin 
sections are viewed by reflected light under low or medium 
magnification, evidence of the pre-existing doleritic or subophitic 
textures may be detected ; the position of the original plagioclase 
laths being indicated by clouded tiny knots of “dust” that appear 
white by reflected light. In such cases, it may be seen that 
some of the opaque spindles and needles occur along the 
boundaries of pre-existing plagioclase and ferromagnesian 
minerais or along cleavages of the latter denoting the release of 
opaque residues as a conséquence of chloritisation and saussuri- 
tisation of the dolerites. In some varieties with relict subophitic 
texture, intergranular quartz is found apparently moulded in the 
spaces between the original adjacent plagioclase laths and the 
original rocks might hâve been quartz-dolerites. Metadolerites 
and metabasalts with porphyritic plagioclase crystals usually 
hâve that texture well preserved. Though many of the hand- 
specimens are obviously sheared, crude foliation is seen, 
especially under low magnification, in only a small number of 
thin sections particularly those with an even texture. 

B. Metadolerites of the contact aureole: 

1. Metadolerites in the outer part of the contact aureole : 
In the outer part of the contact aureole, the foliowing changes 
usually occur in variable degrees. The opaques change gradually 


THE IGNEOUS AND METAMORPHIC ROCKS NEAR QOSEIR 207 


to sphene or leucoxene ; the plagioclase becomes slightly more 
basic, calcite dwindles while clinozoisite and actinolitic amphibole 
start to develop abundantly. The grain size becomes relatively 
coarser than before. 

A typical example cornes from the metadolerite dykes few 
yards Southwest of the disused quarry pit by the motor track 
opposite the conspicuous Red Hill. Its minerai assemblage 
consists of amphiboles, clinozoisite, sphene and plagioclase (figs. 
10 and 11). Sphenes in conspicuously large plates (about 
0.6 mm. wide) and needles form 12% of the mode of the rock. 
Only some grains of them still hâve relies of the opaques remain- 
ing as nuclei inside the sphenes. Apart from the tiny clino¬ 
zoisite granules présent in the saussurite, the larger colourless 
ones dessiminated throughout the slide form by themselves about 
8.5% of the mode of the rock. Amphiboles develop in the matrix 
in highly shredded aggregates of subparallel needles (fig. 11) 
but some may unité and build large highly sieved plates (up to 
1.2 mm. long). The amphibole is actinolitic (Z*c about 15°) and 
is pleochroic from pale green to pale yellow or colourless. 
Almost isotropie chlorite wisps occur in the matrix with tiny 
granular aggregates of plagioclase. The latter seem to describe 
the outline of the original much larger plagioclase laths. Yery 
rare and tiny olive green biotite flakes occur particularly in 
association with the amphiboles. Tiny veins of green epidote 
different from the clinozoisite of the rock belong to the late post- 
granitic vein-suites mentioned later. 

2. Metadolerites of the inner contact aureole and border 
xenoliths in the granité : The mineralogical changes observed 
here are in continuation with those recorded in the outer aureole. 
Here, ail pre-existing chlorite and calcite disappear, and horn¬ 
blende and plagioclase with or without biotite are extensively 
formed ail over the rocks. No conversion of hornblende or other 
ferromagnesians to pyroxene was observed, even in metadolerite 
xenoliths in the granité so that P/T conditions of the granulite 
faciès were never attained here. Recrystallised plagioclase be¬ 
comes clear and is often with weak oscillatory zones. Apatite 
in small needles is very frequent in ail specimens. Sphene and 
epidote granules are variable in frequency but the latter is not 
important as before. Quartz in tiny or large granules is acces- 
sory but becomes quite rare in some varieties at the immédiate 














208 


BULLETIN DE L’INSTITUT D’EGYPTE 


contact with the granité. Opaques, if not already changed to 
sphene, are présent in accessory small granules probably of 
magnetite. 

The fabric of the rocks in the inner aureole is diverse 
depending upon original textures and pre-granitic deformations. 
Most remarkable of the new fabrics is what appears like régéné¬ 
ration of the old pre-existing doleritic and subophitic textures of 
some of the metadolerites (figs. 12 and 13), though they are 
hardly noticeable in metadolerites outside the contact aureole. 
The new plagioclase laths (up to 1 mm. long) are clear and with 
fairly well defined outline. They are usually with mild 
oscillatory zones. 

In the coarser metadolerites and metagabbros, the subophitic 
texture appears also to be regenerated but the plagioclase laths 
are no longer made of one crystal but of newly recrystallised 
clear aggregates of tiny granules of plagioclase keeping within 
the boundaries or outlines of the pre-existing large plagioclase 
laths and plates.. In other metadolerites, evidence of pre- 
existing shearing is sometimes indicated by the mimetic re- 
crystallisation and concentration of the newly formed ferro- 
magnesian minerais into subparallel nodules along the former 
pre-existing shear planes as well as in dense knots in place of 
any deformed pre-existing porphyritic crystals of pyroxene (?). 
In such knots, hornblende with or without biotite occurs in 
decussate prisms and both minerais are relatively much coarser 
than those of the matrix and the latter in turn are larger than 
the hornblende and biotite that hâve formed inside the large 
pre-existing plagioclase plates. 

Metadolerites with original subophitic or doleritic textures 
interrupted by large plagioclase or “pyribole” phenocrysts 
(suggesting a pre-existing porphyritic dolerite) may hâve their 
textures “regenerated”. The same may occur in some of the 
porphyritic meta-basalts of this aureole. The matrix of the latter 
is usually made of clear granular mosaic or basic plagioclase with 
subordinate quartz. The average diameter of this mosaic is 
variable even in different parts of the same thin section. In one 
case of a metabasalt at direct contact with the granité, quartz is 
very scarce and the zoned plagioclase becomes as basic as basic 
andesine or acid labradorite. This is the most basic composition 
for a plagioclase recorded from this area ; the usual composition 


THE IGNEOUS AND METAMORPHIC ROCKS NEAR QOSEIR 209 


of plagioclase of metadolerites of this zone being intermediate 
to basic oligoclase. 

Amphiboles of this inner aureole build large prisms (up to 
2mm. or more in length) that are not so sieved as before. 

Z A c somewhat increases and hornblende has Z deep bluish 
green ? Y pistache green, X pale greenish yellow. In varieties 
at direct contact with the granité or included as xenoliths in it, 
hornblende is olive green, light pistache and greenish yellow 
respectively. Biotite is rather rare in the metadolerites of this 
zone but is more common in the metabasalts except those at 
direct contact with the granité. It is the nut-brown variety (not 
deep red brown or wine-red) and is sometimes with feeble 
pleochroic haloes. Small biotites in the matrix of the metabasalts 
may crystallise in subparallel flakes probably along pre-existing 
shear planes. 

Apatite is a prominent accessory. Its needles inside the 
large plagioclase plates sometimes form a peculiar arrangement 
resembling the spine of a fish with one long and large central 
needle situated along the cleavage of the felspar and a number 
of smaller needles arranged at an angle on both sid,e of it. The 
amount of sphene varies considerably in different varieties while 
opaques may persist though in a reduced amount up to the direct 
contact with the granité and may not change to sphene or only 
partly do so. This is especially noticeable in the metabasalts 
and may reflect an original smaller content of titanium (parti- 
cularly in the opaques) as compared with the metadolerites. 

Grain size of these rocks, though coarser than before is still 
too fine for good modal déterminations .except in certain meta¬ 
dolerites, e.g. modes A and B, Table I. The typical minerai 
assemblage of this zone is : hornblende, basic oligoclase (rarely 
andesine) and casual accessori,es of biotite, clinozoisite quartz, 
sphene, magnetite and apatite. 

It must be noted, however, that post-granitic retrogressive 
effects had in some cases affected the mineralogy of these rocks 
whereby amphiboles and biotite were altered to chlorite, plagio¬ 
clase became clouded and new hydrothermal quartz, calcite, 
epidote etc. were formed again. These effects are in most cases 
usually mild and should not be confused with thos.e pertaining 
and characteristic of the high metamorphic grades, e.g. pennenite 










210 


BULLETIN DE L’INSTITUT D’EGYPTE 


after the hornblende and biotite is different from the chlorite so 
common outside the aureole as shown earlier in the meta- 
andesites. 


TABLE I. 

* 

Some Metadolerites of the Contact Aureole 



A 

B 

C 

N.B. 

Localities 
of specimens 
are indicated 
in fig. 2. 

Hornblende 

Plagioclase 

Quartz 

Epidote 

Sphene 

Apatite 

Chlorite 

Calcite 

24.53 

58.15 

4.70 

1.76 

2.65 

près. 

8.21 

54.33 

44.93 

près. 

0.08 

0.61 

0.05 

près. 

45.23 

43.49 

2.18 

8.97 

près. 

près. 

0.13 

100.00 

100.00 

100.00 


3. Metadolerites and metabasalts in the sector of the country 
rock just east and southeast of the Southern tip of Gebei Atshan : 
Though the country rock in this part of the area should appa- 
rently b,e in a metamorphic grade équivalent to that west of 
Gebei Atshan, yet as mentioned earlier in the meta-andesites, 
the metadolerites and metabasalts here also display higher 
minéral assemblages équivalent to those in the outer zones of 
the contact aureole (fig. 2). As said earlier, this may be due to 
a proximity of an underlying part of the granité there, or perhaps 
to a more preferred transmission of thermal gradients and hot 
exudations in that direction than to the west. Thus a coarse 
metadolerite (Mode C, Table I) from this part, consists almost 
entirely of large (3-4 mm. long) prisms of amphiboles with 
ragged edges and highly clouded and granulated plagioclase 
which is probably as basic as andesine. Opaques show transi- 
tional alteration to sphene at their outer borders while clino- 
zoisite granules, some with yellowish allanite nuclei, are casual 
in the clouded plagioclase. In a metabasalt nearby, originally 
porphyritic, the rock consists of hornblende, biotite and granular 
oligoclase with little clinozoisite and opaques partly changed to 
leucoxene. Some retrogressive calcite and pennenite are présent. 


THE IGNEOUS AND METAMORPHIC ROCKS NEAR QOSE1R 2 11 


Summary of the metamorphism of the country rock: 

The typical minerai assemblages of the metadolerites and 
metabasalts can be summerised as follows (accessory minerais 
bracketed) : 

1. Chlorite-carbonate-albite-ore (quartz). 

2. Actinolite-leucoxene-albitic oligoclase-clinozoisite (quartz, 
opaques). 

3. Hornblende - oligoclase (to andesine) -sphene (biotite, 
opaques). 

The first assemblage represents the régional one outside the 
contact aureole, It is typical of the greenschist faciès. The 
second assemblage is that of the outer contact aureole and is 
typical of the epidote-amphibolite faciès while the third is of 
rocks in the inner contact aureole and is équivalent of the amphi- 
bolite faciès. The third assemblage also covers that of border 
xenoliths in the granité. Plagioclase becomes more basic from 
the first to the third assemblages. 

The above assemblages are very similar and comparable to 
those of epidiorites, “greenschists”, “greenstones”, greywackes, 
chlorite-schists and metadolerites recorded from many régions, 
e.g. Wiseman (1934), Harker (1939), Turner (1948, pp. 76, 90 - 91, 
94) and references cited in the last work. 

The minerai assemblages of the meta-andesites are quite 
similar to those of the metadolerite suite except that quartz is 
more frequent in ail assemblages, biotite more frequent in the 
second and third assemblages and the plagioclase there is not 
as basic as andesine. 

It must be mentioned, however, that the high grade minerai 
assemblages need not to hâve passed first through the lower 
grades in the présent area. The thermal effects of the granité 
might hâve acted on country rock unlike that at présent r.e- 
gionally exposed outside the contact aureole. The shears produced 
originally by the orogenic deformations in that country rock 
outside the contact aureole must hâve favoured and hastened the 
development of the présent retrogressive minerai assemblages 
in them. This notion might also explain the better préservation 
or “régénération” of the original textures and structures in the 
country rocks inside the contact aureale than outside it. 


























212 


BULLETIN DE L’INSTITUT D'EGYPTE 


VI. —THE QUARTZ DIORITES 

A suite of clark grey granite-looking minor intrusions are 
encountered casually in the country rock, especially in that part 
near the main granité. They are particularly more concentrated 
in the sector just northwest of the southtern half of the motor 
track of fig. 1, where they occur mostly in the form of very 
irregular sheets no thicker than a few yards across and may 
enclose small xenoliths of the country rock. 

Their grain size is rather medium to coarse and sometimes 
when much weathered or sheared j their plagioclase felspars look 
pinkish or purplish owing to fine hématite dust alterations. 
Inspite of their wide distribution and relatively small size of 
their intrusions, individual bodies show quite similar features in 
thin sections and in modal compositions (Table II). 

In thin section (fig. 14), the least sheared varieties are made 
up of fairly robust euhedral to subhedral crystals of plagioclase 
(up to 7 mm. in length and 4 mm. in width) arranged haph- 
azardly and must hâve been originally the first to crystallise 
followed by the ferromagnesian minerais and later by quartz 
which characteristically moulds, in smaller grains, against the 
spaces between the plagioclase. The plagioclase plates show 
traces of well developed lamellar twinning though the interiors 
are always clouded by alterations and at présent indicate a 
composition of intermediate oligoclase (Ab 80 An 20 ) while the outer 
zones are of albitic oligoclase. The alteration material consists 
of amorphous dust, sericite mica, tiny granules of clinozoisite as 
well as inclusions of small biotite and chlorite flakes probably 
representing alteration material that had originally migrated 
from the adjacent altered ferromagnesian minerais. Sometimes 
the plagioclase plates are sheared and cracked with chloritic 
material lining the cracks. 

The ferromagnesian constituents are usually segregated 
into large knots that are replaced now by dense aggregates of 
brown or olivebrown flakes of biotite variably replaced by green 
pennenite (with ultrablue, violet and brown interférence colours) 
and rare prehnite. So far no trace of amphibole has been found 
in such aggregates but the original pre-existence of hornblende 
before its replacement by biotite is not improbable. In some 
varieties, the small biotite flakes show some sort of crude 
alignment. 


THE IUNEOUS AND METAMORPHIC ROCKS NEAR QOSEIlt 213 


TABLE II. 


Some Quartz-Diorites 



A 

B 

C 

D 

AVERAGE 

Plagioclase 

53.90 

59.03 

57.77 

60.21 

57.73 

Quartz 

27.92 

22.9 e ) 

30.85 

22.89 

26.16 

Biotite* 

15.13 

12.79 

4.16 

10.37 

10.61 

Opaques 


près. 

1.34 

près. 

0.34 

Apatite 

0.19 

0.54 

0.27 

près. 

0.25 

Calcite 



5.03 

0.11 

1.28 

Prehnite 



0.58 


0.15 

Sphene 

0.14 

4.51 

près. 

0.97 

1.40 

Microline 

0.18 



3.35 

0.89 

White mica 

2.33 




0.58 

Epidotes 

0.21 

0.14 


2.10 

0.61 


100.00 

100.00 

100.00 

100.00 

100.00 j 


* Mostly chloritised and part of the resulting pennenite might not be 
after biotite. 

Localities of specimens are indicated in fig. 2. 


Though part of the quartz in some varieties is secondary 
and hydrothermal being introduced later, yet the greater part 
of it is clearly primary. It may show weak optic strains as well 
as crude flattening of the grains. Its modal amount never falls 
below 20% by volume of the rock and quartz thus ranks next 
to the plagioclase. 

Original potash felspar is characteristically absent from this 
suite of intrusions and in the few cases it was found (e.g. Mode D, 
Table II), it is clearly late being introduced from the nearby 
or adjacent granité. The main alkalic ingrédients for microcline, 
perhaps also for the biotite, might hâve thus largely diffused from 
the granité and replaced the plagioclase in the form of tiny inter- 
granular films or small grains. 

Because of the probable absence of potash felspar and the 
rather high content of quartz in the original intrusions, this 
suite is called here “quartz-diorite” in preference to trondhjemite, 
tonalité or granodiorite though of course the précisé terminology 
cannot be known owing to the altered nature of their consti¬ 
tuents, particularly the ferromagnesians. 






























214 


BULLETIN DE L’INSTITUT D’EGYPTE 


Accessories include zircon granules producing dark haloes 
in biotite or its pennenite pseudomorph, apatite needles parti- 
cularly frequent in the contact zones of the main granité, sphene, 
leucoxene and opaque granules (at présent hématite or limonite) 
as well as clinozoisite, calcite, sericitq and other alteration 
products. 

The quartz-diorites hâve not, so far, been observed to be 
eut by any of the metadolerites. On the contrary, as said 
earlier, they intrude the meta-andesites and metadolerites and 
enclose small fragments from them. In certain localities in the 
field, they seem to be eut by fine grained dark dirty oilish green 
intrusions that probably belong to the late post-granite dyke 
intrusions. The date of intrusion of the quartz-diorite suite is 
probably after the main orogeny and diastrophism of the country 
rocks hâve taken place (or just before the waning stages of this 
diastrophism) but before the emplacement of the main granité of 
the présent area. This is probably so because the quartz-diorite 
suite is not on the whole as much sheared as the meta-andesites and 
metadolerites and its members are more frequent in the neigh- 
bourhood of the granité, particularly to the northwest. Further- 
more, members of this suite in the contact aureole of the granité, 
appear to hâve been affected by the contact metamorphism. The 
quartz-diorites may thus represent early heralds of the intruding 
granité and their composition affords an interesting link between 
the .earlier doleritic igneous activities and the succeeding granité 
intrusion particularly as some slightly earlier phases of that 
granité (the grey granité) are actually granodiorites (e.g. Mode A, 
Table III). 


VII. —THE GRANITE 

As can be seen from the map, the main granité of the area 
has generally a more or less rounded outline but in the field, 
minor irregular protrusions into the country rock are seen. The 
most prominent of these is that leading to the pegmatite-aplite 
Red Hill at the northern end of the granité (fig. 1). 

The actual borders of the granité with the country rock are 
sharp, and apart from the hornfelsing and rare doubtful spotting 
effects of the country rock in its aureole, and the narrow zone 
of mechanical and angular xenoliths near some outer parts of its 
border, there is no apparent indication at the présent level of 


THE IGNEOUS AND METAMORPHIC ROCKS NEAR QOSEIR 215 


érosion of any significant interaction or assimilation between the 
granité and the country rock in the présent area. Apart from 
its border zones, the main granité of the area shown in the map 
has relatively few inclusions. 

As can be seen from fig. 1, the strike of bedding, schistosity 
or foliation of the country rock is roughly concordant with the 
outline of the granité but, as the continuation of this granité boss 
and its country rock south and outside the map-area is not known 
yet, it is rather difficult to décidé whether this granité intrusion 
had gained its place by pushing and shouldering the country 
rock or whether it climbed up and occupied fractures and 
widening gaps (such as anticlinal cores) produced during the 
régional orogeny. Probably its modus operandi included both 
mechanisms, i.e. ascending into gaps and weak zones produced 
by the orogeny and then widening the room thus gained by some 
pushing against the wall rocks. 

The colour and grain size of the granité vary widely but 
the variation is usually graduai and transitional so that the main 
granité cannot be sharply divided into distinct well defined 
bodies. In fig. 1 is shown a rough and arbitrary division of the 
main granité into four types : medium grained grey gmnite, 
coarse grained pale pink granité , medium to coarse grained red 
granité and medium to fine grained yellou: granité. The modal 
composition of some of these four types is given in Table III 
and the positions of the analysed specimens are indicated in 
fig. 2. This variation in colour entails thus variation in compo¬ 
sition, grain size and texture but the colour of the granité 
observed in the field must be treated with caution for sometimes 
a pale pink granité for example when traversed by shear belts 
or is much weathered along joints or cracks, its colour becomes 
deep pink or red. This is mostly due to the clouding of the 
plagioclase felspars which “absorb” hématite and limonite dust, 
perhaps in part resulting from the release and migration of iron 
through the chloritisation of biotite. In the following are given 
details about each type of granité. 

1. The grey granité : (Mode A, Table III) 

This is the most basic of ail varieties with plagioclase 
occupying more than 50% of the volume of the rock. It is actually 
a granodiorite. The average grain size is about 2 mm. Plagio- 









216 


BULLETIN DE L’INSTITUT D’EGYPTE 


clase tends to form euhedral and subhedral unoi'iented crystals 
with a crystal outline better developed than in any other minerai 
présent. Its crystals may reach 4 mm. in length or more and 
are oscillatorily zoned parallel to the crystal outline. The inner 
cores appear to be of basic to intermediate oligoclase while the 
outer zones are of intermediate to acid oligoclase. Microcline 
microperthite forms large crystals that may enclose several of the 
smaller euhedral crystals of plagioclase. Biotite (pleochroic from 
light yellow to sepia or burnt sienna) with dark pleochroic haloes 
is slightly replaced by green pennenite. No definite hornblende 
is observed. Compared with other varieties of granité, the grey 
granité is rich in plagioclase, biotite and accessory sphene and 
clinozoisite. Part of the last minerai apparently resuit from 
alteration of the plagioclase. 

In the présent area, the grey granité appears to resist 
weathering and érosion better than other varieties. Except Ras 
Zareib, it forms the higher ground in the field and weathers into 
large blocks with rounded edges so that the original jointing 
there can be easily determined. It is usually 15° west of north, 
with another less prominent set at 75° west of north. 

2. The course pale pink granité: (Modes B, C, D, E and F, 

Table III) 

The grey granité occupies the southwestern corner of the 
main granité and merges to the north, northeast and east into 
the coarser pale pink granité which in turn ôutwardly merges 
into the yellow or red granités. Mineralogically the pale pink 
granité reflects this transition. Its plagioclase is still with distinct 
oscillatory zones ; the inner zones hâve distinct euhedral outlines 
while the outer ones give the crystals a subhedral outline. The 
granité still contains sphene and clinozoisite granules and large 
biotite (same variety as in the grey granité) flakes more inter- 
leaved by pennenite than in the grey granité. The biotite may 
be also replaced by a peculiar deep reddish transitional mica. 
Microcline is microperthitic and with casual myrmekite buds. 

The pale pink granité near the northern tip of the main 
granité (e.g. Mode D, Table III) ceases to hâve distinct oscilla¬ 
torily zoned plagioclase. Clinozoisite and sphene are scarce and 
the biotite is more altered by pennenite and prehnite but the 
secondary hydrothermal muscovite flakes replacing the clouded 


THE IGNEOUS AND METAMORPHIC ROCKS NEAR QOSEIR 217 


TABLE III. 


Composition of Some Granités 



A 

B 

C 

D 

E 

Plagioclase 

54.04 

39.77 

48.41 

25.43 

37.05 

Potielspar 

15.91 

26.72 

22.02 

37.50 

35.49 

Quartz 

18.43 

29.67 

20.99 

31.91 

24.17 

Biotite 

9.15 

2.64 


4.23 

2.45 

Pennenite 

0.62 


8.58 



Muscovite 




0.93 

0.62 

Myrmekite 

1.46 

0.51 



0.22 

Sphene 


0.55 




Clinozoisite 

0.24 

0.14 




Opaques 






Apatite 

0.12 






99.97 

100.00 

100.00 

100.00 

100.00 



F. 

G 

H 

I 

J 

Plagioclase 

35.43 

35.09 

43.78 

38.03 

39.92 

Potielspar 

34.86 

23.52 

24.21 

23.97 

38.04 

Quartz 

24.46 

39.35 

29.87 

29.03 

21.48 

Biotite 

1.96 



2.72 

0.07 

Pennenite 





0.04 

Muscovite 

0.80 

2.04 

2.14 

6.02 

0.19 

Myrmekite 

2.39 




0.26 

Sphene 






Clinozoisite 






Opaques 

0.10 



0.23 


Apatite 







100.00 

100.00 

100.00 

100.00 

100.00 


A : Grey granité. 

B, C, D, E and F : Pale pink granités. 

G and H : Red granités. 

I : Yellow granité. 

J : Small aplite red dyke cutting the pale pink granité. 

Localities are indicated in fig. 2. 







































218 


BULLETIN DE 1/INSTITUT D'EGYPTE 


plagioclase attain larger sizes than before. Still northwards into 
the narrow intrusion shortly leading to the red granité of the 
Red Hill, the pale pink granité shows for the first time distinct 
aplite-pegmatitic features (modes E and F, Table III). It be- 
comes spangled with coarse oval pegmatitic patches containing 
very coarse potash felspar and quartz with some plagioclase and 
hardly no mica. Some of these patches are enclosed in ring- 
shaped biotite schlieren described elsewhere (Gindy, 1956 A). 
The granité itself there contains large (up to 1 cm.) crystals of 
quasi-graphie intergrowths between potash felspar and quartz ; 
the latter occurring in rounded bleds, rods and irregular small 
patches of the same optical continuity inside the potash felspar 
plate (fig. 15). Like other large potash felspar plates, these 
intergrowths may enclose the smaller earlier formed plagioclase 
crystals. Sphene and clinozoisite are absent and plagioclase is 
lightly or weakly zoned. 

In the field, the pale pink granité displays spheroidal 
weathering as well as low-lying jointing of the typical sheeting 
type. It occurs in fragmentai and highly decayed conditions 
and because of its rapid weathering it forms the low and wide 
sandy plain (in the northern half of the main granité) that 
contrasts with the wild and rugged country rocks opposite to it. 
In the narrow northern “bottle-neck,” this granité sends several 
small but highly irregular branches into the country rock. 

3. The red granité : (Modes G and H, Table III) 

The red granité is medium grained (average grain diameter 
about 2 mm.) but in the quartz-felspar mosaic large subhedral, 
unzoned and unoriented crystals of plagioclase (up to 5 mm .) 
occur. These are extensively clouded by iron stains and dust 
which gives the rock its red colour. The altered plagioclase 
appears to be acid oligoclase, if not albite. Myrmekites and 
vein-perthites in the microcline plates appear to be rarer than 
in the pale pink granité. The red granité seems to be either a 
straightforward muscovite-biotite granité (i.e. with primary 
muscovite) or a biotite-granite that had part of its biotite re- 
placed by pseudomorphs of white mica at an early date soon 
after its crystallisation with the conséquent release of opaque 
granules. Some of the large primary-looking white mica flakes 
are slightly pleoehroic with Z distinct cream and X colourless. 


THE IGNEOUS AND METAMORPIIIC ROCKS NEAR QOSEIR 219 


Sphene and clinozoisite are totally absent. The granité is 
virtually an aplite. 

The red granité apparently resists weathering much better 
than the coarser pale pink granité and it forms the conspicuous 
Red Hill just south of the motor track between Atshan and 
Hamadat mines and the high rosy peak of Ras Zareib (mode G). 

4. The yellow granité: (Mode I, Table III) 

This granité forms the outer aplitic border zone to the red 
and pale pink granités at the northeastern corner of the main 
granité. A typical yellow granité is white or yellowish in colour 
and is aplite-looking, fine grained (average grain diameter below 
0.5 mm.) with glistening spots of white mica and dark dots of 
biotite. It is characteristically a muscovite-biotite granité, some- 
times with the two micas in intergrowths. The fine granular 
mosaic of the rock contains some felspars, particularly potash 
felspar in tiny quasi-graphie intergrowths with quartz like those 
observed earlier in the outer parts of the pale pink granité. Apart 
from the primary muscovite, some of the large shredded flakes 
are definitely secondary after the plagioclase. The plagioclase is 
not zoned and sphene and clinozoisite are absent but tiny opaque 
granules may occur. Some varieties are spangled with large 
cubes (sides 5 mm. long) of pyrite or hématite or limonite pseudo¬ 
morphs after pyrite. Similar cubes etc. are found in other 
varieties of the main granité but it is probable that they 
hâve been hydrothermally introduced later and hâve not directly 
crystallised from the granité. Apatite is scarce in ail varieties 
of the main granité while it is so abundant in tiny needles in 
the country rocks, particularly those of the contact aureole. 

Concluding remarks on the main granité : 

No flow trends ( 4 ) or any other linear features attendant on 
the intrusion of the main granité were observed in it but from 
the above description it seems that the grey granité represents 
a slightly earlier crystallised and more basic fraction of the 
main granité while the still more fluid and relatively more acid 
residual fractions and the fugitive constituents concentrated to 
the outer northern and eastern borders of the intrusion 


(4) Except the rare border case mentioned elsewhere (Gindy, 1956 A, p. 147, 
lis and figs. 1 & 11). 













220 


BULLETIN DE L’INSTITUT D’EGYPTE 


(perhaps guided by the opening gaps and fissures in the 
country rock causing partial decrease of pressure there). 
This residual magma crystallised then as the red and 
yellow granités with the pale pink granité transitional to the 
grey granité. The red and yellow granités are actually pegmatite- 
aplite border varieties of the main granité. Indeed, even the 
grey granité itself, at some parts just before its immédiate sharp 
contact with the country rock west of it, is observed to pass 
within a very narrow zone (few inches wide) into aplite and 
pegmatite varieties too narrow to be shown in the maps, Red 
aplite dykes and veins (e.g. Mode J, Table III), very similar to 
the red granité, traverse the grey and pale pink granités. 

The grey granité (actually a granodiorite) acts, as mentioned 
earlier, as a link between the preceding quartz-diorite intrusions 
on one hand and the rest of varieties of the main granité on the 
other hand. From evidence observed in adjacent areas which 
the writer is at présent still studying, the grey granité there 
appears to hâve evolved through advanced “assimilation” of basic 
country rock inclusions in a granité magma perhaps of a compo¬ 
sition near that of the pale pink granité. This assimilation must 
hâve taken place at deeper levels before its présent emplacement 
where assimilating tendencies appear to be largely lost even 
though relies of the inclusions may still persist ( 5 ). At the 
présent level of érosion, and strictly within the limits of the 
présent area, the grey granité is a fairly homogeneous intrusion 
(igneous, magmatic) with no good signs of “assimilation” of the 
country rock or its fragments, granitisation etc. 

Granités of ail varieties show signs of strains in the quartz 
and bending and shearing in the plagioclase etc. owing to the 
effects of later tectonics, e.g. the post-Eocene and Miocene 


(5) The early quartz-cliorites might hâve evolved in a parallel fashion 
at depth but for other theoritical possiibilitios concerning the origin of 
granodioritic and quartz-dioritic magmas sec, e.g. Turner & Verhoogen (1951). 
Later work by the writer on the larger area shows that the main granitic in¬ 
trusive pluton has a roughly oval cross-section and is of complex character in 
parts granitic, granodioritic toualitic and quartz-dioritic. Partial or sélective 
melting and fusion at depth of sialic and country rock materials (induding 
those of the andésites and associated dolerites) is thought to be the most 
adéquate explanation of these rocks (See Gindy, Third Arab Science Congress, 
Beirut, 3957). 


THE IGNKOrS AND MET AMOK PH IC ROCKS NEAR QOSEIK 221 


upheavals. It should be noted that though the four types of 
granités in the présent area happen to occur more or less 
integrated within a large granité body, this is not necessarily 
so everywhere, and we may expect in other parts of the same 
terrain to find separate intrusions of these types or combinations 
of two or more types (Gindy, 1956 B). 

The contact effects of the main granité on its country rock 
hâve already been described and it has been mentioned that such 
effects extend in a broader zone southeast of the Southern tip 
of Gebel Atshan and may dénoté an underlying part of the 
granité boss at no great depth (fig. 2A). The country rock in 
this wide eastern part of the contact aureole contains plentiful 
and rather large secondary muscovite flakes unlike the country 
rock in the narrower western part of the contact aureole opposite 
the grey granité. This large hydrothermal muscovites as well 
as dense sericitic shimmer aggregates of the eastern fringe must 
represent alkalic metasomatic ,exudations from the adjacent red 
and yellow granités there. The grey granité to the west is too 
poor in such fugitive constituents to produce similar results on 
its adjacent rocks. 

VIII. — APLITES AND PEGMATITES 
OF THE MAIN GRANITE 

As mentioned earlier, the red and yellow granités and even 
some outer parts of the pale pink granité can be considered as 
pegmatite-aplite border phases of the main intrusion and that 
these phases remained within the confines of that intrusion and 
did not extricate themselves into separate intrusions into the 
country rock. The only available “odd” example is the red 
granité of the Red Hill which forms for itself a small intrusion 
at the northern tip of the bottle-neck of the main granité. 

Relatively few well defined small aplite dykes, few to several 
inches thick, traverse the pale pink granité, rarely the grey 
granité, along the jointing (e.g. Mode J, Table III). They are 
quite similar to the red granité type but are almost devoid of 
ail mica and contain the quasi-eutectic intergrowths of micro- 
cline and quartz. The quartz grains in some of these aplite 
dykes and veins are of the amethyst variety. 

Apart from the separate pegmatite-aplite intrusions in the 











222 


BULLETIN DE L'INSTITUT D'EGYPTE 


country rock of the inner contact aureole, aplite intrusions be- 
come very scarce in the country rock outside the aureole. Rare 
odd aplite sills intruded parallel to the bedding between the 
meta-andesites halfway west of Wadi Beida el Atshan consist 
of a felsitic quartzo-felspathic mosaic (avterage grain size below 
0.003 mm.) with tiny white mica flakes and casual much larger 
porphyritic crystals mostly of quartz and plagioclase. The sills 
may be called felsite-porphyries. They are much sheared parallel 
to their extension and weather into thin paper-like sheaves. 

It is probable that pyrite casually found in such minor acid 
intrusions is secondary rather than primary, introduced later 
along shears. 

IX. — POST-GRANITE HYDROTHERMAL ACTIVITIES 

These activities are considered below separately but it is 
quite difficult to work out a clear-cut time relation for them. 
Some are contemporaneous while others may belong to more 
than one épisode. 

1. Sericitisation: The development of large secondary 
muscovite flakes and shimmer aggregates in certain parts of the 
country rock in the contact aureole has been already mentioned. 
Plagioclases are most easily affected by sericitisation while the 
accompanying ferromagesian minerais are chloritised. The 
alteration is facilitated by the occurrence of weak planes, e.g. 
s-planes and cleavages of minerais, which provide channels 
easily accessible by the hydrothermal solutions. Sericite may be 
produced from the late alkalic granité exudations and perhaps 
from potash released through the chloritisation of biotite. 

2. Tourmalinisation and quartz-tourmaline veins : Bluish 
tourmaline grains are found in the matrix of some meta-andesites 
and metadacites but similar larger grains are definitely associated 
with irregular small or microscopie tourmaline-quartz veins that 
traverse the same rocks. Tourmaline ingrédients may hâve 
diffused from these veins into the matrix of the rocks. Clino- 
zoisite and apatite granules may hâve formed as accessories to 
this tourmalinisation but the rare zircon grains in the matrix 
most probably belong to the original rock. 

Similarly, tourmaline (Z dark dirty greenish blue, X pale 
greyish or yellowish pink) was found in a sheared and shattered 


THE IGNEOUS AND METAMORPHIC ROCKS NEAR QOSEIR 223 


metadacite at the northmost exposure of the country rock west 
of Wadi Beida el Atshan (fig. 17). It occurs sparsely in the 
matrix of the rock but is much more frequent in the fine 
reticulate and irregular quartz veins filling the fractures where 
some of the tourmaline crystals are 1 mm. long. Pyrite cubes 
also occur in these tourmaline-quartz veins. The veins are usually 
composite ( 6 ) in the sense that the tourmaline-quartz areas 
of the veins are surrounded from either side by a conspicuous 
sheath of granular quartz devoid of tourmaline (fig. 16). This 
rock occurs very near to the fault running between Wad Kareim 
and Wadi Beida el Atshan and bringing the ancient country 
rock there into contact against the Cretaceous and Eocene rocks. 
If these tourmaline-quartz veins are post-faulting, they may 
belong to the post-Eocene, more probably Miocene minéralisation 
and may be connected with the lead-zinc minéralisation in the 
Miocene of Um Gheig near the Red Sea, south of Qoseir. 
However, their date remains uncertain and they may still be 
Pre-Cambrian in âge. 

3. Sulphide activities, pyritisation, hématite and malachite 
veins and stains : Along the trace of the fault just mentioned, 
the shattered country rocks are usually stained red, violet and 
green owing to hématite and malachite stains. Another locality 
is in the country rock about 500 yards east of the triangulation 
pôle on Gebel Atshan near its Southern end. Here, malachite 
and azurite stains, veins and perméations are more intense along 
a narrow zone, probably a shear belt, filling fractures and some 
joint planes. Cubic pseudomorphs of hématite after altered 
pyrite are also very common in this country rock and pyrite 
certainly pre-dates the copper-carbonate veins. No trace of 
Cu-sulphides exist. The deposit is valueless. 

Pyrite or its pseudomorphs were mentioned several times 


(6) While most of the calcite (and an y other carbonate) veins and some 
of the quartz veins might liave evolved as sweatings from their host rocks by 
metamorphic-metasomatic différentiation, there is as yet no good evidence to 
warrant such ail origin to the tourmaline-quartz veins which are very few in 
nuinber and were actually observed in only two small localities within the 
entire area. The zoning somotimes observed in them (Fig. 16) might otherwise 
be explained by repeated introduction of fluids of different compositions or of 
fluids of clianging composition etc. 











224 


BULLETIN DE L'INSTITUT D’EGYPTE 


earlier as occurring in the country rock, especially in the sheared 
zones, and in the granités and aplites, especially the yellow and 
pink granités. Chalcopyrite or other sulphides may also be 
présent in much smaller amounts than pyrite but no spécial 
check for them was made. 

Doubt has also been expressed earlier about the origin and 
date of these sulphides ; whether they are primary, secondary 
or belong to more than one épisode of minéralisation. Little is 
known or published on the Miocene minéralisation of the Qoseir 
area. As primary pyrite cubes are présent in some of the quartz 
dykes and veins mentioned below, it is reasonable to link the 
pyritic hydrothermal activities with the period of intrusion of 
these dykes and veins, i.e. pyritisation is pre-Cambrian. Definite 
sulphide ores of copper were not observed, nor their pseudo- 
morphs. Only the carbonates (perhaps also cuprite) transported 
in veins and stains already mentioned. These minerais must 
hâve been deposited from late circulating solutions (ascending ?) 
that had previously leached the copper from its primary sulphide 
ores (presumably at depth as may be suggested by the déposi¬ 
tion of copper carbonates around cubic hématite pseudomorphs 
after pyrite at the présent level of exposure). E.M. El Shazly 
and A.H. Sabet (Geol. Surv. Egypt., paper No. 2, 1955) hâve 
just described a somewhat similar copper deposit at El ’Atawi 
ancient mines, about 70 km. SSW of Qoseir. 

4. Calcite veins and dykes : Tiny veins, often microscopie 
of calcite with variable amounts of quartz and scarce chlorite 
are frequent in the country rock. They may be irregular or 
straight along incipient jointing and s-planes. A single odd but 
conspicuous coarse “calcite-dyke,” about 4 inches thick occurs 
near the foot of the hill-slopes east of the beginning of Wadi 
Kareim. It is almost made up entirely of coarse pure transparent 
calcite crystals with excellent cleavage. A very thin inter- 
granular film of hématite gives the dyke a pink colour. Quartz 
is présent in rare intergranular plates. Sometimes the dyke 
passes into reticulate veins connected together ( 7 ). 


(7) Largo calcite crystals from the veins fluoresee in beautiful purplish 
crimson to rosy colours when exposed to ultraviolet light. A.I. Ghozlan, using 
nuclear photographie émulsions, had determined the alpha-radioactivity of one 
of these crystals as équivalent to a content of 2.360 parts per million of TJ. { 0 H 


THE IGNEOUS AND METAMORRHIC ROCKS NEAR QOSEIR 225 


Irregular large and shreded calcite grains scattered in the 
country rocks, eyen those of the contact aureole, indicate definite 
hydrothermal post-granite retrogressive effects. The ingrédients 
of this calcite and other carbonate veins were probably derived 
from the alteration of the country rocks themselves by inter¬ 
granular fluids followed by leaching and concentration in 
fractures etc. (metamorphic-metasomatic différentiation). 

5. Quartz dykes and veins : Quartz-dykes of bright white 
or milky colour form a very distinctive feature of the area 
(fig. 1). They run in almost swarm-like subparallel fashion and 
eut both the country rock and the granité and in the field, their 
colour conspicuously contrasts against the dark metamorphics. 
They hâve not been observed to traverse the young sédiments 
overlying the igneous and metamorphic rocks. Their trend is 
distinctly NE to SW striking between 15° to 50° east of north. 
Usually they are either almost vertical or steeply inclined to the 
northwest. Their trend is identical with that of the jointing, 
especially that of the country rock, and is at a large angle to the 
general bedding, schistosity and foliation. 

The width of these quartz-dykes ranges from a foot or more 
down to straight veins, along joint planes, no thicker than a 
fraction of a millimétré. Sometimes the dyke is of a reticulate 
type or encloses angular fragments of the host rock especially 
when the latter had been previously sheared (fig. 18). 

The larger dykes are often somewhat “cavernous” especially 
near their centre where fine euhedral and concentrically zoned 
quartz crystals line the cavities in parallel growths. The cavities 
may also be filled by a younger génération of fibrous or fine 
granular pink or red quartz (enclosing microscopie dust of 
hématite) moulding against and contrasting with the earlier 
milky quartz. In the larger quartz-dykes also, there is often 
peculiar infillings of dark greenish films and strings, sometimes 
in larger crystal-like outline. Three polished specimens of this 
material were kindly examined by Dr. F.M, Nakhla and did not 
reveal the presence of any ore while other thin sections showed 
the greenish dark material to be green chlorite, less often epidote 
introduced into the quartz dykes and veins by still later hydro¬ 
thermal infiltrations. Calcite may be présent in few broad 
polygonal plates. 










226 


BULLETIN DE L’INSTITUT D’EGYPTE 


Pyrite cubes hâve been observ.ed sparsely in only few of 
these large quartz-veins but they might hâve been more frequent 
previously but were then altered and washed away by circulating 
solutions. 

The intrusion of the quartz-veins and dykes into the country 
rock, very often produces mild retrogressive effects on the 
contact zones of the latter such as incr.ease in sericitisation and 
clouding of plagioclase, chloritisation and epidotisation (see No. 6 
below). In the field, some wallrock alteration to sericite and/or 
clay minerais is màde vividly clear by the bleaching-like whiten- 
ing of the host rock adjacent to the quartz or quartz-pyrite veins. 

The characteristic trend of the large quartz-dykes, their 
casual cavernous or composite nature would indicate earth forces 
(tensions?) favouring the opening of joint-planes in a NE-SW 
trend about the time of formation of these dykes. 

6. Epidotisation and epidote veins : Hydrothermal deep 
pistache green to pale yellow epidote granules contrast with the 
pale clinozoisitic epidotes of the contact aureole, and are casual 
in the country rocks occurring chiefly as alteration products after 
plagioclase. They may be segregated into well defined quartz- 
epidot,e veins and thin dykes of strikingly peculiar yellow or 
pistache green massive appearance. These traverse both the 
country rock and the granité and sometimes form linings between 
the quartz-dykes and veins mentioned above (No. 5) and the 
adjacent country rock. Such discrète quartz-epidote veins and 
thin dykes are conspicuously better developed in the south- 
western quarter of the map-area than .elsewhere. Strings of 
epidote granules may also form at the outer border of country 
rock inclusions inside the quartz-veins (fig. 19) as well as between 
the constituent minerais of the inclusion, particularly replacing 
the plagioclase. In such cases, the production of epidote must 
hâve been prompted by these hot siliceous introductions though 
its main ingrédients are derived from the country rock itself. 
Epidote may thus either form in situ or become seggregated 
with quartz into the discrète veins. A very thin greenish or 
yellowish crust or veneer is sometimes observed on the face of 
jointing of the granité and country rock and probably contains 
epidote with some chlorite and clay minerais. 


THE IGNEOUS AND METAMORPHIC ROCKS XEAU QOSEIR 227 


The hydrothermal epidote has a variable composition. It 
may be even colourless and clinoziositic but mostly it is stronglv 
pleochroic from deep yellow or pistache green to paler colours. 

X.—LATEST MINOR IGNEOUS INTRUSIONS 

A suite of igneous intrusions mostly in parallel swarms eut 
ail preceding rocks including the quartz-dyke swarms. Unlike 
the latter, which had a preferred NE-SW trend, thes,e dykes hâve 
a preferred N-S trend swerving few degrees to the east in the 
eastern half of the map-area and to the west in the western half, 
perhaps indicating earth tensions of a trend different from those 
of the quartz-dykes’ épisode at the time of their intrusion. The 
NNE-SSW trend is also that of the more prominent jointing in 
the granité. Beside the well defined dykes 3 or 4 métrés across, 
the same igneous material may occur as irregular and dis- 
connected taperings occupying any available fractures and weak 
planes in the granité. 

Thin sections reveal a fine grained panidiomorphic and 
unoriented trachytic or bostonitic plexus of acid felspar laths 
with albite lamellar twinning. Average length of laths varies ; 
in the relatively coarser varieties it is up to 1.3 mm. The ferro- 
magnesian plates are in a subophitic relation to the felspar laths 
while primary intergranular or interstitial quartz moulds against 
both minerais. In the présent area, this suite of dykes are 
generally hydrothermally altered (perhaps automatically) so that 
ail the ferromagnesian minerais are replaced by olive green 
chlorite-like pseudomorphs ; the felspars are highly clouded and 
the whole rock is dusted with hématite particles, sometimes so 
thickly that they give the originally dark greyish dyke a 
characteristic bright brick-red colour as in the long dykes in the 
eastern half of the map-area. Dessiminated grains of calcite are 
also présent. 

Because of their altered nature, particularly of their mafic 
constituents, these rocks cannot be classified properly. The 
sliced specimens are definitely too basic for a bostonite and 
approach perhaps to a camptonitic lamprophyre or, more pro¬ 
bably, belong to the grorudite-solvsbergite sériés. 

In the présent map-area, none of these late igneous intru¬ 
sions has been found to eut the Nubian Sandstone or younger 











228 


BULLETIN DE ITINSTITUT D’EGYPTE 


rocks though such intrusions are known to occur in neighbouring 
areas (e.g. Beadnell, 1924, Plate I), and may belong to suites 
of different âges and compositions. No direct relation between 
these intrusions in the map-area and the probable faulting there 
was encountered in the field. 


REFERENCES 


Bail, J. (1912): “Geography and Geology of Soutn Eastern Egypt.” 
Mem. Geol. Surv. Egypt. 

Barron, T. and Hume, W.F. (1902) : “Eastern Desert of Egypt 
(Central portion). Mem. Geol. Surv. Egypt. 

Beadnell, H.J.L. (1924): “Report on the Geology of Red Sea Coast 
between Ooseir and Wadi Ranga. Petroleum Research Bulletin 
No. 13. Cairo. 

Gindy,A.R. (1956) : “A.—< Biotite schlieren in sonie intrusive granités 
from Egypt and Donegal.” Bull. Inst. Désert. Vol. 6 , p. 143. 

Gindy, A.R. (1956) : “B. —r The status of garnet in some late granitic 
intrusions from the Eastern Desert of Egypt and Donegal, 
Eire.” Bull. Inst. Désert. Vol. 6 , p. 159. 

Harker, A. (1939): “Metamorphism.” Methuen, London. 

Hume, W.F. (1907): “Geology of the Eastern Desert of Egypt 
between latitudes 22° N and 25° N. Mem. Geol. Surv. Egypt. 

Hume,W.F. (1934, 1935.): “Geology of Egypt.” Vol. II. Parts I and 
II, Geol. Surv. Egypt. 

Hume, W.F., Madwick T.G., Moon, F.W. and Sadek, H. (1920): 
“Preliminary Geological Report on the Wadi Mureikha area.” 
Petroleum Research Bulletin No, 5, Cairo. 

Schürmann, H.M.E. (1953) : “Pre-Cambrian of Gulf of Suez Area.” 
Fasc. I, XTXe Cong. Geol. Intern. Alger. 

Turner, F.J. (1948) : “Mineralogical and Structural Evolution of the 
Metamorphic Rocks.” Mem. Geol. Soc. Amer., No. 30. 

Turner, F.J. and Verhoogen, J. (1951): “Igneous and Metamorphic 
Petrology.” Mc Graw-Hill, New York. 

Wiseman, J.D.H. (1934) : “The Central and South-West Highland 
epidiorites : a s’tudy in progressive metamorphism.” Q.T.G.S., 
Vol. 90, p. 354. 

Youssef, M.I. (1949) : “Stratigraphical Studios in the Kosseir area, 
with spécial reference to Cretaceous and Eocene rocks.” Ph.D. 
Thesis, Alexandria University. 


THE 1GNEOUS AND METAMORPHIC ROCKS NEAR QOSEIR 229 


EXPLANATION OF FIGURES IN PLATES 


Fig. 3 — A sheared and altered meta-andesite outside the contact 
aureole of granité, with relict large porphyritic plagioclase 
crystals (p). The matrix consists of very fine quartzo- 
felspathic mosaic with tiny granules of sericite, chlorite, limonite 
and clay. These minerais occur also inside the altered large 
plagioclase plates. Ordinary light. X 11. 

Fi g. 4. — Photograph of a meta-andesite The original pale coloured 
porphyritic plagioclase crystals are set in a darker matrix. 
Scale in centimètres. 

Figs. 5 and 6. —» A porphyritic meta-andesite in the contact aureole 
of the granité. Fig. 5 is in ordinary light, Fig. 6 is the same 
under crossed niçois. The fine grained quartzo-felspathic matrix 
comtains biotite, sphene, clinozoisite and apatite. Coarse biotitc 
flakes are concentrated in elongated subparallel knots (bt) 
occupying the position of formerîy sheared mafic porphyritic 
crystals. Smaller biotite flakes of the matrix are crudely aligned. 
Minerais of the matrix also occur inside the ancient plagioclase 
phenocrystys (p) and almost swamp them in fig. 5. X 11. 

Fig. 7. —-A metamorphosed dacite outside the contact aureole. It 
consists of relict euhedral quartz (q) and albite (p) phenocrystys 
in a matrix of a very fine quartz-albite-sericite mixture. Darlc 
grains are late hvdrothermal pyrites and epidotes. Ordinary 
ïight. X 14.5. 

Fig. 8. — A peculiar spotted specimen of the country rock in the 
contact aureole of the granité. The dark green spots consist 
at présent of fine hydrothermal mixture of chlorite and sericite 
Scale in centimètres. 

Fig. 8 . — A metadolerite far outside the contact aureole, consisting 
of a very clouded and fine matrix of tiny aggregates of albite, 
chlorite, îarger plates of calcite and needles or large grains of 
ilmenite (black). Compare with fig. 13. This thin section when 
viewed by a moderate power by reflected light shows faint 
relies of the dolerite texture. Ordinary light. X 70. 

Figs. 10 and 11 . — A metadolerite (perhaps metagabbro) in the 
outer contact aureole of the granité, in ordinary light and under 
crossed niçois respectively. The opaques hâve almost completely 
changed into broad plates of sphene (s). Clinozoisite granules 
(c) are numerous in the matrix while actinolitic amphiboles 
(amp) form poikiloblastically and are seen better under crossed 
niçois (fig. 11). X 68 . 








230 


IULLETIN DE I/INSTITUT D’EGYPTE 


Figs. 12 and 13. — A metadolorite border xenolith in the granité, 
showing well preserved t y pi cal doleritic texture. The plagioclase 
laths hâve slightly clouded corcs and more acid outer rims. 
Other chief constituants are hornblende (h), broad sphene (s) 
moulded against the felspar laths, clinozoisite and late hydro- 
thermal pennenite attacking the hornblende. The rock is rather 
clear when compared vvith the metadolerite of fig. 9. Mode of 
this rock is No. A, Table J. big. 13 is part of fig. 12 undcr 
crossed niçois. X 70. 

Fig. 14. — A typical quartz-diorite consisting of large euhedral 
psagioclase crj'stals (variably altered and clouded), biotite and 
chlorite intergrowths (grey) between the matrix quartz. Mode 
of this rock is No. A, Tabde II. Ordinary light. X 12. 

Fig. 15. — A large grain of quasi-graphie (granophyric) inter- 
growth between microline (dark) and quartz (light) in a pale 
pink granité near its transition ta the red granité of the Ked 
Hill. Smaller grains are of clouded plagioclase and quartz. 
The total mode of the rock is No. E, Table III. Crossed niçois. 
X 12. 

Fig. 16. — T wo late tourmaline-quartz veins in a metadacite. The 
veins consist of an inner part (a) containing tourmaline and 
quartz and an outer part (b) of quartz only. Crossed niçois. 
X 14. 

Fig. 17. — Handspecimen of a shattered metadacite with dark 
branching tourmaline-quartz veins. Fig. 16 is from a thin section 
from this specimen. Scale in millimétrés. 

Fig. 18. — Quartz veins enclosing angular fragments of a meta- 
andesite (dark), near the Red Hill. Scale in centimètres. 

Fig. 19. — Thin section from the specimen of fig. 18. The vein 
quartz (qz) is highly clouded by dust inclusions and dark epidote 
granules (e) are formed at some borders of the fragment (f). 
Ordinary light. X 12. 























Fig. i. Gcological sketch-map ot thc Atshan-Hamadat area, ncar Qoseir.(Origfnal scale l = 5000o) 









































































































































F^g. 2. Distribution of facics , extent of contact aureole and 
locations of spécimens analyscd in Tables I - III. 

































































Fig. 2 a 



sca/<t in ki/ometrts O • 2 3 4 5 


Fig. 2 A — Vertical cross-section through the map-area froin SW to NE passing 
along the intersection of longitude 34° 10’ with latitude 26» in figs. 1 and 2. 
To show the intrusive character of the granité and its disposition 
along the shear and bedding planes of the volcanic (meta-andesitic) 
country rock and to explain the broad contact aureole exposed to the NE 
when compared witli the narrow aureole to the SW. Vertical scale fictitious. 





Fig. 3 — Photomicrograph of a meta-andésite outside the contact aureole of the 
granité with relict large porphyritic plagioclase (p). Ordinary light, x 11. 

Fig. 4 — A polished chip of a porphyritic andésite in the greenschist faciès. 

Fig. 5 — Photomicrograph of a meta-andesite in the contact aureole of the 
granité: (bt) biotite, (p) plagioclase. Ordinary light, x 11. 

Fig. 6 — The saine as fig. 5 but under crossed niçois. 























Fig. 7 — Photomicrograpli of a metadacite witli relies of original 
portliyritic erystals of idiomorpliic quartz (q) and plagioclase (p). Ordinary 

lieclit, x 14.n. 


Fig. S — Polislied slab of a « spotted » contact rock witli the dark « spots » 
simvlating tho outine of a pre-exsting ferromagnesian minerai but at présent 
are made of pseudomorphs of retrogressive clilorite and serieite. 

Fig. 9 — Photomicrograpli of a metadolerite outside the contact auréole. 

Ordinary liglit, x 70. 












Fig. 13 — Riglit hall of the photomicrograph of fig. 12 under crossed niçois. 




Fig. 14 — Photomicrograph of a typlcat iiuartz-eïiorite intrusion witli large 
euhedral plagiuelase plates (cîoiicTed), Ordinary l;ight, x 12 . 


Fig. .15 — Photomicrograph showing a typical grain of qudSi-eutectic inter- 
growth between microline and quartz in the outer parts of the paie pink 
granité. Crossed niçois, x 12, 










Fig. K; Pliotomicrograph of zoned quartz-toimna line-pyrite veiulets in the 

slieared metadacite of fig. 17. The ou ter zone (b) of the veinlets 
is almost entirely made up of quartz grains in optica! orientations dif¬ 
ferent from tliose of quartz in the inner zone (a) with tourmaline and pyrite. 

(Tossed niçois, x Tl. 

Fig. 17 — Polished slab of the veined metadacite handspeeimen whose photo- 
micrograph is given in fig. 10. 

Fig. 18. — Polished slab of a late quart z-vein material euelosing fragment of 
the meta-andesitic country rock. 

Fig. 10 — Photondcrograph of part of the specimen of fig. IS: (F) fragments 
of meta-andésite, (qz) vein-quartz. and (e) epidote grains. Ordinary light, 

x 12. 


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CENTRES OF iSLAMIC SWORD MAKING 
IN MIDDLE AGES O 


•>y 

A. RAHMAN ZAKY 

1. ARABS AND IRON INDUSTRY 

Information referring to Arab metallurgy and iron working 
is very scanty. Processes practised by early Moslem craftsmen 
were traditional and remained secret, but it is certain that the 
Moslems developped Hindu or Persian methods for forging good 
Steel, and soon they were able to produce Steel blades of 
astounding excedency ( 1 2 ). 

Al-Kindi, the Arab philosopher (9th century) mentioned iron 
in relation to the manufacture of swords, and referr.ed to two 
different species of iron : 

1. Shabarqan or male-iron which is hard and has a darkish 
eolour. 

2. Narmahr.n or female-iron which is soft. 

Of these two species, a third is composed, which is named 
“the compound.’’ Al-Kindi, also mentions Steel, which he 
describes as an alloy, and is not derived directly from the mines. 
He calls it “the purified” ( 3 ). 

Ibn Sina (980-1037), in his fifth book, De Anima, according 
to Roger Bacon, distinguishes three different species of iron : 

lst: Iron which is good for striking or bearing heavy 
strokes, and for being forged by hammer and fire, but not for 
cutting tools. Of this hammers and anvils are made, and this is 
what we commonly caîl iron simply. 

(1) Communication présentée en séance du 5 mars 195G. 

(2.) Sarton, G. : Introduction to the ldstory of science. Vol. III. Part 
il. p. 1174 - 1175. 

(3) A. Haliman Zaky : Islande swords in middle * âges. B.I.E. Tome 
XXXVI. p. 365-379. (1953 - 54). 













286 


BULLETIN DE L’INSTITUT D’EGYPTE 


2nd : That which is purer, has more heat in it and is better 
adapted to take an edge and to form cutting tools, but is not 
so malléable, viz. Steel. 

3rd : That which is called “andena.” Its spécial character 
is that like silver, it is malléable and ductile under a very low 
degree of heat. In other properties it is intermediate between 
iron and Steel ( 4 ). 

Ibn el Beitar (died 1248), an Andalusian herbist who wrote 
an authentic work on botany referred to different species of iron, 
but he added nothing to previous contribution ( 5 ). 

When Al Kalkashandi, the Egyptian encyclopedist referred 
to the Arabie sword, he mentioned that it was made of iron (saif 
anith) or Steel (saif fuladh), or else, adopting a Frankish fashion, 
of iron with a Steel edge (saif mudakkar) ( 6 7 ). 

These are the important literary sources of Islande contri¬ 
bution about iron. 


2. IRON MINES 

In the lands of the Eastern Caliphate, there were numerous 
mines of iron and other minerais which were well exploited. 
These were recorded by Mos'em geographers and historians, as 
well as by European travellers in middle âges. 

In Arabia, Bahrein, Oman, and Yemen, there was a very 
old iron industry working with local iron deposits or Steel 
imported from India, Persia and also China. At Neqem in the 
neighbourhood of Sana’a in Yemen, there existed gold and iron 
mines. During the reign of Himiar, in Yemen, excellent yemenite 
swords were made. The manufacture of weapons also flourished: 
swords, lances and cuirasses were highly prized Ç) and these 
were much quoted in early Arab poetry. 

Persia. 

The country of the largest iron output was certainly 


(4) Fr. R. Baeonls Opéra Inedita, 1859, pp. 382 - 383. 

1 V 4 I >• . «-AJI J dp loti ; La*» , t-*qî jlàj\ 
•jkUJI . \ T r »• . jÀl *»U-t : jlkJI 

(6) Kalkashandi : Sobh el-Aisha. Vol. 2., p. 132. * 

(7) Encye. of Islam, p. 1156. 


ISLAMIC SWORD MAKING IN MIDDLE AGES 287 

Persia ( 8 ). There were mines and smelting sites near Tabriz. 
The Elburz mountains hâve old mines near Rasht, and Massula 
where the inhabitants are still mainly blacksmiths. West of 
Tehran and near Kazwin, there is much haematite, to the .east 
near Firuz Kuh and on the foothills of mount Demawend there 
is haematite and linonite. 

According to Ibn Hawkai, there were in Fars iron and 
quicksilver in the hills of Istakhr ( 8 ). In the neighbourhood of 
Shahiq in Fars, according to Mustawfi, were iron mines, and 
the “Fars Namah” speaks of the excellent swords made 
there ( 10 ). To the south-east Shahiq, on the borders of Darabjird 
district, is the town of Kutruh, still a place of some importance, 
where, according to the “Fars Namah’’ there were excellent iron 
mines. 

Near both Marashmandah and Minak, there were iron 
mines, and tools made here were exported to ail parts of 
Khurasan, the Steel b.eing of excellent quality ; so that even in 
Baghdad these were much sought after (“). 

In Chorassan there were several deposits near Semendeh 
and Ilak and in Afghanistan near Juwain and Herat ( 12 ). 

Marco Polo, the Venitian traveiler, who visited many 
Asiatic countries (1270-1295), mentioned that in Kerman, there 
are also plentiful seams of Steel ( 13 ) and ondanique ( 14 ). Very 
fine large steel mirrors are manufactured there ( 15 ). Marco Polo 
reported that on the borders of the Province of Ghinghintalas 
towards the north is a mountain with an excellent vein of Steel 
and ondanique ( 16 ). 

Chevalier Chardin (1643-1713), the French traveiler in Persia 
and India, makes it quite clear that in his time the Persians 


(8) Forbes : Metallurgy in Antiquity. pp. 387,444. 

(9) Le St range : The Lands of Eastern Caliphate. p. 316. 

(10) Ibid. p. 278. 

(11) Ibid. p. 476, quoted from Ya’kubl. II, 395, 425. 

(12) Ibid. p. 387. 

(13) The Travels of Marco Polo. Broadway Travellers édition. Edited by 
Sir E. D. Ross and E. Power, p. 39. 

(14) Marco Polo used « Andanicum, Andaine, and Ondanique » as a naine 
applied for Indian watered steel. 

(15) Ibid. p. 48. : . 

(16) Ibid. p. 73. 


















288 


BULLHTIX I)E L'INSTITUT D'EGYPTE 


calied both theirs and the Indian Steel “poulad jauherder,” which 
was, as. he further explains : 

Acier ondé, acier qui a des ondes, qui est ce que nous disons 
acier de Damas pour le distinguer d’avec l’acier de l’Europe” ( 17 ). 
Further, Chardin adds : “C’est de cet aoier-là qu’ils ont fait leurs 
belles lames damasquinées.” 

The expression “ondanique” appears in a quotation from 
Idrisi the Moslem geographer (C.A.D. 1099-1154) as “hindiah” 
and found its way into Spanish in the shapes of “Alhinde,” 
“Alfinde,” “Alinde,” first with the meaning of Steel, then 
assuming, that of Steel mirror, and finally that of metallic foil 
of a glass of mirror ( ls ). 

In Transcaucasia a few ornaments of iron appear in the 
thirteenth century in the Ganda Karabeg région. In Georgia and 
Armenia iron appears in the same period ( 19 ). 

Other Moslem geographers, Yaqut (1228 A.D.) ( 20 ) and Al- 
Mukaddisi referred to the iron wealth of Sicily ; the ore was 
exported to India for making délicate instruments during the 
eight and ninth centuries. 


* 

This is on iron deposits in the lands of the Eastern Caliphate, 
but what about the useful métal in the western land of the 
Caliphate : Spain ? 

Spain had since the time of the Phoenicians had been known 
as a rich store-house of minerai wealth and was, before the dis- 
covery of the deposits outside Europe, a leading world producer 
of copper, mercury, lead and iron ore ( 21 ). Its mines contained 
in perfection ail metals applied to warlike uses of that remote 
epoch. 


(17) Voyage du Chevalier Chardin en l’erse, p. 355, Varia 1811. 

(18) Hint or Al-Hlnd ls used In Berber also for Steel. .T.R.A.S., vol. IX, 
p. 255. 

(19) Ibid. p. 449. 

(20) Yaqut is the compiler of a big geographical dictionary, which con- 
tains ail geographical naines in Alphabetical order. Yaqut : Encyc. vol. I, 
p. 201. See also Mukaddisi, p. 239 - 240. 

(21) Encyclopaedia Britannica: Edit. 1955 , p. 145. 


ISLAMIC SW OUI) MAKING IN MIDDLE AGES 


289 


The Visigoths established a powerful empire in Spain in 
the 5th Century under which the arts of ancient civilization 
were encouraged, including the iron industry. 

At about the beginning of the 8th century when the Moslems 
became masters of much of Spain, they stimulated greatly the 
manufacture oi iron. The natives who had withstood the Moors 
also, extended their Catalan forges north into France and even 
to other European countries ( 22 ). So prominent did the industry 
of Spain become, that its iron workers were sought by other 
countries. 


India and China. 


Beside the iron mines in Islamic territories, the Moslems 
used to import from India and China enough quantities of good 
iron. We are not supposed to trace the historical chronoiogy 
of iron industry in India, but it is enough to say that the Roman 
trade in Indian iron and Steel was an important one ( 23 ). The 
great centuries A.D. when the blacksmith must hâve been skilful, 
and commanded an unlimited supply of the best métal ( M ). 

India was an important iron source to Moslem countries 
without any contest in middle eges. The sword-blades ot 
médiéval India had a great réputation according to many autho- 
rities. El-Beiruni in the lOth century referred to the good quality 
of Indian iron-industry. Indian swords-finished or semi-finished 
continued to be imported into Persia till days quite recent. Edrisi 
says on this subject : “The Hindus excel in the manufacture of 
irons, and in the préparation of those ingrédients with which 
it is fused to obtain that kind of soft iron which is usually styled 
Indian Steel.” 

China. 

North-west of China was, and is still, generally rich in iron- 

(22) Goodale : Cbronology of iron and Steel, p. 28. 

(23) Steel made in India was apparently of good enough quality for 
manufacture into 100 different surgical instruments, according to medical 
writings that bave corne down to us from 400 to 300 B.C. 

(24) The Lat or iron-pillar of Delhi, India, erected about 415 A.D. shows 
high skill of iron workers at that time. It is a solid shaft of wraught iron, 
calculated to weiglit scventeen tons and to conta in eiglity cubic feet of métal. 













290 


BULLETIN DE L’INSTITUT D’EGYPTE 


oie( 5 ). That minerai was one of th,e earliest commodities 
exported from China to the West, and one of the earliest ré¬ 
férencés to its exportation from China to the Roman Orient is 
given by Piiny (died 79 A.D.) who mentions that Chinese iron 
was the best known in the Roman markets and that second to 
it came from Partia ( 26 ). 

The high réputation which the Chinese iron gained in the 
Roman markets apparently continu,ed during the Arab period. 
Ibn-Khurdathabba in the 9th century speaks of the exportation 
of the fine iron of China from the port of Luqueen or Luqin 
ancient. Cattigara, Gulf of Tong-King. Three centuries later, 
Idrisi, the Moslem geographer, mentions iron. amongst the 
exports of China ( 2< ). There is therefore some reason to think 
that the iron workshops of Damascus and other cities renowned 
in médiéval times, had made use of th,e importation of the fine 
Chinese iron, which added both to the quantity and quality o c 
the local product. of the mines in the Near East. 


3. CENTRES OF SWORD-MAKING 


a) Islamic East 

1 ) Arabia. 

In Arsbia, before Islam, Mu’tah in the land of ancient Moab, 
was famous for its swords. These were known as “al-suiof al 
mashrafieh. At the same period, the Arabs used to import 
swords from Ubullah, a little Iraqi town’on the Digla river. The 
blades of Bosra in Syria were often praised by Arab poets, as 
well as the swords of the town of Aryah. 

In Yemen, the sword industry flourished since antiquity. 


«25) O. Jance : Quelques Antiquités chinoises d’un caractère hallstattien, 
in the muséum of far Eastern Antiquities, Stockholm, Bulletin, No. 1&30, pp. 
177 - 83. 

(26) Ex omnibus autem generibus palma Serico ferro est, Piiny, Historié 
Naturalis, XXX, 14 (41), 14,5, quoted in F. Hirth, China and the Roman Orient, 
loc. eit., p. 225 - 226, footnote 2. 

(27) P.A. Jaubert : Géographie d’Drisi. Paros 1836 - 40, t. 1, p. 51. 


ISLAMIC SWORD'MAKINU IN MI DD LE AGES 


291 


This was not only because Yemen once possessed the suitable 
ore for industry, but also because the Yemenite imported enough 
quantifies of Indian Steel. The réputation of Yemenite swords 
eclipsed after the collapse of the Himiarite dynasty, just before 
the dawn of Islam. After Moslem conauests, the Arabs soon 
put their hands on centres of the swords industry in Persia, 
Syria and other places ( 2S ). 

2) Iran. 

Since antiquity, Persia had a réputation for swords-making. 
In the twelfth century, Ibn al-Balkhi notes that at Chahiq in 
Fsrs, excellent swords and other blades called Chahiqi are 
made ( 29 ). 

Al-Firdawsi, the grest P.ersian poet praised in his “Shah- 
Nameh” the excellence of Chahiqi blades. 

Kirman. 

Marco Polo on his visit to Persia, reports that in Kirman, 
the arm-smith makes ail kinds of harness for horsemen, namely 
bridles, saddl.es, swords, spurs, bows and arrows, quivers and 
other weapons after the fashion of those parts ( 30 ). 

Paulus Jovius referred to the réputation of Kirman in the 
industry of arms during the sixteenth century ; Turks used to 
buy these Kirman swords at high pric.es ( 31 ). 

Qummu 

Olearius in his voyage during the seventeenth century notes 
that the best swords he found at Qumm, and are considered the 
best in the whole country of Persia. The Steel of which they 
are made cornes from the city of Miris, four days march from 
Ispahan ( 32 ). 


(28) S.A. Huzayyin : Arabia and the Far-East. Cairo 1942., p. 200. 

(29) Le Strange : Description of the Province of Fars in Persia. London: 
Asiatic Society Monographs., No. XIV, 1912, p. 24. 

(30) The travels of Marco Polo. p. 39. 

(31) Jule’s Marco Polo. Book XIV. vol. 1. p. 89.. 

(32) Olearius : Voyage., fait en Moscovie, Tartarie et Perse. Vol. II, 
page 681. Leiden 1719. 



















292 


B U L'LÉT IN DE V INSTITUT D'EGYPTE 


Khurasan. 

In the eighteenth century, the Comte de Ferrières Sanve- 
bœuf speaks of the finest blades being made in Khurasan, and 
evidently the industry of weapons was very old there ; for in 
the tenth century, we hear of good knives being made in 
Neisabur. The comte a!so praises the sabre blades of Qazwin 
as being much better tempered even than those of Damascus ( 3S ). 


Isphan. 


Isphan in Khurasan province, the old capital of Persia, 
cannot be ignored as a chief centre of sword-making, notabîy 
from th,e 16th to the 19th century. The swords of “Assad-u-llah” 
were most probably made at Ispahan. Khwarasm also made good 
swords and likewise cuirasses and bows. Shiraz is also mentioned 
by some European travellers as a famous centre of sword- 
making. 

Anyhow, the réputation of Persian swords had been well 
established. Chardin (1643-1713) gives a very appréciative 
account of Persian swords. “Their scimitars are very well 
damasked and exceed ail that the Europeans can do, because I 
suppose our steel is not as full of veins as the Indian steel which 
they use commonly. They forge their blades cold, and therefore 
they dip them, they rub them with tallow, oil or butter to hinder 
them from breaking ; then they temper, them with vinegar and 
coperas, which being of corroding nature, shows those streaks 
or veins, which they call Damask work” ( 34 ). 

3) Egypt and Syria. 

According to médiéval historians, the Fatimides possessed 
magnificent collections of fascina ting arms in their palace-stores, 
but it is difficult to be précisé as to their provenance ; whether 
these weapons were made in Egypt or were imported from 
Persia, India or Syria. We must not forget the fact that Syria, 


(33) Comte de Ferrières - Sainvobœuf : Mémoires historiques, politiques 
et géographiques., 3782 - 89.. Vol. il, p. 9., Paris. 

(34) Sir John Ohardin's Travels in Persia. The Argon a ut Press, London 
1927, p. 270 - 71. 


ISLÀMIC S WORD MAKING IX MIDDLE AGES 


293 


namely Damascus was to Cairo an important centre of export. 
The Syrian capital was a fîourishing market for Persian and 
Indian arms, besides her own. Damascus, from the earliest times 
has been the market of the surrounding deserts. For centuries, 
the “Damascus blade” carried far afield the réputation of the 
city’s armourers. Diocletian promoted the industry, but it 
perished when Tamerlape carried off the smiths in 1401, and 
became despoiled of ail the efficient craftsmen and armourers. 

As an important sword-making centre, Damascus has been 
somewhat exaggerated, especially after Timurlane’s destruction. 
Most probably, the city was not the home of the so-called 
Damascus-steel, but a processing station from which it was 
distributed. The métal of the famous Damascus weapons was 
made at Kona Samundrum of the Hyderabad district of India, 
as early as the fifth or fourth century B.C. ( 35 ), by a fusion 
process known as wootz ( 3B ). 

When the Arabs conquered India, they carried the steel 
wootz cakes to Damascus, where a lively industry in converting 
this unique material into weapons and armour flourished. 
Unlike the Romans, the Arabs ’visited the Indian smeltries and 
saw how wootz steel was made. They carried this knowledge 
as far west as Toledo, whence it eventually spread northwards. 

Although one meets plenty of Islamic swords so-called 
Damascus blades, yet most of these belong to the 18th or 19th 
century industry — these are not at ail genuine and are not 
attributed to middle-ages manufacture. 

4) Turkey. 

The home of the Turks extends from Central Asia to Eastern 
Europe including Anatolia, Armenia, and the Caucas. Long 
before they became Moslems, the Turks had a réputation of 
being skilful weaponsmiths who worked the iron ores of the 
Altai for the Avars until their fall (552) ( 37 ). Attaining power 


(35) Goodale, S. : Chronology of ir< n and steel, p. 24. 

(.*!(>) The word wootz belongs to the telengana language of tlie soutli • 
eastern parts of Hyderabad State. It was produced bv the carburisation ol 
wrought iron in crucibles. 

(37) Forbes : Metallurgy in Antiquity. p. 444. 
















Ci * 


294 BULLETIN DE L’INSTITUT D’EGYPTE 


during the reigli of the Abbasides in Bagdad, they got in touch 
with Persian armourers ; and later with the conquest of Syria 
and Egypt (1517), the Turks transported to their new capital 
a horde of craftsmen, artists and armourers who helped to 
develop their arts. Nevertheless, the Ottomans owned their 
characteristic types of sabres : the qilij and the yatagan. In 
Anstolia, the Turks inherited the old Byzantine iron deposits 
in Eastern Asia-minor and in the Taurus mountains. There 
existed a rich wealth of iron deposits, namely in Alaia, Adana, 
Amaxia in Upper Cilicia and Galatia ( 38 ). 

b) Islamic West 

Toledo. 

Under the Moors, the manufacture of swords throve uniil 
the 15th century. Toîedo and the sword are indissolubly asso- 
ciated in the literature of arms ; it is impossible to mention the 
name of the city without recalling the unchallenged excellence 
of the blades it has given to the world. Toledo blades werè 
proverbial for their excellent tempering, and were famous as 
early as the days of the Romans ( 39 ). 

Tarik ibn Zeyad, when he took Toledo in 712 A.D., found 
amongst a profusion of crowns, jewellery, gilded armour, daggers 
and swords richly mounted, bows, lances and various arms, 
offensive and défensive. 

The sword industry of Toledo had passed under the control 
of the Arabs ; and Abdel Rahman II (822-852) regulated and 
reformed it. One of the numerous friendly passages between 
Arabs and Spaniards was marked by a gift of Toledan blades 
frpm Al-Kakkam II to Sancho, Count of Navarre (865 A.D.) ( 40 ). 

Seville. 

Seville was also noted for the excellence of its Steel blades ; 


(38) Ibid. p. 386. 

(39) Toledan blades hâve been famous for 2000 years. the « eulter tole- 
tanns » being mentioned in the « Cynegetica of Gratins » (Faliscus) during 
the first century B.C. Encyc. Brit., p. 271. 

(40) Calvert : Spanish arms and armour. p. 11-32. 


Lv 

LC 













Map of the principal sword-making centres in Middle Ages. 























ISLAMIC SWOKD M AK ING IN MIDDLE AGES 


2 95 


also Alméria, Murcia and Granada. Al-Makkari, the Andalusian 
historian, mentions that during the 12th and 13th centuries, 
Alméria was famous for the fabrication of métal vases and arms. 
Ibn Saïd the well-known traveller, writing during the 13th 
century reports that Murcia was also noted by its excellent 
industry of arms. The traveller said that Seville blades were the 
most renowned and that its watered Steel was its unique 
characteristic. 

In spite of Cordoba, being the important capital of Moslem 
Spain, yet it was never a centre of arms industry. 


Granada. 

Among the highly interesting examples of swords, during 
the 15th century, some of those tempered at Granada still exist 
in the collections of Spanish muséums. The famous sword so- 
named Boabdil sword, which went to king Ferdinand, the 
conqueror of Granada (1492) has been kept in Spain since then. 

* 

** 

In Moslem Spain, the form of th,e sword did not develop. 
It maintained its original Arab type — a straight double-edged 
blade with a down curving guard, and not like the shape in the 
Moslem East where it developped into various forms. 

A map showing the principal sword-making centres in 
Middle Ages is attached. 














A NEW SIMPLE METHOD FOR 
THE GRAVIMETRIC DETERMINATION 
OF MERCURY 

by 

T. M. SALEM 

The methods known for the gravimétrie détermination of 
mercury are limited and somewhat tedious('). In the présent 
paper a new sirop 1 e gravimétrie experimental procedure is given 
by which mercury in both the mercurous and mercuric forms 
can be easily determined gravimetrically with an accuracy not 
less than 0.2%. In this method the precipitsting agent used is. 
15% sodium succinate solution. 

The idea of this procedure originated from a previous study 
carried out by the présent author ( 3 ) on the mercury-mercuric 
oxide electrode where it was found that when using buffer solu¬ 
tion of pH values varying between 3 to 5.8, and containing 
succinic acid, a white precipitate was always formed over the red 
mercuric oxide. This precipitate was found to be a well crys¬ 
talline compound whose analysis showed that it is pure mercuric 
succinate. Allmand") from a study of the potential différence 
of the mercury-mercuric oxide electrode in sodium hydroxide 
and potassium hydroxide solutions at 18°C calculated the solu- 
bility product of mercuric oxide to be 4X10- 2S . Garrett and 
Hirschler ( J ) from their studies on the solubiiity and amphoterie 
character of mercuric oxide showed that the solubiiity of this 
oxide is 22.5X10-’ gram mol Hg/1000 grams water at 25°C, while 
El Wakkad and Salem ( 5 ) found that the solubiiity of the orange 
HgO in water is 3.47X10“' gram mol Hg/1000 ml. at 30°C. 

From the above results and the observation noticed on the 
mercury-mercuric oxide electrode, when using succinate buffer 
solution one must expect that mercuric succinate possessed lower 
solubiiity that the oxide at the corresponding pH values and 
hence its use for the gravimétrie détermination of mercury. The 
method was found to be completely satisfactory for the deter- 
fination of both mercurous and mercuric mercury in solutions 
of different concentrations. 













298 


BULLETIN DE L’INSTITUT D’EGYPTE 


EXPERIMENTAL AND RESULTS 

Préparation of the Standard Mercurous and Mercuric Solutions: 

The standard mercuric stock solution was prepared by dis- 
solving accurately weighed amount of the twice distilled mer¬ 
cury in twice distilled nitric acid and diluting to one litre in a 
volumétrie flask. From this standard stock solution other con¬ 
centrations were obtained by accurate volumétrie dilution. 

The standard mercurous stock solution was prepared from 
the purest B.D.H. mercurous nitrate of grade analar. This solu¬ 
tion was standardised with a standard solution of sodium chloride 
using 1% solution of bromo-phenol blue as an indicator ( 6 ). Other 
concentrations were obtained also by accurate volumétrie 
dilution. 

Sodium Succinate: 

The sodium succinate used in the gravimétrie method was 
the purest B.D.H. sample from which 15% solutions was pre¬ 
pared. 

Conditions of Précipitation of Mercurous and Mercuric Succlniate: 

After preliminary studies the best conditions for the quan¬ 
titative précipitation of both the mercurous and the mercuric 
succinate were found to be as follows : 

(I) The pH value of the medium from which the preci¬ 
pitate of the mercury (in both the mercurous and the mercuric 
forms) is carried out should not be less than about 1.5 and not 
more than pH 6. Thus when acidified mercurous or mercuric 
solution containing succinic acid was titrated with sodium hydro- 
xide solution and the variations in both hydrogen ion and 
mercury ion activities were foliowed with s glass electrode and 
an amalgamated platinum electrode respectively, it was found 
that the mercurous or mercuric succinate started to precipitate 
only at about pH 1.5 and at which stage a great decrease in the 
mercury ion activities was noticed. When the pH value ex- 
ceeded 6 the oxide of mercury started to precipitate. The 
optimum procedure was to add dropwise about 15% sodium 
succinate solution to the mercury solution which was slightiy 
acid to methyl orange. The addition being continued until the 
colour of methyl orange changes to yellow. For the determina- 


THE GRAVIMETRIC DETERMINATION OE MERCURY 


299 


tion of mercurous mercury the solution must be free from silver 
but lead does not interfère. In the détermination of mercuric 
mercury the solution must be free from chloride ions and ions 
of the second analytical group. The precipitate formed is left 
to settle and then filtered through a weighed G 3 Jena sintered 
glass crucible and washed several times with warm conductivity 
water. 

(II) Drying Température : When the precipitate of mer¬ 
cury succinate was dried in an electric oven, it was found that 
the optimum température range for its drying was between 
110°C-120°C. When the dried sample was heated above 160°C 
to 200°C continuous loss in weight was noticed probably by 
sublimation. Above 200°C charring of the succinate was found 
to take place. In ail our experiments the precipitat.es were dried 
at 120°C to constant weight. 

The Succinate Precipitate: 

Mercurous succinate Hg 2 C 4 H 4 0 4 is a white crystalline solid 
insoluble in cold and hot water, containing 77.52% (theoretical 
77.56%) of mercury. 

Mercuric succinate HgC 4 H 4 0 4 is also a white crystalline solid 
insoluble in cold and hot water containing 63.29% (theoretical 
63.35% of mercury). 

In table I and II are given some results obtained with the 
procedure explained before for the gravimétrie détermination of 
mercury in both the mercurous and mercuric forms : 


Table I 


Amount of 

mercurous mercury 

présent in solution 

Weight of 
precipitated 
succinate 

Amount of mercury 
found 

Error 

% 

g 

g 

g 

i 

9.8400 

12.6880 

9.8408 

+0.00 

4.9200 

6.3330 

4.9118 

—0.16 

2.4600 

3.1680 

2.4571 

—0.11 

1.9680 

2.5436 

1.9728 

+0.24 

1.2300 

1.5848 

1.2291 

—0.07 

0.6150 

1 

0.7929 

■ 

0.6149 

—0.01 




















300 


I1UGEETIN DE L'INSTITUT D'KGYI'TE 


Table II 


Amount of 
mercuric mercury 
présent in soluticn 

Weight of 
precipi.ated 
succinate 

Amount of mercury 
, found 

Error 

% 

g 

g 

t 

g 


3.9200 

6.1944 

3.9241 

+0.10 

1.9600 

3.0972 

1.9620 

+0.10 

0.9800 

1.5472 

0.9801 

+001 

0.4900 

0.7743 

0.4905 

+0.10 

0.3920 

0.6186 

0.3918 

- 0.05 

0.2450 

0.3874 

0.2454 

+0.16 


In the case of a mixture of mercury salts in both States of 
cxidation advantage was ta ken for the oxidation of the mercurous 
State to the mercuric State by heating with nitric acid. To 
ensure complété oxidation the heating was continued gently to 
dryness and the residue was digested with nitric acid and heated 
again. The total mercuric mercury was then determined by 
précipitation as mercuric succinate in the usual manner. On 
another sample of the mixture the mercuric mercury présent in 
the mixture was reduced to the mercurous State by shaking with 
metallic mercury where the reaction : 

Hg ++ + Hg = Hg, ++ (1) 

took place. The réduction was found to take place very quickly. 
The total mercurous mercury présent in the solution was then 
determined by précipitation as mercurous succinate. 

The différence between the quantity of mercury as de¬ 
termined from the mercurous succinate and the mercuric suc¬ 
cinate précipitâtes would give the mercuric mercury originally 
présent in the mixture. Substituting this amount from the total 
mercury determined from the mercuric succinate would give the 
mercurous mercury présent in the mixture. 

The following example shows in details the method of cal- 
culating the amounts of mercurous and mercuric mercury pré¬ 
sent in a solution containing 5.3833 grams of mercurous mer¬ 
cury and 0.4917 grams of mercuric mercury. Thus such a 
mixture was heated with nitric acid gently till dryness and the 
residue was digested with nitric acid several times ail the mer- 


THE GRAVIMETRIE DETERMINATION OF MERCURY 


301 


cury would be in the mercuric form, dissolving and precipitating 
as succinate in the usual manner and weighing the precipitate 
we obtained 9.7563 grams of mercuric succinate containing 
6.1806 grams of mercury. Another identical sample of the 
mixture was shaken with mercury and thus the mercuric 
mercury was reduced to the mercurous State according to 
équation (1) and the solution would be ail of mercurous mercury, 
precipitating as succinate in the usual manner 8.6002 grams of 
mercurous succinate were obtained which contains 6.6703 grams 
mercury. The différence between the quantity of mercury as 
obtained from the mercurous succinate and the mercuric suc¬ 
cinate précipitâtes which is equal to 0.4897 grams would give the 
mercury which entered during the process of shaking for the 
réduction of the mercuric mercury in the mixture according to 
équation (1). This at the same time is equal to the mercuric 
mercury originally présent in the mixture. The mercurous mer¬ 
cury originally présent in the mixture would be equal to the 
différence between the total amount of mercury obtained from 
the mercuric succinate precipitate and the mercuric- mercury 
obtained as shown before viz. 

6.1806 — 0.4897 = 5.6909 grams of mercurous mercury. 

In table III are given some results obtained with the above 
procedure for the gravimétrie détermination of mercury in case 
of a mixture of salts in both States of oxidation. 


Table III 


Amount of 

Hg 2 ++/Hg 

présent in 

mixture 

Amount of 

Hg+ + /Hg 

présent in 

mixture 

"3 O 

S | X 

S a H, 
* 

<*4 

° u O 

Ifÿ 
î "■£ 

*8 £ 

•55 TJ 

g + fi 

3 4 - 3 

2 « o 

S o> 

< w 

Error 

% 

'o 

~ ? Tl 

§ + § 
2+o 

g tp ^ 

< K 

Error 

% 

g 

g 

g 

g 

g 


g 


5,6833 

0.4917 

8.6002 

9.7563 

3.6909 

+0.13 

0.4897 

—0.40 

2.8416 

0.2458 

4.2983 

4.8447 

2.8447 

+0.10 

0.2445 

—0.52 

0.5683 

0.0491 

0.8602 

0.9759 

0.5692 

+0.15 

0.0490 

—0.20 

0.3788 

0.0983 

0.7386 

0.7517 

0.3796 

+0.21 

0.0966 

—0.17 


From the above results it is clear that the new procedure 
given for the gravimétrie détermination of mercury is com- 
pletely satisfactory for the détermination of mercurous and 
mercuric ions whether they are présent each alone or in mixture. 






































302 


BULLETIN DE L’INSTITUT D’EGYPTE 


REFERENCES 

1. Vogel, A.I.: “Quantitative Inorganic Analysis Theory and 
Practical.” 1951, page 423. 

2. El Wakkad and Salem : J. Physical anH Cooloid Chem. 1950, 

54, 1371. 

3. Allmand, A.J.: Zeitsch. Elektrochem. 1910, 16, 254. 

4. Garret and Hirschler : J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 1938, 60, 299. 

5. El Wakkad and Salem : in course of publication. 

6. Vogel, AJ.. Ibid, page 253. 

7. Marcip : Bull. Soc. Chem. Belg. 1928, 37, 241. 

8. Garret and Howell : J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 1939, 61, 1730. 

! 


! 



! 



LE SYSTEME PONDERAL ISLAMIQUE 
DIT « KEBIR » O 

par 

MARCEL JUNGFLEISCH 


En 1926, feu l’antiquaire Raphaël Blanchard nous avait fait 
cadeau d’un poids en verre qui p:r sa forme et sa légende sor¬ 
tait de l’ordinaire mais dont une cassure malencontreuse sem¬ 
blait diminuer l’intérêt au point de vue métrologique. Il l’avait 
acquis de colporteurs d’.el Lahoun (province du Fayoum, Moyen¬ 
ne-Egypte) mais sans pouvoir en obtenir aucune précision sur 
l’origine réelle de l’objet. 

Ce poids présente grossièrement la forme d’un bouchon 
cylindrique, étranglé au milieu et renflé à ses deux extrémités. 
Celle du haut a environ 30 millimètres de diamètre et porte une 
inscription à sa face supérieure ; plus large, celle du bas atteint 
environ 33 millimètres de diamètre mais est entamée par l’en¬ 
lèvement d’un fort éclat, accident qui d’après l’aspect net et 
brillant de la cassure, serait récent (coup de pioche lors de la 
trouvaille ? ). Le diamètre est réduit à 27 millimètres environ 
sur l’étranglement médian du bouchon. La hauteur totale n’est 
pas uniforme, elle varie entre 25 et 28 millimètres suivant les 
endroits, Les deux extrémités n’étant pas parallèles entre elles. 

Le verre est d’une belle couleur vert émeraude, il est trans¬ 
lucide et contient de nombreuses petites bulles. Il st légèrement 
patiné et terni en surface ; la cassure est lisse, à bords coupants. 

L’empreinte ne comporte aucun autre entourage que le 
cordon produit par la pression du cachet sur le verre chaud. La 
légende est répartie sur quatre lignes horizontales régulièrement 
espacées. 


Okiyeh 
exacte par 
moi Saleh 
ben Moslem[eh] 


ù —'jj 

A - : 3 j 

J* 

J* J j 

(w 


ci 

aJLmm* y 


(1) Communication présentée en séance (lu (\ février 1906. 










BULLETIN DE L’INSTITUT D'EGYPTE 


304 


Il existe un défaut du verre juste sur les dernières lettres 
de 4_JL- et la lecture reste incertaine entre r l et 

Nous ne savons rien de précis au sujet de ce Sal.eh ben 
Moslemeh, cas fréquent pour de nombreux autres intendants des 
finances abbassides du Ile / Ille siècle de l’hégire à propos des¬ 
quels nous dépendons presque uniquement des découvertes for¬ 
tuites faites par les arabisants dans les papyrus. 

Le poids actuel est de 37, 16 grammes après multilation, 
c’est-à-dire qu’il est notablement trop fort pour une okiyeh ordi¬ 
naire. Il s’agit présentement d’une okiyeh plus lourde que 
l’okiyeh commune ce qui augmente beaucoup l’intérêt qu’il y 
aurait à déterminer le poids tout au moins approximatif qu’elle 
pesait lorsqu’elle était intacte. Or ceci fut relativement facile avec 
un peu de soin et de patience. 

11 nous a d’abord fallu connaître la densité de ce verre. 
Après l’avoir bien brossé, nous l’avons frotté avec un chiffon 
gras pour qu’il ne mouille pas et nous l’avons mis dans un vase, 
gradué que nous avons rempli d’eau à 15°C. jusqu’au repère. 
Nous avons retiré l’objet de l’eau avec un fil fin graissé puis au 
moyen d’une burette de Mohr nous avons rempli d’eau à 15°C. 
jusqu’au même repère ce qui a nécessité 15,7 centimètres cube? 
d’eau (chiffre moyen établi par plusieurs essais répétés). Le vo¬ 
lume actuel du poids v = 15,7, son poids p = 37,16, nous obte- 
P 37 16 

nons — =-= 2,37 pour sa densité spécifique. Bien qu’ob- 

v 15 7 

tenue sans balance hydrostatique (laquelle aurait été plus pré¬ 
cise) cette valeur est cependant très proche de la réalité, elle 
est fort admissible vu la consistance de ce verre et sa nature 
bulleuse. 

Nous avons ensuite confectionné une pâte en pétrissant une 
partie de plastiline à modeler avec deux parties de cire d’abeille 
tiède et nous l’avons employée pour remplacer l’éclat manquant 
en complétant l’objet avec assez d’exactitude grâce aux courbes 
régulières de sa forme générale. Ce mastiquage mis sous un filet 
d’eau glacée est devenu assez solide, pour être détaché et manié 
sans se briser. Son volume v’ a été déterminé par la même mé¬ 
thode du vase gradué et de la burette de Mohr, il est de 4,5 cen¬ 
timètres cubes. En supposant que le verre de tout le poids avait 
une densité uniforme, l’éclat perdu pesait donc v’ X d = 4,5 X 
2,37 = 10,66 grammes. Le poids intact devait peser 37,16 gr. X 


LE SYSTEME PONDERAL ISLAMIQUE DIT « KEPI U » 


305 


10,66 gr. — 47,82 grammes. Bien entendu, cette reconstitution 
ne saurait nous donner un chiffre exact au centigramme, ni 
même au décigramme près mais il y a toutefois lieu de supposer 
que l’erreur possible est inférieure à un demi gramme et que 
ce poids au sortir de l’ajustage était fort voisin de 47J grammes, 
chiffre dont nous ferons état dans les considérations qui vont 
suivre. 

D’après le tableau de Sauvaire (matériaux pour l’étude de 
la numismatique et de la métrologie musulmanes. Journal asia¬ 
tique, 8e série, tome IV, 1884, p. 303), ce poids aurait été plus 
lourd que les okigehs de Melilah (Maghreb) et d’Alayah (Asie 
Mineure) pesant 46,347 grammes et plus léger que l’okigeh 
Layty (51,496 2/3 gr.). Malgré le peu d’écart entre ces gran¬ 
deurs et malgré la réserve qu’elles ne correspondent qu’à des 
valeurs théoriques, il nous semble difficile d’attribuer à ces 
systèmes, l’un maghrébin, l’autre asiatique et peut-être assez 
tardifs, un poids que tout nous porte à croire égyptien et datable 
entre 150 et 250 de l’hégire. 

Cette okigeh forte relèverait plutôt d’un autre système pon¬ 
déral particulier à l’Egypte et qui y coexistait avec le système 
courant. Toutefois, il en différait d’une façon assez manifeste 
pour qu’à l’usage les poids des deux séries ne puissent être con¬ 
fondus même s’ils n’étaient pas distingués par des désignations 
spéciales, tout comme nous le constatons encore de nos jours 
pour les unités « avoir du poids » en Angleterre. 

Or, il se trouve que ce système pondéral avait un nom dont 
il nous a été conservé la trace. Il s’appelait le système « Kébir » 
d’après des fragments de ratls et d’okiyehs qui portent les dési¬ 
gnations explicites jt-TJLj . juTUj ,et dont quelques uns — 
malheureusement incomplets — existent dans les principales 
collections. (Relevé en annexe). C’est à en retrouver les diffé¬ 
rentes valeurs plus ou moins intactes que doivent désormais 
tendre nos efforts vers l’élucidation d’un chapitre important de 
la métrologie islamique. Il est dès maintenant possible d’en 
conjecturer l’origine. Suivant Decourdemanche (Etude métro- 
logique et numismatique sur les metgals et les dirhems arabes), 
la réforme d’Abdel Malek ben Merouane avait aboli l’ancien 
dirhem de la régularisation d’Omar (3,96 2/3 gr.) en tant qu’unité 
monétaire seulement. Cette abolition limitée à la constitution de 
la nouvelle monnaie n’aurait pas suffi à supprimer tout à fait 














306 


BULLETIN DE L’INSTITUT D’EGYPTE 


l’ancienne drachme qui, par routine, aurait continué d’exister 
comme poids commercial. Or 3,96 2/3 X 12 = 47 gr. 60 okigeh 
commerciale qui serait précisément du même ordre de grandeur 
que les 47 £ gr. de la présente reconstitution. Nous devons donc 
logiquement nous attendre à rencontrer un jour à venir quelque 
bloc de verre intact pesant à peu près 570 grammes : le ratl 
Kebir. Il est d’ailleurs possible que ce système, lui aussi, ait 
comporté deux séries de valeurs, les unes un peu plus lourdes 
pour acheter, les autres un peu plus légères destinées à vendre, 
suivant une coutume traditionnelle en Orient. 


ANNEXE 

poids portant explicitement la dési 


Liste des fragments de 
gnation de « Kébir ». 

Dates Sortes 

165/167 H. 1 ratl 

? 1 ratl 

2 ratl 
h ratl 
£ ratl 
i ratl 
i ratl 
i ratl 

1 ratl 
okiyeh 

2 okiyeh 
2 okiyeh 


Références 

Catalogues 

n° 44 - p. 390 

Casanova 

n os 58/59 - p. 393 

- id — 

n° 23 - p. 388 

— id — 

ti° 60 - p. 293 

- id — 

n° 34T - p. 27 

S. Lane Pode 

n° 22 - p. 388 

Casanova 

n° 288 - p. 19 

F. Petrie 

n° 210 - p. 19 

— id — 

n° 216 - p. 20 

— id — 

n° 251 - p. 21 

— id — 

n° 252 - p. 21 

— id — 

n° 116 - p. 139 

Miles 

non publié 

Tungfleisch 


? 


anonyme 
165/167 H 
165/167 H, 
175 H. 
Soliman 
anonyme 
— id — 
188 H. 
186/187 H. 


COMPARISON TESTS OF EFFECTIVENESS 
OF BASIC SETS OF POLYNOMIALS ( l ) 

by 

M. MURS! and A.G. TANTAWI 

1. Let pn (z) — pni Z' 

be a set of polynomials such that any polynomial can be expres- 
sed in one and only one way as a finite linear combination of 
the polynomials of the set. Such a set is called a basic set of 
polynomials. The coefficients p n ; form an infinité matrix P 

and it has been shown that jp^ ( z tj will be basic if and only if 
the matrix P has a row-finite reciprocal matrix fl, i.e. if there 
exists a row-finite matrix II such that 

pn = I and np = I 

weher I is the unit matrix. 

2. Let f(z) = I a „ z n be a function regulra in | 2 | < R # This 
can be looked upon as an expression of the function i(z) in 
terms of the polynomials : 

1 , z . z v , z 3 , • • -. z n , •••• 

But these last polynomials can be expressed in terms of the 
polynomials of any basic set j p „ ( z j in the form 

z" = Zj n ni pi (z) (1) 

If in the expression f (z) = I a „ z” we replace z" by its value 
given by (1) and rearrange the terms we get 

I n, Ko) Pi (z) «2) 

where 

Pli l(o) = 2" a" fini (3) 

The sériés (2) is called the basic sériés of the function f (z) 
associated with the basic set j p n ( z ) j Sériés (2) is only a formai 

expression of the function in terms of the polynomials j p „ ( z ) ■ 

and it is only in very spécial cases that the sériés converges and 
its sum is f(z). 


(-) Communication présentée en séance du 3 mars 1956. 









308 


BULLETIN I)E L’INSTITUT D’EGYl'TE 


If the function f(z) is regular in a domuin D and if the 
basic sériés (2) converges to f(z) uniformly in D we say that 
the basic sériés represents f(z) in D. 

Définition 1. — If the basic sériés (2) represents in (z) <; R. 
every function regular in (z) <R then we say that the basic 
sériés is effective in (z) <; R. 


3. Let 

and 

polynomials I 
set. Write 


and 


P n (z) = 2 p nj Zm* be any basic set, 

z" — I rr ni p f (z) be the expression of the 

n 


Z , z ! , z n , in terms of the polynomials of this 
Fn (z) = i n n < f! (z) 


st st 

Fn (R) = m;,X | f n (z) I 
131 - K 

st 

Fn (R) — inax F„ (R) 


7 4 


K R = L i m 


Fn (R) ( 


(4) 


It has been shown that if for some R, 

K (R) = R 

Then the set will be effective in (z) <ü R. 

If the set | p n ( z ) I is a simple set the degree of p (3) is exactly 
then we can calculate K (R) in another way by putting 


M = m?x ( P n (z) ] 

4 131 : R 

W(R)= 2 [n„,| Mi (Ri 

4 i 

_ 74 

and K (R) = Lim j w„ (R) j (5) 

n -> m ( ' 

The order and type of a basic set in the circle(z) 5" R are defined 


by 



Log Fn ^R) 


F (R) : 

Lim 

nL.UjJn 

(6) 

and 



74 1 



O (R) : 

e 

F(R) 

i , . 1 Fn - R)1 ) F (R) 

\ L n m F (R) S 

(7) 


n 


(o < F (R) < oc). 


BASIC SETS OF POLl'NOBIALS 


309 

The représentation of any function by means of a basic set 
dépends on the magnitude of K (R) as well as the order F(R) 
and the type O (R) of the set and it has been so far customary 

to calculate these function for any basic set |p„ (2 )| to show 
whether this set is effective in a domain or not. 

4. In the présent paper we shall establish some theorems 
from which we can know whether a basic set is effective or not 
by comparing it with a known basic set. The method followed 
is suggested by the ordinary theory of infinité sériés. We shall 
also discuss a class of basic sets which will be used for 
comparison. 

Définition 2. — Let | Pn ( z )j and jp n ( z )j be two basic sets 
and let 

K R\ F (R), O (Ri 
ard K (R), “(R), Ô(R) 

be the functions defined above for these sets respectively. If 
for ail R > o 

K R) = K(R) 

F (R) = F (R) 

47R) = 3>(R) 

then the two sets are said to be équivalent. 

Définition 3. — 

K (R) = < K (R) 
or F(R. = <F(R) 

then the first set jp n ( z )| is said to be stronger than the second 
set | p n ( z )j and we dénoté this by 

Pn (z) ~~~ l Pn (Zi- 

We prove the following theorems : 

Theorem 1. — If the two sets j Pn ( z )|, | ~ n (z | are such that 

Pn (z) = Pn (z) 

for ail large n then the two sets are équivalent. 


















310 


BULLETIN DE L’INSTITUT D’EGYPTE 


For let p n (z) = p„ (z) for ail n > N, express p o tz), Pi (z), 

p N (z) in terms of the polynomials “ o ( z ), Pl (z)-., p N ^ (z> and 

let N =Max (N t , N 2 ) We thus hâve p n (z) = I, a ui p. (zl 
o < \] < N 

p n (z' = p n (z) for ail n > N 
Hence z n = Z tt„, Pt ( z ) 

N 

— z„ n ni z ai; p. ( z ) + z n ni p, ( Z i 

i > N 

N N _ 

= Z I Z TT a ) p (Z) + Z rr p ( Z ) (8) 

J : v i : o ni Ij j i > N ni i 

But | p n (z) | is basic and hence 

Z = Z tt p (z) (9) 

ni i 

From (8) and (9 we hâve 

tT = Z -n- a for i < N 

and tt' = tt for ail i > N 

Hence if n - N 

P (zl = Z TT p (z) 

n i s - 


N N ^ t 


= z ( Z 

i - s j - o 

^nj 

a ü ) Pi (z) 

+ 

Z TT„i p. (z) 
Î=:N+I 

N 

N 


N 

st 

= Z 1T nj 

j - « 

I 

i - s 

Oji Pi 1 z) — 

Z 

i - s 

n„i Pi <z) + fn (z) 


On the other hand if n > N 
l st (z) = t s ‘ (zi 

n n 


In either case we hâve on taking modulii 


F 8t (R) L K (N) + F s * (R) 

n n 

and hence F n (R) s K* (N) + F n (R) 


BASIC SJ3TS OF POLYNOBIALS 


311 


giving K (R) < K (R) 

and F(R) s F (R) 


which proves that jp n (z)| is stronger than or équivalent to 

| p n (z) j In the same way we prove that j p n (zi j is stronger 

than or équivalent to j p„ (zl j Hence the two sets are équivalent. 

Définition 4. — If the nth polynomial of the simple set 
p n ( z . | can be put in the form 

P„ ( z ' “ - 1 'V z * + z " 

or in the form 1 i 

Pn (z) = - 1 Pni z ' + z "‘ 

wehere p ni > o for ail i < n and ail n , we say that j Pu ( z ) J 
is a set of positive terms. 

Theorem 2. — Let j p n (z) j be a simple set of positive terms 
which can be put in the form 


P„ (z) = - 1 Pni Z ‘ + Z “ ’ Pni > ° 
and let j p n (z) j be any other simple set which can be put in 

the form 


Pn ' Z) “ 


A-l 

Z 


Pni 


+ Z + Z 


If 

i 

Î P » 


(z)| 


f Pni I S | P„i J for a11 large n an<i a H 
is stronger than or équivalent to j P n (z) J 


i < n 


then 


Proof. Let 

z = Z IT p (z) = Z TT p (z) 

î n i î i u i i 

Hence TT = TT = I 

ro CK» 

We can prove by induction that 

| TT tt i J < fl T* a \fl fo ; ail i « n and ail n 












312 


BULLETIN DE L’INSTITUT D’EGYPTE 


But M„(R) 2 i I P„| I R 2 2 IpJr' s 2 M (R) 

i: ° i:o i ; o 

by Canchy’s inequality 
Hence 


M tt (R) < (n + l) M n (R) * for ail n. 

Hence W n (R) = 2 K,l M, »R. 

2 2 ”,u (\ + \) M| (R) 

2 (n + 1) 2 T^i Ml (R) 

= (n-rl) w„ (R) 

Which gives K (R) 2 MR) 
and F (R) 2 F (R) 

Corollary. Let 

n : l i n 

p (z) = 2 P z + z 

n i : © ni 

Where the coefficients p . are completely arbitrary and if we put 
Pn <z) = - 2 |p n . J z + z 

then the set j p ( 2 ) i is stronger than or équivalent to the set 
j P h (z) | If the set j p ^ z ) | is effective for some value of R we 
say that j p ( z ) j is absolutely effective there. 

' n J 

5. A Compavison set. — Finally we give the following set 
which may be used for comparison : 

Po (z) = I 

n-I 

p n (z) ~ - 2 a„ bi -rr- z T + z n (1) 

i-o Ci 


where Cn > o , a„ > o , br > o 

For this set we hâve 

p (z) = — 2 a h C, ' +t z ‘ + «H-i 
n+i n i I i Ci 


-[ 


Pn 'Z'-Z" 


a i. + t Cn+i 
«n Cn 


C+m n n+i 
a n+i b n Z + z 

Cn 


Giving z 


n+L 


q n+i Cn+i 
a n Cn 


( i + a n 


bn ) Z n 


Cn +‘ p (z) + p (z) 

a n Cn n n + l 


BASIC SETS OP POLYNOBIALS 


313 


Hence 


1 = P 0 (z) 

z = a , b o Po <z) + Pc (z) 


and in general 


Q 

z" = 2 An-,, i a., bi TT Pî (z) + p„ z) 

i - o M 

where A n n = I 


and A t ii (l-j-a a bn-i) • •• (f + a b ) 

i+i i+i 

n + l Cn 

Thus Mu tl\) < ^ ^n-i,i a n bi r R' + R 11 s (n + d Mu (R) 

î.o 

n-i r i-i Q 

W„ ' R) < Z ^n*i,i a n bj — ^ bs p“ R S +R' 


and 


givmg 


Cî 

n t ç 

+ ^ a n b,- pr R 1 + R n 5 (n + i) va u R) 

i:o v- 


Wn (R) 2 Z cr n Cn 


" l bs 

2 An-c.s — R S 

s:o C s 


+ R n 


2 (n + i) Wn (R) 

Thus can deduce the following theorem. 

Theorem 3. — If in the above comparison set of positive 
etrms we hâve 

_ V* _ V 

Lm a„ = a , Lm b M = b 

_ _ V, 

Lm 1 + «n bn =1. Lin Cn = k 

» B 


Then the set is of increase 

ordcr 2 B + v and Type 1 ( la ke” ) 

B+ v 

For them we hâve 

A„i 2 ( 1+t ) (jlL) v 


I 

n+v 


- » n n n un » n 

and w n (R) < Kn (a + t) (k + t) (l + t) n ni + R 


giving the result stated. 

REFERENCE 

Sériés of Polynomials by J.M. Whittaker (Cairo University 
Press). 
























COMPOSITION DE LA COMMISSION 
DES SCIENCES ET ARTS D’EGYPTE ( ) 


par 

JEAN-EDOUARD GOBY 

En 1798 Bonaparte se fit accompagner en Egypte par des 
civils, distincts de ceux des Administrations dont, avant le dé¬ 
part, l’ensemble fut désigné par l’expression : « savants et artis¬ 
tes attachés à l’Armée d’Angleterre » ( 1 2 ). Après le débarquement, 
ces divers personnages furent réunis dans un organisme parti¬ 
culier auquel on donna le nom de « Commission des Sciences 
et Arts » ( 3 4 ). Le groupement, dont les membres devaient jouer 
un rôle capital dans l’histoire scientifique de l’Expédition, a fait 
l’objet d’études fort nombreuses. Pourtant en dépit des travaux 
de nos devanciers, certains points restent encore obscurs ou 
confus en la matière et il est en particulier possible d’apporter 
des lumières nouvelles sur la composition quantitative et quali¬ 
tative de l’organisme. C’est ce que nous avons tenté de faire en 
utilisant en même temps que les travaux imprimés bien 
connus ('), des sources manuscrites presque toutes ignorées des 


(1) Communication présentée en séance le 5 décembre 1955. 

(2) On sait que le but véritable de l’Expédition ne fut dévoilé au* 
participants que lorsque la flotte française eut quitté Malte. 

(3) Nous avons indiqué précédemment que le nom de et Commission 
des Sciences et Arts» fut proposé par Costaz (Bull. Inst. Egypte, t. XXXV. 
p. 81. Il est fait d’autre part une allusion précise à la création en Egypte de 
la Commission d«ins un Ordre du Jour de Kléber en date du 29 fructidor an 
VII (Cf. Ordres du Jour de ce général). 

(4) Nous avons renoncé à donner dans les notes qui suivent des indi¬ 
cations bibliographiques complètes. On pourra se reporter à la Bibliographie 
de Munier terminant les Tables de la Description de VEgypte et à une com¬ 
munication antérieure (Bull. Inst. Egypte, t. XXXIII, p. 305-322). Nous 
employerons plus loin les abréviations suivantes : 

BIE Bulletin de l'Institut d’Egypte (moderne). 

CE Courrier de l’Egypte. 

CHE Cahiers d’Histoire égyptienne. 

CJV Correspondance de Napoléon (Edition Plon). 

EEJ L’Expédition d’Egypte, de La Tonquière. 






316 


BULLETIN I)E L'INSTITUT D’EGYPTE 


spécialistes jusqu’à ce jour( * * * * 5 * ). 

Il convient évidemment de distinguer la Commission des 
Sciences et Arts d’une part de la Société savante recrutée par 
cooptation que fut le premier Institut d’Egypte C), d’autre part 
de la Commission de publication de la Description de VEgypte 
formée en France à la suite du décret du 17 pluviôse en X (6 fé¬ 
vrier 1802) ( 7 ). L’organisme dont nous nous occuperons groupa 
des personnages très divers, les uns illustres, les autres fort 
obscurs et dont les noms ne sont pas tout à fait oubliés aujour¬ 
d’hui, uniquement parce qu’ils voisinaient avec ceux des pre¬ 
miers. En dehors de la répartition des membres en dix classes 
d’émoluments ( 8 ), il n’a, à notre connaissance, jamais été pris de 
décision officielle relative à la Commission et aux personnes qui 
la composaient. D’autre part la diversité des qualités, des pro¬ 
fessions, des âges des membres du groupement ne permet pas de 
leur donner une définition commune. Par suite, on peut cire 
que sauf erreur matérielle évidente, la définition de la Commis¬ 
sion résulte uniquement de rinscription sur les listes officielles 
de l’époque, d’un certain nombre de personnages. Il est donc 


H BV Histoire et bibliographie critique, de Gnémnrd. 

H8M Histoire scientifique et militaire de Revbaud. 

J1 Journal d’un Ingénieur, de Jollois. 

JS Journal et souvenirs, de VilViers du Terrage. 

LEE Lettres écrites d’Egypte, de Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire. 

(Sauf indication contraire expresse, les chiffres romains indiquent des tomes 
et les chiffres arabes renvoient à des pages). 

(5) A l’exception des Carnets Je ReJoute, ces documents manuscrits 
sont conservés aux Archives de la Guerre, à Vincennes, aux Archives Natio¬ 
nales et à la Bibliothèque Nationale de France, à Paris. 

Nous userons des abréviations suivantes : 

AGV Archives du Dépôt de la Guerre, à Vincennes. 

AN F Archives Nationales de France, h Paris. 

CMR Carnets manuscrits de Redouté (Cf. BfE, XXX. 77-01). 

A AF Manuscrits du fonds des Nouvelles acquisitions françaises, Dé¬ 
partement des Manuscrits de Ta Bibliothèque Nationale, à Paris. 

(<>) Sur la composition du premier Institut d’Egypte, Cf. BÎE XXIX. 
345-367 et XXX. 81-09. 

(7) Sur cette commission et ses travaux, on consultera surtout les 

manuscrits de la Bibliothèque Nationale (NAF, Nos. 3.577 -3.587, 21.934 - 

21.992, 22.815 - 23.818). 

(8) ON, V, No. 3.480. . 


LA OOMMïKSION--I>E& -SCIENCES ET ARTS D’EGYPTE 


317 


essentiel de rechercher ces listes puis d’en faire une étude cri¬ 
tique et comparative. 

Dès le 6 germinal an VI (26 mars 1798) Bonaparte commu¬ 
niquait au Ministre de l’Intérieur et à celui des Relations exté¬ 
rieures vingt-six noms de savants et d’artistes qu’il désirait em¬ 
mener avec lui ( lJ ). Un peu plus tard, à une date antérieure au 
4 floréal, était dressée une liste, actuellement conservée aux 
Archives Nationales ( 1 ü ), comprenant 124 noms répartis en seize 
sections d’importance variable (“). Sur ces 124 personnes, un 
assez grand nombre ne quittèrent pas la France. En revanche, 
de nombreux membres de la future commission ne sont pas 
inscrits sur la liste des Archives. Enfin la répartition en sections 
peut être critiquée car certaines renfermaient des éléments fort 
divers. C’est ainsi que sur les 14 membres de la Section de 
« Mécanique », l’on trouvait un « savant », Gaspard Monge ; un 
aérostier Conté ; deux élèves de l’Ecole polytechnique, Favier 
et Dubois et enfin des « artistes mécaniciens » que l’on nomme¬ 
rait aujourd’hui des « agents de maîtrise ». Ce cas, particulière¬ 
ment caractéristique, est loin d’être unique. Pourtant, malgré 
ses imperfections, cette liste fut largement diffusée et utilisée à 
l’époque de l’Expédition et plus tard par les auteurs qui pu¬ 
blièrent des listes nominatives de l’organisme. Il n’est que de 
confronter la Liste des Archives avec celles données par Laus 
de BoissyC 2 ), Herbin de Halle ( 13 , Bourrienne ( u ) et Norry ( 15 ) 


(9) CX, IV, Nos. 

2.452 - 

2.454 et EEJ. 

I, 245 

i - 24G. 


(10) AXE, Carton 

Fl TA 

1.100, Dossier 

No. 

5. La liste est conservée 

en deux exemplaires. 






(Il) Les noms et 

la composition numérique 

des 

sections étaient les 

suivants : 






Géométrie 

7 

Botanique 


5 

Dessin 3 

Astronomie 

4 

Zoologie 


5 

Génie Civil 18 

Mécanique 

14 

Chirurgie 


G 

Géographie 10 

Horlogerie 

13 

Pharmacie 


3 

Imprimerie 22 

Chimie 

7 

Antiquités 


3 


Minéralogie 

5 

Architecture 


3 


(12) Bonaparte au 

Caire, 

211 - 212. 





(13) Conquête Jes Français en Egypte, 351 -352. 

(14) Mémoires , Edit. 1829, t. II, 381 - 282. 

(15) Relation cle VExpéJition J'Egypte, 58-59 









318 


BULLETIN DE L’INSTITUT D’EGYPTE 


pour s'en convaincre ( 16 ). Plus tard Martin ( 17 ) et Reybaud ( 18 ), 
conservèrent les grandes lignes ,et laissèrent subsister certaines 
erreurs. 

C’est pourquoi il convenait de rechercher d’autres docu¬ 
ments ; c’est ainsi que nous avons eu l’idée de nous reporter 
aux listes de passagers des bâtiments de l’escadre ayant trans¬ 
porté l’Armée d’Orient de France en Egypte ainsi qu’aux états 
comptables dressés en Egypte même, en vue de payer les mem¬ 
bres de la Commission. 

On a conservé à Vincennes ( 19 ) les listes nominatives des 
passagers de dix vaisseaux, établies avant le départ de 
Toulon ( 2Ü ). Redouté nous a laissé les noms de s,es compagnons 
à bord de La Diane ( 21 ). Ces diverses listes, dans lesquelles les 


(16) La première liste -1*24 noms - reproduit à deux modifications près 
concernant Say et Mollard la liste des Archives. La seconde -119 noms - est 
la copie de la première, sauf en ce qui concerne certains imprimeurs. La 
troisième reproduit textuellement la seconde. En revanche, Norry a apporté 
un certain nombre de corrections judicieuses bien que sa liste de 117 noms 
renferme encore de nombreuses inexactitudes. 

(17) L’Ingénieur P.D. Martin, issu de l’Ecole des Ponts et Chaussées 
de Toulouse qui prit part à l’Expédition n’appartint pas à la Commission 
des Sciences et Arts en 1798. Il publia en 1815 une Histoire de l’Expédition 
française en Egypte renfermant une liste de 103 membres dont 3 imprimeurs 
seulement (I, 144 - 145). 

(18) Reybaud a dressé une liste de 115 noms sur lesquels 5 d’imprimeurs 
(HSM, III, 51-53). 

(19) Carton B 6 187. 

(20) Ces listes sont les suivantes : L’Aquilon : J.M. Le Père, Nouet. 
Quenot, Méchain, G.Le Père, Chabrol, H. Le Père, Lenoir. — Le Conquérant : 
Girard, Coutelle, Le Noble, Duval, Saint-Genis, Monine, Duclianoy. — Le 
Franklin : Fourier, Norry, Conté, J.B. Lepère, Parseval, Gloutier, Devilliers, 
Ripault, Panhusen, Cécile, Fouquet, Fuseau. — Le Généreux : Testevuide, 
Jacotin, Simonel, Bertre, Corabœuf, Pottier, Laroche, Dulion, E.F. Jomard, 
Lecesne. — Le Guerrier : J.B. Jomard, Fèvre, Jollois, Lancret, Protain, 
Demoulain, Protal. — Le Guillaume Tell : Costaz, Coraneez, Alibert, Caristie, 
Joly. — Le Peuple Souverain : Pourlier. — Le Spartiate : J.P. Champy, N. 
Champy, Charbaud, Favier, Piquet, Viard, Vincent, Le Brun. — Le Thimoléon : 
Bodard, Faye, Thévenod, Arnollet, Moret. — Le Tonnant : Dolomieu, Cordier, 
Descotils, Rozière, Dupuis, Cordier, Coquebert, Gérald, Dubois (Aymé). 

(21) Redouté (CMR, I, 32) a donné les noms suivants : Passagers : Dabu- 
ron, chirurgien; Plane, pharmacien; Blanc, inspecteur des Lazarets. — 
Membres de la Commission : Rigo. Nec-toux, Delile, Raffeneau, Redouté. 


LA COMMISSION DES SCIENCES ET ARTS D’EGYPTE 


319 


noms des personnages cités sont suivis de leurs qualités ( 22 ) sont 
intéressantes par leur réunion et aussi séparément car elles don¬ 
nent certains renseignements sur les qualités et les affinités qui 
pouvaient réunir et unir les groupes de passagers. C’est ainsi 
que sur Le Généreux avaient pris place les trois ingénieurs géo¬ 
graphes venus du Cadastre de la Corse et les sept élèves-géogra¬ 
phes anciens polytechniciens. L’on trouve les trois astronomes 
sur L’Aquilon ,et les ingénieurs des Mines sur Le Tonnant. C’esc 
pourquoi, nous regrettons vivement de ne pas posséder les 
listes relatives à tous les bâtiments ( 23 ). 

La Comptabilité de l’Armée d’Egypte, déposée après l’Expé¬ 
dition à la Cour des Comptes, fut brûlée en 1871 pendant la 
Commune. Mais fort heureusement, Edme-François Jomard avait 
eu l’idée de demander en 1825 au Greffe de la Cour copie de 
plusieurs des Pièces produites par Estève, ancien trésorier de 
l’Armée d’Orient, à l’appui de son compte pour les exercices des 
ans VI et VII. Ce sont des états de sommes dues nominative¬ 
ment pour divers mois aux « membres et employés » de la Com¬ 
mission. Ces documents constituent donc des listes officielles des 
membres de l’organisme. Le premier état, de 135 noms, ,est re¬ 
latif aux mois de floréal et messidor an VI ( 2i ) et le second, de 
151 noms, au mois de prairial de la même année (*"). Dans le 
premier état, les membres sont répartis dans les dix classes men¬ 
tionnées précédemment. Dans le second, les membres rangés par 
qualités, ceux appartenant à l’Institut d’Egypte figurant en tête, 
ce qui prouve évidemment que la liste a été établie a poste¬ 
riori ( 26 ). L’état relatif au mois de messidor an VII ( 2< ) comporte 

(22) Pour ne pas trop alourdir les notes de ce mémoire, nous n’avons 
pas reproduit les qualités des passagers des vaisseaux. 

(23) Nous n’avons pas retrouvé les listes relatives à L’Alceste, à L Heu¬ 
reux, à L’Orient, au Causse, et au Dubois non plus que celles concernant les 
frégates autres que La Diane. Nous savons du moins que Berthollet et, à 
partir de Malte, Monge, se trouvaient sur I/Orient, que Geoffroy Saint-Hi¬ 
laire était passager de L’Alceste (LEE, 27) tandis que Savigny était sur Le 
frubois (Ibid., 31). 

(24) N AF, No. 21.950, Fos. 81 - 85. 

(25) Ibid, Fos. 88-89. 

(26) L’Institut d’Egypte fut, on le sait, créé par arrêté du 5 fructidor 

(22 août 1798), donc bien après le mois de prairial (19 mai - 18 juin). v 

(27) N AF, No. 21.950, Fos. 86 - 87. La présentation de l’état est analogue 
à celle de l’état de floréal - messidor an VI mais les imprimeurs n’y figurent 
plus. 















320 


BULLETIN DE L’INSTITUT D’EGYPTE 


81 noms, les intéressés étant répartis en sept classes seulement. 

On possède encore à Vincennes un Etat des Citoyens non 
militaires qui sont payés par le payeur général de l’Armée 
d'Egypte ( 28 ), établi à la date du 6 fructidor an VI (23 août 1798) 
dont le premier paragraphe concerne lps membres de la Com¬ 
mission des Sciences et Arts au nombre de 145 répartis en neuf 
classes. Enfin, au retour de France, il fut dressé un Tableau 
général de l’Armée d’Orient aux ordres de Napoléon Bonaparte 
contenant les noms des généraux et officiers supérieurs dans tous 
les corps, ceux des Administrateurs et autres personnages faisant 
partie de l’Expédition, à l’époque du départ de France pour 
l’Egypte en floréal an VI et au retour de l’Egypte en France, 
à la fin de Tan 9 et au commencement de l’an 1U ( 2 ' J ). 

Les listes imprimées de Y Annuaire de l’An VIII ( 3U ) et de 
l’Annuaire de Tan IX ( 31 ) utilisées par Guémard et dans les¬ 
quelles la répartition des membres en sections est plus judicieuse 
que dans la liste des Archives Nationales, sont évidemment des 
sources précieuses d’information. Il en est de même de la Liste 
générale des membres composant la Commission des Sciences et 
Arts d’Egypte, avec le lieu de leurs domiciles, en date du 1er 
messidor an VII (19 juillet 1799), établie par Redouté et que 
nous avons publiée antérieurement ( 32 ). Il convient enfin de ne 
pas négliger la liste de Reybaud non plus qu’une liste manuscrite 
conservée à la Bibliothèque Nationale dressée en 1823, peut-être 
par Jomard ( 33 ). 


(28) A G V, Carton B e G, Dossier du 0 fructidor. Ce document est une 
copie d’une pièce originale de la cc Collection Napoléon ». 

(29) AGV, Carton B 6 187, Pièce 35.347. 

(30) Pages 107 -109. 

(31) Pages 41-44. 

(32) CI/E, V, 290 - 301. Cette liste contient toutefois des noms de person¬ 
nages qui n’ont certainement jamais fait partie Je la Commission de sorte que 
le document intéressant en lui-même, doit pourtant être utilisé avec précaution. 
Il convient de rappeler également que Redouté a rédigé le Carnet contenant 
la liste après le retour en France. 

(33) Cette liste qui fait partie des Archives de la Commission de la 
publication de la Description de VEgypte (NAF, 21.950. Fo. 78), comportait 
initialement 105 noms. On a ajouté d’une autre encre le nom de Larrey et 
in fine, les noms do Legentil, Bouchard, Vincent, Nouet, Lemaître, Pouqueville, 
Bessières. Au crayon figure la mention morts en 1823», ce qui nous autori¬ 
se à dater la liste de cette année-là. 


LA COMMISSION DES SCIENCES ET AKTS D’EGYPTE 


321 


Nous disposions donc de sources plus complètes ( 34 ) que 
celles utilisées naguère par Marc de Villiers du Terrage ( 35 ) et 
par Gabriel Guémard ( 36 ) : il était donc possible de reprendre 
leurs travaux. En vue d’obtenir une Liste nominative des mem¬ 
bres de la Commission à l’époque de sa création au débarque¬ 
ment en Egypte, nous avons d’abord dressé un Etat récapitu¬ 
latif ( 37 ) dans lequel sont portés, par ordre alphabétique C s ), les 
noms des personnages figurant sur une au moins des six listes 
manuscrites dont les originaux sont à peu près contemporains 
de l’Expédition en ajoutant ceux des hommes considérés par 
Redouté ou Reybaud comme ayant appartenu à l’organisme. En 
face de chaque nom, nous avons indiqué par des lettres conven¬ 
tionnelles s’il figurait sur une ou plusieurs des onze listes énu¬ 
mérées précédemment. 

La lecture de l’Etat permet de constater que les listes de 
floréal, de prairial et de fructidor an VI renferment plusieurs 
noms qui n’avaient jamais été cités par aucun auteur d études 
sur l’Expédition tandis que la liste de messidor an VII, à deux 
exceptions près ( 39 ) et l’Etat général de Vincennes ne mention¬ 
nent que des noms connus. Quels sont donc ces personnages 
mystérieux, au nombre de plus d’une dizaine, nous ne saunons 
évidemment le dire. Il est du reste probable que plusieurs rai¬ 
sons doivent être invoquées pour expliquer leur presence sur 
les listes. Il est possible que ces hommes de peu de notoriété 
soient restés très peu de temps attachés à la Commission et 


(34) Le manuscrit N AF, 31.950 renferme encore .les copies d’états par¬ 
tiels d’appointements pour divers mois et des listes nominatives de la Com¬ 
mission pour le mois de fructidor an 8 (Fo. 7427) de 37 noms et le second 
trimestre de l’an 9 (Fo. 701) de 31 noms. Pour certains groupes particulieis 
l'on dispose encore d’études partielles précieuses, par exemple des travaux 
de Tarbé de Saint-Hardouin pour les ingénieurs des Ponts et Chaussées et des 
papiers de Jacotin, publiés par Pallary, pour les ingénieurs géographes. 

(35) JS, 335 - 354. 

(36) HBC, 45-65. 

(37) Voir Annexe No. 1 à la Communication. 

(38) Aucune des listes précédentes n’est établie par ordre alphabétique. 
Les recherches sont donc laborieuses. I/état récapitulatif sert également d’in¬ 
dex à la Liste nouvelle faisant l’objet de l’Annexe No. 2. 

(39) Il s’agit d’un interprète nommé Lenoble, porté également sur la 
liste des passagers du Conquérant et d’un «artiste mécanicien» nommé Desfours. 




















322 


BULLETIN UE L’INSTITUT D’EGYPTE 


aient rapidement été oubliés par suite de leur insignifiance. En¬ 
suite il peut y avoir eu des erreurs de transcription ( 40 ). Enfin 
des inadvertances de classification ont pu avoir eu lieu. Par 
exemple, le nom d’un certain Boulouvard figure au nombre des 
« élèves » sur la liste de prairial et sur la ltéte de fructidor an VI. 
Or, dans cette dernière liste, l’on retrouve le même nom de Bou¬ 
louvard parmi ceux des commis de l’Administration de l’Enre¬ 
gistrement. On comprendra aisément qu’il ait été possible de 
commettre certaines erreurs dans l’établissement des listes des 
membres de l’organisme, si l’on veut bien se souvenir que, avant 
le départ, ceux-ci ne se connaissaient généralement pas entre 
eux, qu’ils firent le voyage dispersés sur un grand nombre de 
bâtiments, qu’en Egypte, ils ne furent jamais réunis, qu’enfin, 
ils étaient d’âges, de conditions et de rangs fort divers. 

Quoi qu’il en soit, l’utilisation de Y Etat récapitulatif était 
commode pour dresser la liste nouvelle. Compte tenu de ce que 
nous savions des décès, des départs, des changements d’affecta¬ 
tion sur lesquels nous reviendrons, nous pouvions considérer 
l’appartenance d’un grand nombre de personnages de Y Etat ré¬ 
capitulatif à la Commission comme certaine. De même le fait 
que d’autres n’étaient portés sur aucune liste manuscrite des 
ans VI et VII nous a permis de penser que ces hommes n’avaient 
pas appartenu à la Commission au milieu de 1798. Ce fut par 
exemple le cas d’officiers comme Say et Malus, de l’interprète 
Venture, attaché au Quartier Général, de l’ingénieur des Ponts 
et Chaussées Martin. Certes, d’autres cas étaient beaucoup 
moins nets. Nous avons hésité pour inscrire ou non certains 
personnages sur la liste, mais nous croyons inutile de rapporter 
en détail nos réflexions sur ces points d’importance malgré tout 
mineure. Sauf exceptions justifiées par des raisons sérieuses, 
nous n’avons pas considéré comme ayant fait partie de la Com¬ 
mission les hommes qui ne figuraient pas sur les listes manus¬ 
crites. D’autre part, nous avons classé parmi les « cas douteux » 
la plupart des inconnus dont nous venons de parler. 


(40) Deux erreurs de transcription certaines se trouvent, par exemple 
dans la liste des passagers de L’Oiseau donné par Jollois {JJ, 138) : l’éditeur 
a lu «Costaz» pour Castex, et « Merlinm» pour Méchain. 


LA COMMISSION DES SCIENCES ET ARTS D’EGYPTE 


En définitive nous avons obtenu les catégories suivantes : 


Membres absolument certains ou très probables . . 151 

Personnes demeurées en France. 26 

Personnes restées à Malte . 2 

Cas douteux . 15 


Personnes venues en Egypte mais n’ayant très 
vraisemblablement jamais appartenu à la Com¬ 
mission . 


Total . 216 


Pour chaque membre de la Liste nouvelle des Membres de 
la Commission des Sciences et Arts à l’arrivée de l’Armée en 
Egypte, nous avons indiqué, chaque fois du moins que nous 
étions en mesure de le faire ( 41 ), les prénoms, les années de nais¬ 
sance et de décès, la classe d’émoluments et avons précisé encore 
si l’intéressé avait quitté prématurément l’Egypte ou s’il était 
mort avant de revenir en France. 


Les membres ont été répartis en sections par qualités et 
professions telles qu’elles figurent sur les listes de floréal et 
de prairial an VI ; nous avons indiqué en italiques les noms des 
41 « Elèves » que l’on appellerait aujourd’hui élèves-ingénieurs, 
étudiants ou lycéens. Cette répartition peut être résumée par le 


tableau récapitulatif suivant : 

Géomètres et chimiste . 

Astronomes et élève . 

Naturalistes et élèves. 

Artistes et architectes . 

Divers (y compris 3 femmes d’imprimeurs) . 

Ingénieurs . 

Artistes mécaniciens et imprimeurs . 

Elèves ingénieurs, polytechniciens et élèves de 
mathématiques . 


5 

3 

7 

13 


27 

28 
36 

32 


Total.. • 151 


(41) Pour trouver ces renseignements, nous vivons utilisé les ti avaux de 
Guémard, et avons consulté les répertoires énumérés dans une communication 
antérieure (BIB, XXXIII, 312-314). Au hasard de nos recherches aux Archi¬ 
ves Nationales et au Département des Manuscrits de la Bibliothèque Natio- 









































324 


BULLETIN DE L’INSTITUT D’EGYPTE 


Sur ces derniers, 26 devaient devenir ingénieurs ce qui 
montre que la Commission comportait, à ses débuts, 58% d’ingé¬ 
nieurs, de futurs ingénieurs et de techniciens divers. En revan¬ 
che, il y avait, au sens moderne du mot ( 4ï ) tout au moins, seu¬ 
lement quatre savants : Berthollet, Fourier, Geoffroy Saint- 
Hilaire et Monge. Parmi les ingénieurs, l’un d’entre eux devait 
à la rigueur mériter ce titre plus tard : Michel-Ange Lancret. 

Il est encore intéressant d’examiner la répartition des 
membres de la Commission dans les diverses classes d’émolu¬ 
ments : cela donne une idée de l’importance et de la considéra¬ 
tion dont jouissaient les intéressés, à l’arrivée. Il semble du reste 
qu’en dehors des mérites affirmés et reconnus l’âge ait joué un 
certain rôle dans la répartition : ceci explique sans doute que 
parmi les artistes, le pianiste un peu bohème Villoteau âgé de 
trente-neuf ans ait été inscrit dans la première classe alors que 
Redouté, qui avait trente-deux ans, appartint à la quatrième. 
La plupart des ingénieurs, évidemment à cause de leur jeunesse 
furent inscrits dans la sixième classe et les élèves de l’Ecole 
polytechnique dans la septième. Ni les uns ni les autres ne furent 
très satisfaits de leur sort ( 43 ). 

Nous avons enfin cherché quels étaient à l’arrivée en Egypte 
les âges des membres de la Commission. Pour les 87 pour les¬ 
quels nous possédions ce renseignement ( 44 ) nous sommes arrivés 
aux résultats suivants : 


nale, nour avons glané un certain nombre de précisions complémentaires. 
Enfin, il y a quelques années. M. le Général Brisac, Commandant l’Ecole 
polytechnique, a bien voulu faire effectuer ü notre demande dans les archives 
de cet établissement des recherches dont les résultats nous ont été obligeam- 
ment communiqués. 

(42) A l'époque de l’Expédition il est vrai, le qualificatif de «savant» 
était attribué sans discernement par les militaires même aux plus jeunes mem¬ 
bres de la Commission. 

(43) Voir en particulier l’opinion de Dubois-Aymé à ce sujet {CEE, Sér. 
III, mars 1951, p. 230- 231). 

(44) Bien entendu ces membres sont presque toujours les plus attachants. 
Parmi ceux qui ont laissé une œuvre écrite et sur lesquels nous ne savons 
rien, nous ne citerons guère que Nec-toux. 


LA COMMISSION DES SCIENCES ET ARTS D’EGYPTE 


325 


Ages 

Nombre 

de 10 à 14 ans 

i 

de 15 à 19 ans 

10 

de 20 à 24 ans 

33 

de 25 à 29 ans 

13 

de 30 à 39 ans 

17 

de 40 à 49 ans 

7 

de 50 ans et plus 

6 

Total 

~i7~ 


Le doyen de la Commission était Dominique Testevuide, 
âgé de plus de 62 ans, ingénieur en chef des géographes qui de¬ 
vait être tué le 30 vendémiaire an VII et le benjamin qui avait 
12 ans Isidore Dubois, fils du chirurgien Antoine Dubois, futur 
accoucheur de T Impératrice Marie-Louise. 

L’âge moyen des 87 membres précédents était tout juste de 
27 ans mais si Ton considérait seulement les ingénieurs et les 
futurs ingénieurs, la moyenne s’établissait seulement à 25 ans. 
D’autre part la moitié des membres recensés avait moins d.e 
25 ans. C’est dire la jeunesse de tous ces personnages : ce point 
est fort important car il explique la facilité d’adaptation de tous 
ces jeunes gens à leur situation nouvelle et leur aptitude à s’atta¬ 
cher à des études entièrement neuves. 

Au cours du séjour en Egypte, la composition de la Commis¬ 
sion changea notablement. Tout d’abord vingt-cinq ou trente 
membres sans doute moururent ( 45 ) tandis que plus de vingt 


(45) Moururent en Egypte c j en Syrie parmi les membres de la Com¬ 
mission qui n’étaient ni «artistes mécaniciens)) ni imprimeurs: Bodard, Brio- 
guier, N. Champy, Charbaud, Coquebert, Dewesvres, Dulion, Duval, Fuseau. 
Gloutier, Joly, Leduc, Lerouge, Panhusen, Picquet, Saint-Simon ,Teste¬ 
vuide, Thévenod. Il faut ajouter à cet te liste trois artistes mécaniciens : 
Cirot, Collin, Hérault, des imprimeurs dont nous ignorons le nombre 
exact. Nous savons pourtant que sur les 27 imprimeurs de notre Liste 
nouvelle , 14 seulement figurent sur l’Etat des rapatriés (Cf ANF, Carton F 
17A 1.100). Sur les 13 autres nous sommes certains du décès en Egypte de 
Laporte, de Baudouin et de Besson. Nous avons donné ailleurs des précisions 





















326 


BULLETIN DE L’INSTITUT D’EGYPTE 


s’embarquèrent prématurément pour la France ( 46 ). D’autres 
quittèrent la Commission à titre isolé pour entrer dans diverses 
Administrations ( 47 ). Les polytechniciens et les « élèves » de¬ 
vinrent ingénieurs ou sous-lieutenants ( 48 ). D’autre part et sur¬ 
tout, par application de divers décrets ( 49 ), les imprimeurs, les 
ingénieurs des ponts et chaussées et les ingénieurs géographes 
furent expressément détachés en bloc pour former des services 
distincts. 

Cela explique que, dans VAnnuaire de Van VIII ( 50 ), la Com¬ 
mission proprement dite ne comprenne plus que 42 membres, 
les ingénieurs d,es ponts et chaussées, les ingénieurs géographes 
et les constructeurs de vaisseaux figurant séparément. Plusieurs 
états nominatifs conservés à la Bibliothèque Nationale ( 51 ) et 
numériques de Vincenn.es ( 52 ) sont présentés de manière analo¬ 
gue, le nombre des membres de la Commission allant en dimi¬ 
nuant sans cesse. 

Dans VAnnuaire de VAn IX ( 53 ) en revanche, les Ingénieurs 


complémentaires sur les membres de la Commission décédés en Egypte (OHE, 
5e séi\, déc. 1953, p. 298 - 300). 

(46) Bessières, A. et I. Dubois, Gérard. Pouqueville, Porlüer, Quenot et 
Roguin partirent dès les premiers mois. Norry, malade, quitta l’Egypte à la 
fin de 1798. Dolomieu et Cordier s’embarquèrent un peu plus tard. Bertbollet, 
Denon, Jaubert, Monge et Parseval accompagnèrent Bonaparte. Corancez et 
Rigel firent une tentative vaine de regagner leur pays. Plus tard Ripault et, 
à la fin du séjour Costaz et Descotils purent arriver en France avant leurs 
collègues. Il en fut de même à des époques que nous ignorons de Bourgeois 
et de Greslé. 

(47) Citons Corancez, Bernard et Pottier qui furent affectés à la Mon¬ 
naie du Caire, Régnault et Hassenfrats qui firent partie de l’Administration 
des Droits de marque sur les ouvrages d’orfèvrerie. D’autre part Lévesque 
fut secrétaire de Menou et R.V. Pottier entra dans la Marine. Arnollet et 
Laroche furent Agents français etc... 

(48) Cf. GN, Ordre No. 3.295 du 27 fructidor an VI et JS, 81-85. Les 
polytechniciens de la Commission qui entrèrent dans l’Armée furent Bouchard, 
Bringuier, Charbaud, Moret, Picquet, les élèves Fuseau et Vincent. Hyacinthe 
Le Père devint Commissaire des Guerres. 

(49) Ces décrets datent du 29 fructidor an VII et du 19 nivôse an VIII. 
Les Circulaires d’Estève, No 74 de l’an VII, 32 et 33 de Pan VIII s’y réfèrent 
expressément. 

(50) Pages 107 -109. 

(51) N AF, 21.950. 

(52) AGV, Carton B« 188. 

(63) Pages 41 - 44. 


LA COMMISSION DES SCIENCES ET ARTS D’EGYPTE 


327 


figurent deux fois, séparément et au milieu des autres membres 
de la Commission dont la liste comprend 101 membres dont 
12 absents. Cette présentation différente s’explique peut-être 
parce que les ingénieurs considérèrent qu’ils continuèrent tou¬ 
jours d’appartenir en fait au groupe. Aussi bien, tant après la 
signature de la Convention d’El Arish, à l’époque où il fut une 
première fois question sérieusement d’évacuation, qu’au moment 
du départ définitif de l’Egypte, la plupart des ingénieurs des 
ponts et chaussées et des ingénieurs géographes se joignirent 
aux naturalistes et aux artistes. 

En juin 1801, quatre membres de la Commission ( 54 ), quatre 
ingénieurs des ponts et chaussées ( 5S ), cinq ingénieurs géogra¬ 
phes ( 56 ) et vingt-trois imprimeurs ( 57 ) suivirent le sort de l’Ar¬ 
mée Belliard. Le gros de la Commission et la majorité des ingé¬ 
nieurs, cinquante personnes ( 58 ) en tout, quittèrent le Caire le 
7 Avril 1801 pour Alexandrie où elles s’embarquèrent sur 
L’Oiseau puis débarquèrent après des mésaventures bien souvent 
contées ( 59 ), mais parvinrent néanmoins à Marseille à la fin de 
1801. 

❖ 

* * 

Les recherches dont nous venons d’exposer les résultats 
nous ont permis d’apporter des lumières nouvelles sur la com¬ 
position de la Commission des Sciences et Arts d’Egypte. Certes, 
il subsiste encore et nous pensons qu’il subsistera sans doute 
toujours certaines incertitudes en la matière. Nous avons du 
moins établi que l’organisme avait, à ses débuts, compris environ 
150 membres dont près des trois-cinquièmes étaient des ingé¬ 
nieurs, de futurs ingénieurs et des techniciens alors que les 


(54) Dupuy, Dutertre J.B. Lepère, Villoteau (ANF, F 17A 1.100) 

(55) GirarcI, Moline, Duchanpy et P.N. Pottier (Même source). 

(56) Jacotin, Simonel et Faurie, anciens membres de la Commission 
d’une part, Lathuile et Schouani qui n’en avaient jamais fait partie d’autre 
part (Même source). 

(57) Nous avons vu que sur ce nombre, 14 seulement figuraient sur la 
liste initiale. 

(58) Sur les 50 membres du groupe, l’un d’eux, Lerouge mourut sous 
les murs d’Alexandrie. Jollois a donné la liste des 49 autres (JI, 138 - 139), 
confirmée par Redouté (GMR, XI, 60.) 

(59) Cf. JS, 249 - 305 et JI, 138 - 160. 














BULLETIN DE L’INSTITUT D’EGYPTE 


328 


savants véritables étaient une poignée et les artistes guère plus 
nombreux d,e sorte qu'il serait conforme à la vérité historique 
de renoncer aux expressions de « savants de Bonaparte » ou 
« savants et artistes de Bonaparte » servant à désigner les mem¬ 
bres de la Commission pour .employer uniquement celle plus 
exacte de « savants et ingénieurs de Bonaparte ». Il convient de 
retenir aussi que l'âge moyen des membres d,e la Commission 
était environ de 27 ans, celui des ingénieurs étant plus bas en¬ 
core. Cette jeunesse du groupement explique — avec les qualités 
intrinsèques de ses membres — l’ampleur des travaux réalisés 
dont nous aimerions donner plus tard une vue synthétique. 


LA COMMISSION DES SCIENCES ET ARTS D’EGYPTE 


329 


Annexe No. 1 


ETAT RECAPITULATIF DRESSE EN VUE 
D'ETABLIR UNE LISTE NOUVELLE DES MEMBRES 
DE LA COMMISSION DES SCIENCES ET ARTS 


Sur cet état figurent les noms et qualités des personnages 
considérés, précédés des numéros d’ordre de la Liste nouvelle de 
l’Annexe 2. On trouve ensuite l’indication des listes sur lesquelles 
les intéressés sont inscrits, les lettres ayant les significations 
suivantes : 

A Liste des Archives 
B Liste de floréal-messidor an VI 
C Liste de prairial an VI 
D Liste du 6 fructidor an VI 
E Liste de messidor an VII 
F Liste de l’Annuaire de l’an VIII 
G Liste de l’Annuaire de l’an IX (1) 

Il Etat général de Vincennes 
J Liste de Redouté 
K Liste de 1823 
L Liste de Reybaud 
S Abréviation des Listes ABCDE 
T Abréviation de la totalité des listes 

Les noms des personnages ayant fait partie de la Commission 
à l’arrivée de l’Armée en Egypte sont en majuscules, ceux des élèves 
étant en italiques. Les autres noms sont en minuscules, ceux des 
hommes n’ayant pas quitté la France étant entre crochets. 

Les nombres renvoient aux numéros de la Liste nouvelle. 


ADNES, artiste mécanicien 

T 

113 

ADNES fils', artiste mécanicien 

T 

114 

AIME, artiste mécanicien 

CDEFGHJKL 

115 

ALIBERT , polytechnicien 

BCDGJKL 

95 

ANSTGLIONE, imprimeur 

B CD 

123 

(1 ) Les absents en l’an IX sont 

indiqués par l’abréviation (G). 




















330 


BULLETIN DE L’INSTITUT D’EGYPTE 


[Arnault], homme de lettres 
ARNOLLET , élève des P.C. 
BALZAC, Architecte 
Barraud, secrétaire 
[Barrier] imprimeur 

Baudouin, imprimeur 
[Bauduin], dessinateur 
Beauchamp, astronome 
BELLETEvSTE, interprête 
Benaben, littérateur 

[Bénazet], ing. géographe 
BERNARD, élève des mines 
BERTHOLLET, chimiste 
BERTRE , élève géographe 
BESSIERES, élève chirurgien 

BESSON, imprimeur 
BESSON, citoyenne 
BODARD, ingénieur P.C. 
Bonjean, ing. const. vais. 
BOUCHARD , polytechnicien 

BOUCHER, ing. const. vais. 
BOUDET, pharmacien 
BOULANGER, imprimeur 
Boulouvard, élève 
BOURGEOIS, ing. géographe 

BOYER, imprimeur 
Bracévich, interprête 
[Bréguet], horloger 
BRINGUIER y polytechnicien 
Brunet, dessinateur 

Caquet, dessinateur du génie 
CARISTIE, polytechnicen 
CARRE, imprimeur 
[Cassard] artiste mécanicien 
[Castéra,] imprimeur 

CASTEX sculpteur 


L 

178 

SGJKL 

84 

T 

41 

I, 

180 

A . 

152 

BCDL 

124 

AP. 

153 

HL 

213 

CDEGHKL 

16 

L 

181 

AB 

154 

A B CD J KL 

55 

S [G] HJ KL 

5 

S GKL 

65 

ABCDHKL 

26 

ABCDL 

125 

B CD 

149 

ABCDKL 

72 

L 

214 

BCDJKL 

96 

ACDEGJKL 

92 

T 

31 

AB CD 

126 

CD 

182 

SJKL 

58 

ABCD 

127 

L 

195 

A 

155 

BCDJL 

97 

C 

183 

L 

206 

BCDEGJKL 

98 

BCD 

128 

A 

156 

A 

157 

CDEFGHJKL 

45 


LA COMMISSION DES SCIENCES ET ARTS D’EGYPTE 


331 


CECILE, ingénieur mécanicien 
CHABROL, ingénieur P.C. 
CHAMPY J.P. ingé. des poudres 
CRAMPY N. f éiève des poudres 

CHARBAUD, polytechnicien 
CHAUMONT, ing. const. vais. 
[Chézy], ingénieur P.C. 

CIROT, artiste mécanicien 
COLLIN, artiste-mécanicien 

CONTE, ing. mécanicien 
COQUEBERT , botaniste 
CORABOEUF , élève géographe 
CORANIEZ, géomètre 
CORDIER, ing. des mines 

COSTAZ, géomètre 
Coutelle, officier aérostier 
COUVREUR, artiste mécanicien 
[Cruzy], imprimeur 
Daburen, chirurgien 

DAMOUGEOT, imprimeur 
DAMOUGEOT, citoyenne 
[Dangos], astronome 
[Debaudre], ingéneiur P.C. 
DELAPORTE, interprête 

DELILE, botaniste 
Demoulin, architecte 
DENON, littérateur 
Derry, imprimeur 
DESCOTILS, , ing. des mines 

DESFOURS, artiste mécanicien 
DEVILLIERS, polytechnicien 
DEWEVRES, élève chirurgien 
[Dizerand], imprimeur 
DOLOMIEU, géologue 

DOMINICIS, imprimeur 
DUBOIS A., chirurgien 


T 

89 

SGJKL 

73 

T 

86 

BCDEFGHJKL 

87 

ABCDJL 

99 

ACDEGJKL 

93 

A 

158 

SFJKL 

116 

CDEFGHJKL 

117 

AFGHJKL 

90 

T 

39 

SGJKL 

66 

AGHJKL 

1 

ABCD [G] HJKL 

53 

'1' 

2 

GHJKL 

199 

T 

118 

A 

159 

JE 

184 

BCD 

129 

BCD 

150 

A 

160 

A 

161 

CDGHKL 

17 

T 

34 

JL 

185 

BCDE [G] HJKL 

9 

D 

186 

T 

54 

CDE 

119 

SGJKL 

100 

CDHJL 

27 

A 

162 

ABCD [G] JKL 

35 

BCD 

130 

ABC [G] HJKL 

24 














332 


BULLETIN DE L’INSTITUT D’EGYPTE 


DUBOIS-AYME A., polytechnicien 
DUBOIS I, élève chirurgien 
DUBOIS, imprimeur 

DUCHANOY, élève 
DULION, élève géographe 
Duperrey, dessin, du génie 
DUPUY, élève des mines 
DUTERTRE, dessinateur 

DUVAL, ingénieur P.C. 
EBERHART, imprimeur 
FAT ALLA, interprète 
FAURIE, ing. géographe 
Fauvelet-Bourrienne, Secrétaire 
Bonaparte 

F AV IER, polytechnicien 
Favre, artiste mécanicien 
FAYE, ingénieur P.C. 

PEVRE, ingénieur P.C. 

FOUQUET, graveur 

FOURIER, géomètre 
FUSEAU, élève 
GALLAND, imprimeur 
GARREAU, imprimeur 
GEOFFROY, zoologue 


TAUBERT, interprête 
JOLLOIS, ingénieur P.C. 


SGJKL 

101 

ABCHJL 

28 

ABCD 

131 

ACDEGJKL 

108 

SJKL 

67 

JL 

207 

T 

56 

T 

46 

ABCDJKL 

74 

ABCD 

132 

BCDE 

18 

SGKL 

59 

L 

196 

SGJKL 

102 

CD 

187 

SGKL 

75 

SGJKL 

76 

CDEFGHJKL 

47 

T 

3 

CDJ 

109 

BCDL 

133 

CD 

134 

T 

36 

ABCHKL 

40 

SG JL 

77 

BCDFJL 

12 

A 

163 

ACDGKL 

94 

SKL 

120 

BCDEFJKL 

121 

Cour. Egypte No. 

40 210 

bcdegjkl 

60 

ABCD 

135 

CD [G] HKL 

19 

SGJKL 

78 


GERARD, élève naturaliste 
GIRARD, ingénieur P.C. 
GLOUTIER, économiste 
[Gransart], imprimeur 
GRESLE, ing. const. vais. 

HASSENFRATZ, artiste mécanicien 
HERAULT, artiste mécanicien 
Hochu, artiste mécanicien 
JACOTIN, ing. géographe 
JARDIN, imprimeur 


LA COMMISSION DES SCIENCES ET ARTS D’EGYPTE 333 

JOLY, peintre 

BHJKL 

48 

JOMARD E.F. élève géographe 

SGJKL 

68 

Jomard J.B., élève 

GKL 

188 

LABATTE, chirurgien 

T 

25 

LACIPIERE, élève chirurgien 

T 

29 

[Lafeuillade], ing. géographe 

AB 

164 

[Laforie], imprimeur 

A 

165 

LANCRET, ingénieur P.C. 

SGJKL 

79 

Laporte, imprimeur 

BCDJ 

136 

LAROCHE , élève géographe 

ABCDGKL 

69 

Lathuille, officier géographe 

L 

202 

[Laugier], imprimeur 

A 

166 

[Le Blond], antiquaire 

A 

167 

LEBRUN , poudres et salp. 

CDEJ 

88 

LECESNE , élève géographe 

SGJKL 

70 

LEDUC, ing. géographe 

ABCDJKL 

61 

Leduc,, antiquaire 

C 

189 

[Lemaître], horloger 

A 

168 

LENOBLE, interprète 

CDE 

20 

LENOIR, ing. mécanicien 

T 

91 

LE PERE G., ingénieur P.C. 

SGJKL 

81 

LE PERE H élève 

ABCD 

110 

LE PERE J. M., ingénieur P.C. 

SGJKL 

81 

LEPERE J.B., architecte 

CDEFGHJKL 

42 

Le Preux, minéralogiste 

B 

190 

LEROUGE, littérateur 

BCDEGHJKL 

10 

Le Roy, littérateur 

B CD 

191 

LETHIOUX, imprimeur 

ABCD 

137 

LEVESQUE, ing. géographe 

ABCDEGKL 

62 

L’Homaca, interprète 

L 

197 

Lhomont, off. aérostier 

L 

200 

LINDEMANN, imprimeur 

BCD 

138 

[Maizières] ? ing. mécanicien 

A 

169 

MACCAGNI, imprimeur 

BCD 

139 

Magallon, consul 

L 

211 

MaluS, officier du génie 

JL 

204 















334 


BULLETIN DE L’INSTITUT D’EGYPTE 


MARCEL, imprimeur 
MARIEL, citoyenne 

MARLET, imprimeur 
[Marquoy], imprimeur 
Martin, ingénieur P.C. 

MECHAIN , élève astronome 

MESABKI, imprimeur 

Michelet, artiste mécanicien 
[Milbert] naturaliste 
MOLINE, polytechnicien 
[Mollard] ing. mécanicien 
MONGE, géomètre 

MORET, polytechnicien 
Mouthiers, interprète 
NECTOUX, botaniste 
[Nepveu] naturaliste 
NORRY, architecte 

NOUET, astronome 
PANHUSEN, interprète 
PARSEVAL, littérateur 
PELLEGRINI, imprimeur 
PICQ UET, polytechnicien 

Plane, pharmacien 
Plazanet, officier aérostier 
[Poncelet], imprimeur 
Portai, dessinateur du génie 
POTTIER } P.N., polytechnicien 

POTTIER R.V., élève géographe 
POUQUEVILLE, élève chirurgien 
POURPIER, antiquaire 
PROTAIN, architecte 
PUNTIS 

QUENOT, astronome 
RAFFENEAU , élève P.C. 

RAIGE, interprète 
[Ramelet], imprimeur 


ABCDHKL 

122 

B CD 

151 

ABCD 

140 

A 

170 

gKl 

209 

T 

8 

B CD 

141 

B 

192 

A 

171 

CDEGJKL 

103 

A 

172 

S [G] HJKL 

4 

BCDJL 

104 

BCD 

193 

T 

37 

A 

173 

ABCD [G] HJKL 

43 

T 

6 

ABHJKL 

21 

BCDE [G] HJKL 

11 

BCD 

142 

ABC 

105 

J 

212 

L 

201 

A 

174 

JL 

208 

ABCGJKL 

106 

ABCDL 

71 

ABCDHKL 

30 

ABCD [G] HJKL 

14 

T 

44 

ABCDL 

143 

ABCD [G] HJKL 

7 

ABCDGJKL 

85 

CDGHJKL 

22 

A 

175 


LA COMMISSION DES SCIENCES ET ARTS D’EGYPTE 

335 

REAL, interprète 

BCD 

23 

REDOUTE, peintre 

T 

49 

REGNAULT , polytechnicien 

SFGJKL 

108 

[Régnault de Saint Jean d'Angely] 

L 

179 

RENNO, imprimeur 

BCD 

144 

RIGEL, pianiste 

CDEFGHJKL 

50 

R1GO, peintre 

T 

51 

RIPAULT , élève antiquaire 

S [G] HJKL 

15 

RIVET, imprimeur 

ABCD 

145 

ROGDîN, pharmacien 

ABCDHL 

32 

ROSELLI, imprimeur 

BCD 

146 

ROUYER, pharmacien 

T 

33 

ROZIERE élève des mines 

T 

57 

RUGUA, imprimeur 

BCD 

147 

SAINT-GENIS, ingénieur P.C. 

SAINT - SIMON, anc. chevalier de 

vSGJKL 

82 

Malte 

DJ 

: 13 

SAVIGNY, zoologue 

T 

38 

SAY, officier du génie 

L 

205 

vSchouani, officier géographe 

L 

203 

SIMONEL, ingénieur géographe 

bcdegjkl 

63 

Tallien, politicien 

L 

215 

TESTEVUIDE, ingénieur géographe 

BCDJKL 

64 

THEVENOD, ingénieur P.C. 

ABCDJKL 

83 

[Thouin], naturaliste 

A 

176 

[Thomas], horloger 

A 

177 

Touray, interprète 

B 

194 

Venture, interprète 

HJL 

198 

VERY, imprimeur 

ABC 

148 

VIARD, élève 

SFGJKL 

111 

VILLOTEAU, musicien 

CDEFGHJKL 

52 

VINCENT , élève 

SFJKL 

112 

Vincent, ing. const. vais. 

L 

216 

















336 


BULLETIN DE L’INSTITUT D’EGYPTE 


Annexe No. 2 


LISTE NOUVELLE DES MEMBRES DE LA COMMISSION 
DES SCIENCES ET ARTS A L’ARRIVEE 
EN EGYPTE 

L’on a donné successivement pour chaque personnage cité, un 
numéro d'ordre, le nom et les prénoms, les années de naissance et 
de décès. Les chiffres entre parenthèse indiquent la classe d’émo¬ 
luments, la lettre M que l’intéressé est mort en Egypte ou en Syrie, 
la lettre P qu’il est parti avant le gros de l’armée. 

Les noms des élèves sont en italiques. 

4 Géomètres 

1 CORANCEZ, Louis - Alexandre - Olivier de - (1770 - 

1832) (?) 

2 COSTAZ, Louis (1767 - 1842) (1) P 

3 FOURIER, Jean-Joseph (1786- 1830) (1) 

4 MONGE, Gaspard (1746-1818) (1) P 

1 Chimiste 

5 BERTHOLLET, Claude-Louis (1748- 1822) (1) P 

3 Astronomes 

6 NOUET, Nicolas - Auguste (1740- 1811) (2) 

7 QUENOT, François-Marie (1761 - ?) (2) P 

8 MECHAIN, Jérome - Isaac (1778- 185) (7) 

3 Littérateurs 

9 DENON Dominique - Vivant (1747 - 1825) (2) P 

10 LEROUGE (4) M 

11 PARSEVAL de GRANDMAISON, François - Au¬ 

guste (1759- 1834) (1) P 

1 Economiste 

12 GLOUTIER, Alexis (1758- 1800) (2) M 

1 Ancien Chevalier de Malte 

13 SAINT-SIMON, André-Louis de- (17 - 1799) (7) M 


LA COMMISSION DES SCIENCES ET ARTS D'EGYPTE 


337 


2 Antiquaires 

14 POURLIER Ÿ2 p 

15 RIPAULT, Louis - Madeleine (1775 - 1823) (°) F 

8 Interprètes 

16 BELLETESTE, Henri-Nicolas (1778- 1808) (6) 

17 DELAPORTE, Jacques - Denis (1777- 1861) (6) 

18 FATALA, Elias (3) 

19 JAUBERT, Pierre - Amédée - Probe (1779 - 1847) (6) P 

23 LENOBLE 

21 PANHUSEN (17 - 1798) ( 4 ) M 

22 RÀIGE, Louis - Rémy (1777- 1810) 

23 REAL ^ 

7 Chirurgiens 

24 DUBOIS, Antoine (1765- 1836) O) * 

25 L ABATTE, Joseph-Jean-Jacques (1766- 1835) (2) 

26 BESSIERES, Henri - Gérard - Julien (1772- 1840) (7) P 

27 DEWEVRES (17 - 1799) ( 6 ) M 

28 DUBOIS Isidore (1786- 18 ) ( 7 ) P 

29 LACIPIERE (1777 - 18 ) < 7 ) 

30 POU QU EV ILLE, François - Charles - Hugues - Lau¬ 

rent (1770- 18 ) P 

3 Pharmaciens 

31 BOUDET, Jean - Pierre (1748- 1828) U) 

32 ROGUIN l> 

33 ROUYER Pierre-Charles (1769- 1831) (6) 

7 Naturalistes 

34 DEL1LE Alix RAFFENEAU (1778 - 1850)^ (2) 

35 DOLOMIEU Déodat - Gui - Sylvain - Tancrède GRA- 

TETde- (1750- 1801) ^ 1 

36 GEOFFROY SAINT - HILAIRE Etienne (1772 - 

1844) (1) 

37 NECTOUX, Hippolyte 

38 SAVIGNY, Marie-Jules - César LELORGNE de- 

(1777- 1851) . (6) 

39 COQUEBERT de MONTBRET, Antoine - François - 

Ernest (1760- 1801) ^) M 

40 GERARD, Alexandre 5 



















338 


BULLETIN DE L’INSTITUT D’EGYPTE 


4 Architectes 

41 BALZAC, Charles - Louis (1752 - 1820) 

42 LEPERE, Jean - Baptiste (1761 - 1844) 

43 NORRY, Charles (1756- 1832) 

44 PROTAIN Jean - Constantin (1746- 1832) 

8 Artistes 

45 CASTEX, Jean - Jacques (17 - 1822) 

46 DUTERTRE, André (1753- 1842) 

47 FOUQUET, Pierre - Denis 

48 JOLY (17 -1798) 

49 REDOUTE, Henri - Joseph (1766- 1852) 

50 RIGEL, Henri-Jean (1772- 1852) 

51 RIGO Michel (17 -1815) 

52 VILLOTEAU, Guillaume - André (1759- 1839) 

5 Ingénieurs des Mines 

53 CORDIER, Pierre - Louis - Antoine (1777 - 1861) 

54 DESCOTILS Hipolyte - Victor COLLET- (1773 - 

1815) 

55 BERNARD Samuel (1776- 185 ) 

56 DUPUY Victor (1777- 1861) 

57 ROZIERE François - Michel (1775 - 184 ) 

14 Ingénieurs Géographes 

58 BOURGEOIS, Louis - Jacques 

59 FAURIE 

60 JACOTIN Pierre (1765 - 1827) 

61 LEDUC (17 - 1799) 

62 LEVESQUE 

63 SIMONEL, Pierre 

64- TESTEVUIDE Dominique (1736- 1798) 

65 BERTRE Jacques - Antoine (1776- 18 ) 

66 CORABOEUF Jean - Baptiste (1777- 18 ) 

67 DULION Jacques - Auguste (17 - 1799) 

68 JOMARD Edme - François (1778- 1862) 

69 LAROCHE François (1778- 18 ) 

70 LECESNE, Bienheureux - Désiré - François REEL - 

(1772-1827) 

71 POTTIER Roland - Victor (1775 - ) 


(3) 

( 2 ) 

(1) P 
(3) 


(3) 

( 1 ) 

(3) 

(7) M 

(4) 

( 1 ) 

(3) 

( 1 ) 


(5) P 

(3) P 

( 6 ) 

( 6 ) 

( 6 ) 


(5) P 
(5) 

(4) 

(5) M 

(5) 

(4) 

(1) M 

( 6 ) 

( 6 ) 

(6) M 
( 6 ) 

( 6 ) 

( 6 ) 

( 6 ) 


LA COMMISSION DES SCIENCES ET ARTS D’EGYPTE 339 


14 Ingénieurs des Ponts et Chaussées 

72 BODARD, Louis - Victor (1745 - 1799) (2) M 

73 CHABROL de VOLVIC, Gilbert - Joseph - Gaspard - 

Antoine (1778-1843) (5) 

74 DUVAL Léonard (1768- 1798) , (5) M 

75 FAYE Hervé - Charles - Antoine (1763 - 1825) (5) 

76 FEVRE Jean - Baptiste (1775 - 1850) (5) 

77 GIRARD, Pierre - Simon (1765 - 1836) (2) 

78 JOLLOIS, Jean - Baptiste - Prosper (1776-1842) (5) 

79 LANCRET, Michel-Ange (1774- 1807) (5) 

80 LE PERE, Gratien (1769-1832) (5) 

81 LE PERE, Jacques - Marie (1763- 1841) (2) 

82 SAINT GENIS, Alexandre BOURGES- (1772 - 

1834) (5) 

83 THEVENOD, Claude - François (1772 - 1798) (5) M 

84 ARNOLLET Pierre - Jean - Baptiste (1776 1857) (6) 

85 RAFFENEAU-DELILE, Adrien (1773 - 1543) (6) 

3 Poudres et Salpêtres 

86 CHAMPY, Jacques - Pierre (17 -1816) (1) 

87 CHAMPY, Jean-Nicolas (1777 - 1801) (7) M 

88 LE BRUN 17 - 1802) (7) 

3 Ingénieurs mécaniciens 

89 CECILE, François - Michel (1766- 18 ) (3) 

90 CONTE Nicolas - Jacques (1755 - 1805) ( ?) 

91 LENOIR Paul - Etienne - Marie (1776 - 1826) (6) 

3 Ingénieurs constructeurs de vaisseaux 

92 BOUCHER, Mathurin - François (1778- 1851) (6) 

93 CHAUMONT, Jean - François (6) 

94 GRESLE, Philippe (1776- 18 ) (6) P 

13 Elèves Ecole Polytechnique 

95 ALIBERT, Bertrand (1775 - 1808) (7) 

96 BOUCHARD, Pierre - François - Xavier (1772- 

1832) (7) 

97 BRINGUIER, Jean - Balthazar (1777 - 1799) (7) M 

98 CARISTIE, Philippe, - Jean - Marie (1775 - 1852) (7) 

99 CHABAUD, Jean-Louis (1780- 1799) (7) M 















340 


BULLETIN DE L’INSTITUT D’EGYPTE 


100 DEVILLIERS du TERRAGE , Edouard - René 

(1780- 1855) (7) 

101 DJJBOIS-AYME, Jean - Marie - Joseph - Aimé DU¬ 

BOIS dit - (1779- 1846) (7) 

102 FAVIER, Louis-Joseph (1776- 1855) (7) 

103 MOLINE de SAINT-YON, Benoît (1782- 1842) (7) 

104 MORE T SAINT-AMAND (1780- 18 ) (7) 

105 PICQUET Jean-Baptiste (17 - 1799) (7) M 

106 POTTIER Paul - Nicaise (1778- 1842) (7) 

107 REGNAULT Joseph- Angélique- Sébastien (1776- 

1827) (7) 

5 Elèves 


108 

DUCHANOY, Louis (1781 

- 1954) 

(7) 


109 

FUSEAU de SAINT-CLEMENT (17 - 1799) 

(7) 

M 

110 

LE PERE, H. 



(7) 


111 

VIARD, Joseph - 

Antoine 

(1783- 1849) 

(9) 


112 

VINCENT. Louis - François (1780 - 18 ; 

(9) 



9 Artistes 

mécaniciens 



113 

ADNES, Pierre - 

Onésime 

(1760- 18 ) 

(3) 


114 

ADNES fils 



(6) 


115 

AIME 



(3) 


116 

CI ROT, Calixte - 

Victor 


(4) 

M 

117 

COLLIN 



(6) 

M 

118 

COUVREUR 



(4) 


119 

DESFOURS 



(3) 


120 

HASSENFRATZ 



(6) 


121 

HERAULT, François - Michel (17 - 1800) 

(3) 

M 



27 Imprimeurs 



122 

MARCEL 

(i) 

131 DUBOIS 

(6) 


123 

ANSIGLIONE 

(7) 

132 EBERHART 

(5) 


124 

BAUDOUIN 

(6) M 

133 GÂLLAND 

. (5) 


125 

BESSON 

(6) M 

134 GARREAUX 

(O 


126 

BOULANGER 

(6) 

135 JARDIN 

(6) 


127 

BOYER 

(6) 

136 LAPORTE 

(5) 

M 

128 

CARRE 

(6) 

137 LETHIOUX 

(6) 


129 

DAMOUGEOT 

(6) 

138 LINDEMANN 

(6) 


130 

DOMINICIS 

(7) 

139 MACCAGNI 

(7) 



LA COMMISSION DES SCIENCES ET ARTS D’EGYPTE 


341 


140 

marlet 

(6) 

145 

RIVET 

(6) 

141 

MESABKI 

(6) 

146 

ROSELLI 

(7) 

142 

PELLEGRIN1 

(7) 

147 

RUGUA 

(7) 

143 

PUNTIS 

(4) 

148 

VERY 

(6) 

144 

RENNO 

(7) 





3 Citoyennes 

149 BESSON (10) 

150 DAMOUGEOT (10) 

151 MARIEE (B) 


26 Personnes demeurées en France 


152 

BARRIER 

161 

DEBAUDRE 

170 

MARQUOY 

153 

BAUDOIN 

162 

DIZERAND 

171 

milbert 

154 

BENAZET 

163 

GRANSART 

172 

MOLLARD 

155 

BREGUET 

164 

LAFEUILLADE 

173 

NEPVEU 

156 

CASSARD 

165 

LAFARIE 

174 

PONCELET 

157 

CASTERA 

166 

LAUGIER 

175 

ramelet 

158 

CHEZY 

167 

LEBLOND 

176 

THOUIN 

159 

CRUZY 

168. 

LEMAITRE 

177 

THOMAS 

160 

.DA.NGOS 

169 

MAIZIERE 





2 Personnes restées en Egypte 



178 ARNAULT 

179 REGNAUD de SAINT - JEAN d’ANGEL Y 


180 BARRAUD 

181 BENABEN 

182 BOULOUVARD 

183 BRUNET 

184 DABURON 


15 cas dou teux 

185 DEMOULIN 

186 DERRY 

187 FAVRE 

188 JOMARD J.B 

189 LEDUC 


190 LE PREUX 

191 LEROY 

192 MICHELET 

193 MOUTHIERS 

194 TOURAY 


22 Personnes considérées comme n’ayant pas appartenu 
à la Commission à l’arrivée de l’armée en Egypte 



Quartier général 


Officiers 

195 

BRACEVICH 

199 

COUTELLE 

196 

FAUVELET - BOURRIENNE 

200 

LHOMONT 

197 

L’HOMACA 

201 

PLAZANF.T 

198 

VENTURE M 




aérostiers 

















342 


BULLETIN DE L’INSTITUT D’EGYPTE 


Officiers géographes 

202 LATHUILE 

203 SCHOUANI 

Officiers du génie 

204 MALUS 

205 JAY M 

Dessinateurs du génie 

206 CAQUET M 

207 DUPERREY M 

208 PORTAL M 


Administrateurs ou isolés 

209 MARTIN 

210 HOCHU 

211 MAGALLON 

212 PLANE 

Arrivés après le gros 
da l’armée 

213 BEAUCHAMP 

214 BONJEAN 

215 TALLIEN 

216 VINCENT 


AN OUTLINE OF THE GEOLOGIC STRUCTURE 

OF THE 

BIR EL HALEIFIYA - GEBEL EL ZEITA AREA 
(The West Sinai Foreshore Province, Egypt) 

by 

A. SHATA 

Geology Section, Desert Institute 


INTRODUCTION 

Ihe Bir El Haleifiya — Gebel El Zeita area (approximately 
150 sq. km.) is situated in the northern portion of lhe Wes. 
Sinai Foreshore Province. This area lies about 60 km. to the 
south-east of Suez and is easily accessible by light and medium 
cars. On the east, it is bounded by the Eocene fiat topped hills 
of Gebel El Raha, and to the west there exists the new oil fields 
région which was discovered at Sudr, Asl and Ras Matarma 
(Fig. 1). 

Within the Bir El Haleifiya — Gebel El Zeita area there 
are some of the conspicuous topographie features which charac 
terize the Southern portion of the great plain extending from the 
Bitter Lakes région to Gebel Hammam Faraun (Shata, 1955). 
As elsewhere in West Sinai, the tectonic forces, with faulting 
rather than folding, hâve a strong influence on the land forms of 
:his area 

The detailed study of the geology of the Bir El Haleifiya — 
Gebel El Zeita area was made by the writer early in 1953. The 
work which was undertaken, included the measurement of the 
stratigraphie succession, the construction of a géologie map 
and the investigation of the structure. 

At Bir El Haleifiya — Gebel El Zeita, the whole area is 
cccupied by sedimentary rocks and the succession ha s a thick- 
ness of about 1300 m. From top to base this succession is sun> 
merized as follows ; 

4) MIDDLE MIOCENE (360 m.) 

b) Reefai sériés ; fossiliferous limestone . . 150 m. 

b) Lagoonal sériés ; shale, anhydrite and gypsum . . 205 m. 














344 


BULLETIN DE L’INSTITUT D’EGYPTE 


3) OLIGO-MIOCENE (570 m.) 

e) Unit 5, fossiliferous mari . 100 m. 

d) Unit 4, gypsum, mari and limestone . 115 m. 

c) Unit 3, alternating mari and sandstone. 260 m. 

b) Unit 2, gypseous shale . 160 m. 

a) Unit 1, Sandy mari with fossils *.. 35 rn. 

2) U PP ER EOCENE (230 m. +) 

c) Clastic sériés ; fossiliferous mari and shale .... 110 m. 

b) Chalky sériés ; unfossiliferous chalky limestone 120 m. 

a) Covered interval . ? m 

1) MIDDLE EOCENE ( ? m.) 

Nummulitic limestone. 


In this paper it is aimed to give an outline of the géologie 
structure of the Bir El Haleifiya — Gebel El Zeita area. This 
will include a brief discussion of the régional structural setting 
of that area and also an analysis of the detailed structure. 

REGIONAL STRUCTURAL SETTING 

The régional structure of the Bir El Haleifiya — Gebel 
El Zeita area, as revealed by Figs. 2, 3, 4 and 5, is strongly 
affected by faulting. Crescentic fault blocks, which are related 
to the rift faulting that formed the Gulf of Suez dépréssion, are 
the conspicuous features known in that area. Ail the mapped 
faults are normal and are the resuit of tensional forces. True 
folds, which are a criteria of compression, are not présent. 

Within this area, there are two Systems of faulting. These, 
are almost perpendicular and were presumably formed contem- 
poraneously. The first, and the rather important of these two 
Systems, has a NW-SE strike and runs parallel to the main 
Gulf of Suez dépréssion. The faults of this System belong to the 
main group of major faults bounding that dépréssion from the 
eastern side. These faults were recognized and described by 
several workers who visited the région, and much was said about 
their nature, their âge and the mechanism which account for 
their formation. AU the details concerning the various related 
problems could be found in the literature (Bail, 1910, 1911, 1916; 
Bowman, 1931 ; Busk, 1929 ; Hume, 1906 ; Moon and Sadek, 
1921, Sadek, 1925, Shata, 1954, Tromp, 1950). 

The major faults, which were mapped in the Bir El 
Haleifiya — Gebel El Zeita area, continue far south towards and 


BIR EL HALEIFIYA - GEBEL EL ZEITA 


345 


beyond the Southern extremity of Gebel Khosheira (Fig, 3 & 4). 
As shown in Fig. 3, these faults run parallel to the great 
El Raha - El Tih fault line. Between this line of faulting and 
the gulf coast, at least three major parallel fault lines are 
detected. These parallel faults divide the strata into a cor- 
responding number of steps of vertical blocks with the down- 
throw sides almost to the west. Local exceptions, where the 
downthrow side is to the east, are known. The resulting blocks, 
are tilted away from the center of the main graben and re- 
present a sériés of step faults where each step has successively 
been raised higher. 

Arranged from east to west, the following main fault blocks 
are known : 

1 ) El Raha - El Tih Stable Block ; composed essentially of 
Cretaceous strata (Eocene outerops appear only in the 
northern portion). The mean élévation of this block 
exceeds 500 m. (A.S.L.) * 

2) El Raqaba - El Abyad Block ; composed essentially of Middle 
Eocene strata. The mean élévation of this block is less than 
500 m. (A.S.L.). 

3 > El Zeita - Khosheira - El Mreir Block ; or the first Miocene 
block. This is composed of Oligo-Miocene and Middle 
Miocene strata, and its mean élévation is about 400 m. 
(A.S.L.). 

4) Asl - Nebwi Block ; or the second Miocene block, composed 
essentially of Middle Miocene strata, and the mean élévation 
is ± 200 m. (A.S.L.). 

5) There is undoubtedly another block which occupies the 
coastal strip but it is masked underneath the Recent sand 
and gravel cover. The “Coastal Block”, as here will be 
referred to, has an élévation much lower than 100 m.. 
(A.S.L.). 

The Bir El Haleifiya - Gebel El Zeita area occupies only the 
northwestern extremity of “El Zeita - Khosheira - El Mreir 
Block » or the first Miocene block. 

The formation of these fault blocks took place through a. 
number of stages, the âge of which cannot be determined with: 
certainly from the study of such a small area. However, facts: 
from the wider Gulf of Suez région, indicate that tectonic move- 
ments on a large scale, only took place in Oligocène times 


(*) A.S.L. Above Sea Level. 
























346 _BULLETIN DE L’INSTITUT D’EGYPTE 


(Blanckenhorn, 1921 ; Shukri, 1953 ; Shukri and Akmal 1953 ; 
Stainlorth, 1949). These movements were rejuvenated in post- 
Miocene times, essentially during the Plio-Pleistocene (Knebel 
and Weeks, 1947),* and were responsible for the présent day 
physiographic pattern of the entire Gulf of Suez région 

In the Bir El Haleifiya — Gebel El Zeita area, there is 
another System of step faults which a'iso has an effect on its 
morphology. The faults belonging to this System hâve a NE - 
SW strike and represent simple fracture lines, perhaps due to 
local adjustment, along the major NW-SE faults. 

At Bir El Haleifiya - Gebel El Zeita area minor local folding 
has been noted at some places, but this is essentially due to the 
bending of the strata before they finally break down under the 
strain which produced the different fracture lines. 

A study of the geological structure of the Bir El Haleifiya - 
Gebel El Zeita area becomes, therefore, a study of its fault 
pattern which has the most influence on the présent land forms. 

In the following pages it is intended to consider the indi- 
vidual faults and to record their characters, their direction and 
the rocks which they affect. 

DETAILED STRUCTURAL SETTING 

Arranged from east to west the different faults, which 
govern the structure of the Bir El Haleifiya - Gebel El Zeita 


area, are tabulated as follows : 

1) El Haleifiya — Ruin fault . Fl 

2) El Haleifiya - Raqa fault . F2 

3) West El Haleifiya faults . F3a and F3b 

4) East Khosheira fault . F4 

5) West Khosheira fault . F5 

6) West El Zeita faults .!.. F6 a-d (inclusive) 


We will now proceed to deal with each one of these faults. 

1) El Haleifiya — Ruin Fault (Fl) 

This fault is the most easterly fracture known in the area. 
It runs in a NW - SE direction for a distance of about 12 km. 
and was traced almost accurately except in places where the 
bounding rocks become masked underneath the alluvium and 
gravel cover. This fault has its upthrow side to the east. 


(*) Unpublished work for the Standard Oil Company of Egypt, 1947. 


BIR EL HALEIFIYA - GEBEL EL ZEITA 


347 


Outside this area to the south, this fault extends in a 
southeastern direction for 8 km. where it joins the “Eocene 
scarp fault” described by Moon and Sadek (1925). Its total 
length becomes therefore about 20 km. This fault is not a 
straight line, but when followed, it was found to make a sériés 
of irregular curvatures (Fig. 4). It dissects the southwestern 
portion of ‘‘El Raqaba - El Abyad Block” into twounequal parts ; 
a major one lying to the east and a narrow and elongate one 
lying to the west. 

The oldest rocks exposed on the upthrow side of this fault 
are of Middle Eocene âge (Nummulitic limestone sériés). These 
occupy the southeastern portion of the mapped area and are in 
juxtaposition with the Upper Eocene “Chalky Sériés”. 

Close to the point where the Ruins of an old Turkish 
fort are présent (11 L & M, fig. 5), the amount of vertical throw 
of this fault has been estimated as approximately 300 m. This 
amount, increases gradually in a southeast direction to a 
maximum of 400 m. (beyond the limit of the map), and then 
starts to decrease again in the same direction. To the northwest, 
the amount of vertical throw also decrease gradually untill the 
fault dies out in the area just to th,e north of Bir El Haleifiya 
(K 2 & K 3, Fig. 5). 

The Middle Eocene rocks, which are exposed on the up¬ 
throw side of the fault, dip regionally in an eastward direction 
at the average rate of 5 Ü . But to the north of the “Ruins” (L9, 
M9 Fig. 5), these beds are rapidly bent into the Southwest 
direction towards the fault itself with the development of a local 
structural closure. 

Towards the northwestern end of this fault, it passes in 
close proximity to Bir El Haleifiya (Water well, K3 Fig. 5). This 
fault may accordingly be regarded as responsible for the 
accumulation of the limited amount of water now produced by 
that well. 

2) El Haleifiya — Baqa Fault (F2) 

This fault lies to the the west of Fl at a distance varying 
between 500 m. and two kilometers, It has a length of about 
10 km. and runs in an almost north-south direction. Beyond 
the limit of the mapped area, this same fault extends in a 
southeastward direction for at least 20 kilometers (Figs. 3 & 4). 

This major fault has its upthrow side to the east and is 
mainly responsible for the séparation of the Eocene Block 





















348 


BULLETIN DE L’INSTITUT D’EGYPTE 


(El Raqeba - El Abyad Block) from the first Miocene Block 
(El Zeitar - Khosheira - El Mreir Block (Fig. 3). The Southern 
portion of “El Haleifiya - Baqa fault,” coincides with the “West 
Wadi Silfa Eault” which was described by Moon and Sadek 
(1925). Ail along the length of this faulj, no difficulty has been 
found in locating its position and on both its sides the strata 
appear as if they were eut with a sharp knife. 

The oldest rocks exposed on the upthrow side of this fault 
belong to the Upper Eocene period. These are restricted to the 
eastern portion of the map and dip regionally in a northwest 
direction at the average rate of 10°. Following on top of the 
Upper Eocene formations, strata belonging to the lowest Oligo- 
Miocene succession, appear in a narrow and elongate strip 
extending from Wadi El Sir (a tribulary of Wadi Wardan) to 
the approaches of Bir El Haleifiya. The attitude of these beds 
is to the west at the rate of 15° and 20°. 

The maximum amount of vertical throw of this fault has 
been roughly estimated as 600 m., (upthrow side to the east). 
This amount, which is attained close to the Southern edge of 
the map, decreases gradually in a northward direction until it 
becomes approximately 300 m. at the point where the fault joins 
“El Haleifiya - Ruin Fault”, Fl (K3, Fig. 5). 

The “Fault slice” included between Fl and F2 is interesting 
from the structural stand point but the magnitude of the 
resulting structure, (closure along the fault), cannot be 
determined. 

3) West El Haleifiya Faults (F3a and F3b) 

These two faults are almost parallel, run in a NW-S'E 
direction and hâve a strong influence on the landscape of the 
northeastern portion of the mapped area. These faults govern 
essentially the formation of the three successive ridges occupying 
the area to the west of Bir El Haleifiya and cause the répétition 
of the same geological formations which they bound. These two 
faults hâve the upthrow side to the west, and in this respect 
they differ from Fl and F2 where the upthrow sides are to the 
east. 

F3a bounds the easterly ridge from the southwestern side 
and its position was located almost accurately through a distance 
of 3 km. This fault is not a straight line, but similar to the 
other faults it forms a sériés of curvature. 


BIR EL HALEIFIYA - GEBEL EL ZEITA 


349 


The southeastern end of this fault joins probably Fl at a 
point iying approximately 200 m. to the south of Bir el Haleifiya 
(K3, Fig. 5). As to the other end, this fault still extends beyond 
the limit of the area to the north. 

At one locality the hade of this fault was measured as 88" 
dipping to the northeast and the amount of vertical throw was 
estimated as about 100 m. 

The principal structural feature of the ridge occuying the 
dowthrow side of the fault is a conspicuous sharp syncline which 
is oriented in a NW - SE direction, i.e. parallel to the fault itself. 
The Upper layers which occupy the synclinal area belong to 
“Unit 5” of the “Oligo-Miocene Sériés”, and dip in opposite 
direction at an average rate 15° to 20°. A short distance to the 
west of this synclinal feature and parallel to it, a sharp anticbne 
was detected before the fault line has been reached. The 'harp 
anticlinal and synclinal features are presumably associated with 
the faulting phenomenon, i.e. they hâve resulted from the 
relative bending of the strata before they were broken under 
the strain effect of the fault. 

F3b lies to the west of F3a at a distance varying between 1 km. 
and 1.5 km. and extends more to the south where its runs parallel 
to Fl and F2. The length of this fault is about 4 km. and the 
upthrow side is to the west. The fault block included between 
the two faults (F3a and F3b) is tilted to the west (cross section 
BB, Fig. 4); but at some localities reverse dips are apparent and 
a synclinal feature is developed. The beds which constituée Uns 
block belong to “Units 4 and 5” of the Oligo-Miocene sériés. 

The oldest beds exposed on the upthrow side of this fault 
(F3b) belong to “Unit 4” of the Oligo-Miocene sériés. These 
occupy a narrow and elongate strip and form a magnificent 
structural closure along the fault. This structural feature has 
a NNW-SSE trend (13, 14 Fig. 5) and is approximately 1 km. 
long and less than 200 m. wide, and has an area of aboui 
0.25 sq. km. 


4) East Khosheira Fault (F4) 

This fault effects the Southern portion of the mapped area, 
bounds the northern extremity of the main Khosheira massif 
from the eastern side and runs almost parallel to the foot of 
the hill mass which is separated from the Wadi Baqa plain l^ing 
to the east. This fault was not accurately located owing to the 


















350 


^B ULLETIN de L’ INSTITTJT D’EGYPTE 


Its existence wa^^however ^nScaÜTf ^ u° I1UVial deposits ' 
Within the mapped area this fanit 

direction for a distance of 3 km and Pvt n UnS “ 3 NW ' SE 

at least two kilometers It , , m d te , nds southeastwards for 
Fl and F2. ‘ 1S more lncli "«l to the west than 

The upthrow side of this f fl „n ,•* * 
there is exposed a covered nV , eaSt 3nd ° n this side 
“Units 1-4" of the Olira-Min? mterval envolving probably 

hâve better exposures of “UnitsT a^d 5” oMh^ 6 ° ther Side We 
one Iocality the strate a -, , aiKi 5 of the sam e sériés. At 

important structural closure S i U s obt^ mt ° the fauIt and 
Miocene beds are foUowedbythe‘Z , °\ t0p ’ the 0Ii ^- 
of the Middle Miocene nP riJf ï? u Lagonal and Re efal” sériés 
the main Khosheira massif Th 1Ch <a ? er int0 the form ation of 
structure (L 12 & ? 3 F Z t J^thwestern portion of that 

the rest, i.,e. th e Lthl f ^ 18 ° nly included * °ur map while 
Moon and Sadek (1925) The'd 0 * 1 1S Wed shown on the map of 
approximately 2 km by 200 m ” ° f ** ^ 3re 

5) West Khosheira FauIt (F5) 

sideofthtml 6 aXnïïjf 0 T lS T WeSlem 

which is included in rair ' The P ortlon of this fault 

extension of the “W^di vLh f / 6preSents the northwestern 
Sadek (1925), The main feulît! fault ^' described by Moon and 

bounds “El Zeita - Khosheira 1 El Mreir BlSk •‘from th*' 2 ° !™" 
side. It runs in a TvJW QTr 1 +■ western 

east. Similar to Fl' d,r “ t,onand «^Ptbrow side is to the 
curvatures. d * 2, it makes several irregular 

Lagonal ferte^ are e^ °a ‘“f faUlt> the " Mid <üe-Miocene 

of the main Khosheira massif “y,;,"' e western flank 
„„ „ , Id massit. Thes.e formations rise eraduallv 

Miocene “ReefaUhn^ ,°" F Weather resistant Middl ' 
the “Reefal Sériés” ^ ° U the d ° Wn thr ° W side of the fault ’ 

fiat nSn whïh 6Xp ° Sed 3nd f ° rm the surface of the low * 

u - ^ ^ occu P ies the southwestern corner of the man anH 

Whioh ex,ends for several kilometers outside the areaT the 

The maximum amount of vertical throw of this fault is 


B1R EL HALEIFIYA - GE BEL EL ZEITA 


351 


approximately 150 m. This amount is attained at the Southern 
extremity of the mapped area (E 13, Fig. 5) but it then decreases 
gradually in. the northwestern direction until the fault dies out 
somewhere at the Southern edge of Wadi Wardan (D9, Fig. 5). 

6) West El Zeita Faults (F6 a-d) 

To the west of the main Gebel El Zeita the exposed strata 
belonging essentially to the Middle Miocene period, are dissected 
by four important antethetic faults (F 6 a-d). These faults run 
in a NE - SW direction and terminate to the north “El Zeita - 
Khosheira-El Mreir fault blcck,” (Fig. 3). .The type of the 
above mentioned faults is odd to the Gulf of Suez région and is 
thought to represent simple fracture Unes resulting from the 
relaxation of the strata along the major faults which are do¬ 
minant in the région and which are oriented in a NW-SE 
direction. 

When mapping the central portion of the Bir El Haleifiya - 
Gebel El Zeita area, it was sometimes practiced very difficult to 
trace these new faults. This is mainly attributed to the fact that 
the gypsum beds, which are dominant in that particular portion 
of the map, form when wheathered lava like crusts and mask the 
surrounding formations. 

F6a, the most easterly fault, bounds the main Gebel El 
Zeita ridge from the northwestern side, and was followed for a 
distance of about 4 km. This fault runs in a NE - SW direction 
and its upthrow side is to the east, The maximum amount of 
vertical throw of this fault is approximately 2270 m., (Cross 
Section CC’ Fig. 5). On the upthrow side, strata belonging to 
the upper most portion of the Oligo -Miocene Sériés are expos,ed, 
and occupy a very narrow and elongate strip. On the other side 
of the fault, Middle Miocene formations with reefal limestone 
beds on top and gypsum beds below, are found. The attitude 
of these formations is to the east, i.e. towards the fault itself. 
On the upthrow side of this fault a small structural closure is 

developped. 

F6 b lies to the west of F 6a at a short distance varying 
between 500 m. and one kilometer and is almost parallel to it. 
The length of this fault, which runs also in a NE - SW direction is 
approximately 4 km. The amount of vertical throw is about 
170 m., (down-throw side to the west), Similar to F 6a this 
amount decreases gradually towards both ends of the fault, On 
























352 


BULLETIN DE L’INSTITUT D’EGYPTE 


expo“S h and on^hetthw^r ^ °' MWdle Miocene a « e are 

°‘ “Reefal limestone” are founTandTrm “ C °7° Sed malnl >' 
«ltéd towards the fault. d d 30 eIongate ridge 

fractures ancMs Ipptenüy t0 - this set of antethetic 

■t bounds the maior “El 7 1 ‘^Portant one of them as 

the northwes,“„ sue ThTs f ' n h ° Sheira ' E1 Mreir 

s?mr a fa C „ e 1 t° , is ab 0 süu 5 c k 0 " t - Th d ere iS 3 Str0 " g P° ssib «i,y thatth, e s 
superfic^al‘ gravel^and^boulder^lay^rs^wldchhfdf 0 ^^ ’l 6 

ïtts ™r ar - if this is ,ru; - the ^ S 

\ area 1S con cerned, becomes about 8 km Further 
northwost, this fault is still extended beyond the limit ofmap 

4 on f mum amoun t of vertical throw of this fault is about 
fn b f similar to the other two faults, this amount decreases 

TtTflmTï n , e °!f est beds exposed ® tha upa “ 

brouX 2 , g ° the ser îes and these are 

Serief” (Hi'^T™ W “ h “’ e Mlddle Mi ° C “ e " Reefal 

antethe“e iS faults n, T, t WeSter ' y ' raC * Ure belon «“« *» this set ot 
antethetic faults. It was not studied accurately in the field 

owing the occurence of secondary gypsum and gravel layers on 

rtns ra U NE n !wd mati t nS ' BUt ’ SimiI&r t0 the ° ther faultS lt 

runs in a NE-SW direction and its upthrow side is to the east. 
At one locality along this fault the amount of vertical throw 
was estimated as about 150 m.. This amount decreases 
presumably towards both its extremities. 

GEOLQGIC HISTORY 

Tj-n J be outline of th e gelogical history of the Bir 

El Haleifiya - Gebel El Zeita area represents only a limited 
portion of the much wider history of the main Gulf of Suez 
région. This has been discussed in some detail by sevrai workers 
ofwhom we mention Barron 1907; Sadek, 1926 ; Bowman, 1931 ; 
Picard, 1943 ; Stainforth * 1948 ; Tromp, 1951 and Shata, 1953. 

The succession of the main tectonic events leading up to 


(*) Unpublished work for the Standard Oil Company of Egypt, IMS. 


BIK EL HALEIFIYA - GEBEL EL ZEITA 


353 


the présent day structural configuration of this wide région is 
almost represented in the Bir El Haleifiya - Gebel El Zeita area. 
Without going into details the following is a condensed 
summary : 

(1) Most authors are of the opinion that the development of 
the Gulf of Suez région is based on faulting. Th.e northern 
portion of this région is slightly touched by the NE - SW 
structural belt of folding affecting strongly North Sinai, Primary 
faulting occurred in pre-Miocene times (presumably during the 
Middle Oligocène). These faults were accentuated in post- 
Miocene times (essentially during the Plio-Pleistocene). AU the 
faults are normal and are the resuit of tensional forces. 

(2) El Zeita - Khosheira - El Mreir fault block as well as 
the other minor blocks attached to it, became morphologically 
developped in post-Miocene times. 

(3) Following to the rising of these blocks, intensive érosion 
took place mainly with the commencement of the Quaternary 
with the resuit that the drainage System and the présent day 
physiographic pattern took on much of their shape. 


REFERENCES 

Bail, J. (1910) : “On the Origin of the Nile Valley and the Gulf of 
Suez.’’ Geol. Mag., London, Dec. V, Vol. VII, No. 548. 

Bail, J (1911): “The Gulf of Suez." Geol. Mag., London, Dec. V, 
Vol. VIII, No. 559. 

Bail, J. (1916) : “The Geography and Geology of West-Central 
Sinai.” Egypt, Surv. Dept., Cairo. 

Barron, T. (1907) : “The Topography and Geology of the Peninsula 
of Sinai (Wetern Portion).” Egypt, Surv. Dept., Cairo. 

Blanckenhorn, M. (1921) : “Handbuch der regionalen Géologie, 
Aegyptens.” Heidelberg. 

Bowman, T.S. (1931) : “Report on Boring for Oil in Egypt. 
Section iil — Eastern Desert and Adjoining Islands.” Egypt, 
Min. Fin., (Mines and Quarries Dept.), Cairo. 

Busk, H.G. (1929): “Earth Flexures.” Cambridge Geological Sériés. 

Hume, W.F. (1906): “The Topography and Geology of the 



















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BULLETIN DE L’INSTITUT D’EGYPTE 


Peninsula of Sinai (bouth-eastern Portion).” Survey Dept., 
Egypt. 

Moon, F.W. & Sadek, H. (1921) : “Topography and Geology of 
North Sinai : Part I. Session 1919 - 1920/' Egypt, Min. Fin., 
Cairo, (Petroi Research Ser.), Bull. No. 10. 

Moon, F.W. & Sadek, H. (1925) : “Khosheira Area (Western Sinai).” 
Egypt, Min. Fin., Cairo (Petrol Research Ser.), Bull. No. 9. 

Sadek, H. (1926A): “The Geography and Geology of the District 
between Gebeî Ataqa and El Galala El Bahriya (Gulf of Suez).” 
Egypt, Min. Fin., (Geol. Surv.), Cairo, Survey Paper No. 40. 

Shata, A. (1954): “Contribution to the Geology of the West Sinai 
Foreshore Province with Spécial Reference to El Haleifiya - 
El Zeita Area.” Ph.D. Thesis, Cairo University. 

Shata, A. (1955): “Geomorphological Aspects of the West Sinai 
Foreshore Province.” Bull. Instit. Désert, Heliopolis Egypt, 
T. 5, No. 1. ’ 

Shukri, N.M. (1953) : “The Geology of the Desert East of Cairo/’ 
Bull. Inst. Desert, Heliopolis, T. III, No. 2. 

Shukri, N.M. & Akmal, M.G. (1953): “The Geology of Gebel FJ 
Nasuri and G. El Anqabiya District/’ Bull, de la Soc de Géog. 
d'Egypte, Cairo, No. XXVI. 

Stainforth, R.M. (1949): “Foraminifera in the Upper Tertiary of 
Egypt.” Journal of Palaeontology, Vol. 23, No. 4. 

Tromp, S.W. (1950): “The Geological History of Egypt and of the 
Red Sea in Particular.” Bull., Geol. Soc. of Turky, Vol. III, 
No. 1. 


i 


RAPPORT 

SUR LES ACTIVITES DE L’INSTITUT D’EGYPTE 

SESSION 1954-1955 


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représenté l’Institut à ce Congrès). 

b) Vie Congrès international de Musicologie, qui s’est tenu a 
Oxford du 29 juin au 4 juillet 1955 (M. le Dr H. Hickmfcnn a 
représenté l’Institut à ce Congrès). 

c) «Deutschen Oricntalisten-Kongress », qui s’est tenu à Ham¬ 
bourg du 27 au 31 juillet 1955 (M. le Dr Mohamed Mostafa a 
représenté l'Institut à ce Congrès). 













356 


BULLETIN PE L’INSTITUT D’ÉGYPÏE 


d) Vile Congrès international de Papyrologie, qui s’est tenu à 
Vienne du 29 août au 3 septembre 1955 (M.' le Prof. A. Groh- 
mann a représenté l’Institut à ce Congrès). 

e) Ile Congres Aiabe de Sciences, qui s’est tenu à Alexandrie du 
5 au 12 septembre 1955 (M. Charles Kuentz a représenté l'Ins¬ 
titut à ce Congrès). 

f ) Xe Congrès international d Etudes Byzantines, qui s’est tenu à 
Istambul du 15 au 21 septembre 1955 (M. le Dr Bishr Farès a 
représenté l’Institut à ce Congrès). 


f D autre part, 1 Institut a été invité au Congrès suivant, auquel 
il n’a pu se faire représenter : 

« Inernational Symposium on Problems of Scientific Research » 
qui s’est tenu à Milan du 12 au 14 avril 1955. 

TABLEAU : — Pendant la session, l’Institut a eu le regret de 
perdre : 


MEMBRES TITULAIRES : G.V. Anrep, S. Mihaeloff. 
MEMBRE ASSOCIE : Ugo Mcnneret de Villard. 
ONT ETE ELUS : 


MEMBRES IITULA1RES : M. Jean Sainte Fare Garnot, M. 

le Dr Ahmed Halawani, M. le Prof. Ahmed Riad 
Tourky. 


MEMBRE ASSOCIE : M. Constantin Emil Sander-Hansen. 

LTnstitut se compose actuellement de : 

50 Membres titulaires sur 50 ; 

50 Membres associés sur 50 ; 

26 Membres correspondants Sur 50. 


(Voir ci-après p. 


la liste des membres des trois catégories). 


RESULTATS DE L’ANNEE 1954 - 1955 
allant du 1er Juillet 1954 au 30 Juin 1955 


RECETTES : 


En banque le 30 juin 1954 .. 2216,944 

vSubvention du Gouvern. Egyptien . 3393,200 

Vente de Publications . 193,408 

Donations' et Publicité . 580, — 

Revenus des fonds . 8,890 


TOTAL DES RECETTES . 6392,442 


(En banque . 


. 2206,544 

(En caisse . 


10, — 

(Dépôt Cie des Eaux 


,400 

DEPENSES : 

Personnel . 

1071,750 


Impression . 

1882,771 


Achat de livres . 

8,535 


Affranchissements . 

119,447 


Eau, électricité, téléphone . 

26,874 


Fournitures (Papeterie) . 

72 215 


Censeur . 

20,— 


Fournitures' de nettoyage et divers . 

43,807 


Reliure . 

49,830 


Aménagements . 

14,350 


Impôts sur revenus. 

1,662 


Frais de banque et carnets chèques . 

5,527 


Reserve : Compte «Indemnités Person 

1200,— 


Meubles . 

64,200 


TOTAL DES DEPENSES : . 

4580,968 

1811,474 

6392,442 


(En banque . 


.. 1801,074 

(En caisse . 


10,- 

(Dépôt Cie des eaux 


,400 

1811,474 


(Dr Fouad Aknaad El-Sawaf) (Dr I. G. Lévi) 

Le Caire, le 5 décembre 1955. 

































COMPTE INDEMNITES DU PERSONNEL 
Sub/N° 60180 

» 


Déposé en banque le 1.7.1954 
Déposé en banque le 11.2.1955 
Déposé en banque le 19.5.1955 

TOTAL . 


400,— 

300,— 

500,— 


1200 ,— 


Indemnité versée à feu Abdel Samii Mohamed Abdel 
Wahab El-Maghrabi (Indemnité remise à son père 
Mohamed Abdel Wahab El-Maghrabi par chèque 

No. 600726, le 17. 7. 1955) . 21,745 

Frais de banque (10 + 250 + 50) . 310 


En banque au 30.6.55 . 1178,255 

En banque. 1177,945 


(Dr. Fouad Ahmed El-Sawaf) 

Le Caire, le 5 décembre 1955. 


Dr. I. G. Lévi) 


BUREAU DE L’INSTITUT 

POUR L’ANNEE 1955 


MM. S. A. HUZAYYIN 
L. K'EIMER 
SAMI GABRA 
Ch. KUENTZ, 

I. G. LEVI, 

J. -Ph. LAUER, 


président. 

| vice-présidents. 

secrétaire général, 
trésorier bibliothécaire 
secrétaire adjoint. 


COMITE DES PUBLICATIONS 

(OUTRE LES MEMBRES DU BUREAU. QUI EN FONT PARTIE DE DROIT) 

MM. R. Cattaui. 

O. Guéraud. 

M. Jungfleisch. 

Moustapha Amer. 














liste 

DES 

MEMBRES TITULAIRES DE L’INSTITUT D’EGYPTE 

AU 30 JUIN 1955 


La date qui suit le nom est celle de la nomination comme 
membre de l’Institut égyptien ou de l’Institut d'Egypte; le nom du 
prédécesseur des membres actuels est indiqué entre parenthèses. 

1ère Section 

LETTRES, BEAUX-ARTS ET ARCHEOLOGIE 

LOUTFI EL-SAYED (Ahmed), 6 décembre 1915. (Mgr Kvrillos 
Macaire.) & J 

TAHA HUSSEIN, 7 avril 1924. (Ahmed Kamal Pacha.) 

KErMER (Louis), 1er février 1937. (T.-B. Piot Bey.) 

KUENTZ (Charles), 21 février 1938. (P. Lacau.) 

SAMI CABRA, 20 janvier 1941. (Ch. de Serionne.) 

GUERAUD (Octave), 9 mars 1942. (F. Peter.) 

JUNGFLEISCH (Marcel), 6 mars 1944. (G. Foucart.) 

CHAFIK GHORBAL (Mohamed), 16 janvier 1947. (Rév P. P. 
Sbath.) 

HUZAYYIN (Soliman Ahmed), 23 avril 1947. (Ahmed Issa Bey.) 

PARES, 5 avril 1948. (Cheikh Moustapha Abdel Razek.) 
MUSTAPHA AMER, 17 mai 1948. (Rév. P. Paul Bovier-Lapierre.) 
ROSTEM (Osman Rifki), 14 mai 1949. (D. Pachundaki.) 
MOURAD KAMEL, 22 avril 1950 (Togo Mina.) 

ANAWATI (R. P. Georges C.), 3 février 1951. (Abdel Meguid 
Omar Pacha.) 

LAUER (JEAN-PHILIPPE), 3 février 1951. M. de Wée.) 

GOBY (Jean-Edouard), 22 mai 1952. (J.-I. Craig.) 

CHRISTOPHE (Louis A.), 1 mars 1954. (Et. Drioton.) 
HICKMANN (Hans), 1 mars 1954. (G. Wiet.) 

MOSTAFA, 3 mai 1954. (Mohamed Mahmoud Khalil.) 
GARNOT (Jean Sainte Fare), 2 mai 1955. (G. V. Anrep.) 

2ème Section 

SCIENCES MORALES ET POLITIQUES 

LEVI (Isaac G.), 4 décembre 1916. (J. Barois.) 

MANSOUR FAHMY, 3 avril 1922. (J. Vaast.) 


LISTE DÈS MEMBRES 


361 


ARANGIO-RU1Z (Vincenzo), 6 février 1933. (A. Politis;) 
GATTAUI (René), 10 février 1941. (W. F. Hume.) 

BADAWI (Abdel Hamid), 5 avril 1948. (Farid Boulad Bey.) 
MOHAMED KAMEL MOURSY, 26 mai 1951. (Moh. Khalil Abdel 
Khaleq Bey.) 

HAMED ZAKI, 12 janvier 1952. (O. H. Little.) 

BADAWY (H'elmy Bahg-at), 3 mai 1954. (A. Lusena.) 

3ème Section 

SCIENCES PHYSIQUES ET MATHEMATIQUES 

HURST (Harold-Edwin), 5 décembre 1921. (Mohammed Magdi 
Pacha.) 

GHALEB (Kamel Osman), 1er février 1937. (M. Chahine Pacha.) 
SIRRY (Hussein), 21 février 1938. (Ismaïl Sirry Pacha.) 
MADWAR (Mohamed Reda), 4 mars 1940. (J. Cuvillier.) 

RATIB (Ismaïl), 6 décembre 1948. (A. Mochi.) 

NAZIF (Moustapha), 22 mai 1952. (Th. de Comnène.) 

TOURKY (Ahmed Riad), 4 avril 1955. (S. Mihaeloff.) 


4ème Section 

MEDECINE, AGRONOMIE ET HISTOIRE NATURELLE 

WILSON (William-Hawk ns), 7 décembre 1908. (Commandant 
Léon Vidal.) 

SOBHY (Gorgi), 3 février 1936. (A. Zaki Pacha.) 

AVIERINOS (Christo), 6 mars 1944. (Th. Papayoannou.) 

KAMEL HUSSEIN (Mohamed), 2 avril 1945. (P. Kraus.) 

SOBHY (Mohamed), 11 mars 1946. (M. Meyerhof.) 

ATTIA (Mahmoud Ibrahim), 4 février 1946. (G. Ferrante.) 

ALFIEI (Anastase), 6 mars 1947. (U. Ricci.) 

HUSSEIN FAOUZI, 8 mars 1948. (Ali Pacha Ibrah’m.) 

MOSSERI (Henri V.), 8 mars 1948. (A. Lucas.) 

GODEL (Roger), 5 avril 1948. (L. Balls.) 

BALOG (Paul), 19 novembre 1949. (A. Sammarco.) 

EFFLATOUN (Hassan Chaker), 3 février 1951. (Ali Moustapha 
Mosharrafa Pacha.) 

GHALIONGUI (Paul), 22 mai 1952. (G. W. Murray.) 

GREISS (Elhamy), 1 mars 1954. (Saadallah Madwar.) 

HALAWANÏ (Ahmed), 4 avril 1955. (J. A. Boyé.) 
























LISTE 

DES 

MEMBRES ASSOCIES 

AU 30 JUIN 1955 


MM. MRAZEK (Louis), 19 janvier 1914. 

DE VREGILLE (Rév. P. Pierre), 14 janvier 1918. 

BRUMPT (Emile), 7 janvier 1924 (Paris). 

BARTHOUX (Jules), 12 janvier 1925 (Paris). 
CHARLES-ROUX (François), 12 janvier 1925 (Paris). 
JONDET (Gaston), 11 janvier 1926 (Dreux). 

FLEURI (Gaston), 17 janvier 1927 (Bécon-Asnières-Seine). 
LALANDE (André), 9 janvier 1928 (Asnières, Seine). 
ARVANITAKIS (Georges), 13 mai 1929 (Athènes). 

LOTSY (Gerhard-Oswald), 4 mai 1931 (Casablanca). 

POLI TI S (Athanase G.), 9 mai 1932. 

ROYER (Etienne), 1er mai 1933 (Mandelieu, Alpes Mari¬ 
times). 

BRECCIA (Evaristo), 7 mai 1934 (Rome). 

LACAU (Pierre), 10 mai 1937 (Paris). 

GHIGI (Alessandro), 21 février 1938 (Bologne). 
HADAMARD (Jacques), 21 février 1938 (Paris). 
GROHMANN (Adolf), 21 février 1938 (Le Caire). 

ANDREAE (Charles), 21 février 1938 (Zurich). 

CUVILLIER (Jean), 5 décembre 1938 (Paris). 

BELL (arold-Idris), 4 mars 1940 (Aberystwyth). 

DONTAS (Spiro), 4 mars 1940 (Athènes). 

GERULANOS (Marius), 4 mars 1940 (Athènes). 

MINOST (Emile), 13 mai 1946 (Paris). 

Van WIJNGAARDEN (Williem-Dirk), 5 février 1947 (Leide). 

MM. GIBB (Hamilton - Alexander - Rosskeen), 5 février 1947 
(Oxford). 

LEFEBVRE (Gustave), 5 février 1947 (Versailles). 
VOLTERRA (Edouardo), 5 février 1947 (Bologne). 
MASSIGNON (Louis), 5 février 1947 (Paris). 


LISTE DES MEMBRES 


GARDINER (Sir Alan H), 5 février 1947 (Oxford). 

CERNY (Jaroslav), 9 février 1948 (Oxford). 

BARRIOL (Alfred), 9 février 1948 (Paris). 

BALLS (Lawrence), 5 avril 1948 (Cambridge). 

FLEURE (Herbert-John), 4 février 1950 (Londres). 

LITTLE (Otway Henry), 20 mai 1950 (Cape Province). 

WEE (Maurice de), 20 mai 1950 (Bruxelles). 

DAWSON (Warren Royal), 3 février 1951 (Bucks). 

HASSAN HOSNI ABDEL WAHAB, 3 février 1951 (Tunis). 
JANSSEN (Jozef), 3 février 1951 (Leide). 

MONTET (Pierre), 3 février 1951 (Paris). 

GARcia GOMEZ (Emilio), 19 février 1952 (Madrid). 
VAUFREY (Raymond), 19 février 1952 (Paris). 

MURRAY (George William Welch), 19 février 1952 (Aber- 
deenshire). 

DRIOTON (Etienne), 2 novembre 1953 (Montgeron). 

,WIET (Gaston), 2 novembre 1953 (Paris). 

MILES (George, Carpenter), 8 février 1954 (New York). 
MONTEL (Paul), 8 février 1954 (Paris). 

PORTEVIN (Albert, Marcel, Germain, René), 8 février 1954 
Saint Germain el-Layer). 

Van DE WALLE (Baudouin), 8 février 1954 (Bruxelles). 
BOYE (André-Tean), 6 décembre 1954 (Bordeaux). 

SANDER - HANSEN (Constantin, Emil), 7 février 1955. 
(Copenhague). 












LISTE 


DES 

MEMBRES CORRESPONDANTS 

AU 30 JUIN 1955 


MM. FODERA (F.), 9 novembre 1900 

CALUMACHOS (Demètre), 9 janvier 1912. 

DALLONI (Marius), 10 février 1936 (Alger). 

DES 10 (Ardito), 10, février 1936 (Milan). 

DOLLFUS (Robert Ph.), 10 février 1936 (Paris). 
LEIBOVITCH (Joseph), 10 février 1936 (Jérusalem). 
Doncieux (Louis), 1er février 1937. 

MONNEROT - DUMAINE (Marcel), 4 mras 1940 (Port-Saïd). 
JABES (Raymond), 6 mars 1947 (Paris). 

DORESSE (Jean), 19 février 1949. 

SEELE (Keith C.), 19 février 1949 (Chicago). 

BRESCIANI TURRONI (Costantino), 4 février 1950 (Milan). 
FONTAINE (Alfred L.), 4 février 1950 (Ismaïlia). 

ABDEL FATAH HELMY. 3 février 1951 (Le Caire). 

ABDEL MOHSEN EL-KHACHAB, 3 février 1951 (Le Caire). 
ABDEL NABI EL-NAHAS, 3 février 1951 (Le Caire). 
EL-MOUELHY (Ibrah : m), 3 février 1951 (Le Caire). 
MICHAILIDLS (Georges), 3 février 1951 (Le Caire). 
MOHAMED MAHDI, 3 février 1951 (Le Caire). 

SCHWARTZ (Jacques), 3 février 1951 (Strasbourg). 
FRIEDINGER - PRANTER (Robert), 19 février 1952 
(Vienne). 

ABDEL-RAHMAN ZAKI, 19 février 1952 (Le Caire). 
BADAWY (Alexandre), 19 février 1952 (Le Caire) 
GANDILHON (René), 8 février 1954 (Chalon-w-Marne). 
ABDEL ZAHAB (Hassan), 8 février 1954 (Le Caire), 
KOMORZYNSKI (Egon), 8 février 1954 (Wien). 




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368 


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1 



TABLE GENERALE DES MATIERES 

(Fascicule 1) 


Pages 

PICARD (Charles). L’importance des statues grecques 

du Sérapeum de Memphis . 5-13 

LAUER (Jean-Philippe). Principes appliqués aux restau¬ 
rations des monuments de Zoser à Sakkarah. 19-24 

HIGAZY (R.A.) & WASFY (H.). Remarks on the 

Uranium content of rocks of Aswan District. 31-34 

HUZAYYIN (S.). Expansion of the Arabs : Its Relation 

to Climatic Changes and Other Factors. 37-52 

HIGAZY (R.A. & WASFY (H.). Petrological Study of 
Pre-cambrian Minor Intrusive Rocks in the neigh- 
bourhood of Aswan. 53-68 

YOUSSEF HASSAN (M.). The Place of Zittel’s “ Over- 
wegischichten » in the Upper Senonian Stratigraphy. 

With a Note on the Provincial Affinities of.Its Fauna 77 - 84 

HIGAZY (R.A.). Petrogenetic Significance of the Trace 
Eléments in the Spango Plutonic Complex (South 
Scotland) ... 85-93 

HIGAZY (R.A.) & IBRAHIM A.M. FARAG. Tectonics of 

Egypt as Anticipated from Faciès of Sédimentation 97 - 107 

AVIERINOS (Prof. Ch.). Notice Nécrologique sur le Prof. 

G. V. Anrep . 109-116 

GROHMANN (Dr. Adolf). Anthropomorphic anld Zoo- 

morphic Letters in the History of Arabie Writing 117-122 

MOSTAFA (M.A.) & NAIM (M.S.). Physiological signi¬ 
ficance of Résistance and Susceptibility — to 

Fusarium Wilt — of Some Egyptian Cotton 
Varieties: (III) Mycelial Post-penetration Fate 

and Enzymic Activity .127 - 145 

MOSTAFA (M.A.) & NAIM (M.S.). Physiological Signi¬ 
ficance of Résistance and Susceptibility — to 

Fusarium Wilt — of Some Egyptian Cotton 
Varieties: (IV) Effect of Seedling Extracts — as 
Influenced by Cotton Variety —on Fusarium Mycelial 
Growth and Conidial Germination .149-171 

GINDY (Amin R.). The Igneous and Metamorphic Rocks 
of the Area Between Gebel Atshan and Gebel Ha- 
madat, Near Qoseir, Eastern Desert of Egypt.191 - 230 













BULLETIN DE L’INSTITUT D’EGYPTE 


374 


Pages 

HUSSEIN ABDEL WAHAB. 

jlj *^/l 243 - 283 

ABD EL-RAHMAN ZAKY. Centres of Islamic Sword 

Making in Middle Ages ... . 285-295 

SALEM (T.M.). A New Simple Method for the Gravi¬ 
métrie Détermination of Mercury . 297 - 302 

JUNGFLEISCH (Marcel). Le System pondéral islamique 

dit « Kebir » . 303 -306 

MURSI (M.) and FANTAWI (A.G.). Comparison Tests of 

Effectiveness of Basic Sets of Polynomials . 307-313 

GOBY (Jean-Edouard). Composition de la commission 

des sciences et arts d’Egypte ... ... 315-342 

S HATA (A.). An Outline of the Géologie Structure of 

the Bir El Haleifiya — Gebel el Zeita Area. 343 - 354 


PROCES-VERBAUX 

Page 

Rapport sur les activités de Tlnstitut (Session 1954- 

1955) . ... 355 

Résultats de l’année 1954-55 ( 1 er Tuillet 1954-30 Tuin 

1955) . ... .• ... 357 

Bureau de 1 Institut pour l’année 1955 . 359 

Comité des Publications . 359 

Liste des membres titulaires de l’Institut d’Egypte 

au 30 Juin 1955 ... . 360 

Liste des membres associés au 30 Juin 1955 . 362 

Liste des Membres correspondants au 30 Juin 1955 ... 364 


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